results for au:Zohar_E in:quant-ph

- We devise a unitary transformation that replaces the fermionic degrees of freedom of lattice gauge theories by (hard-core) bosonic ones. The resulting theory is local and gauge invariant, with the same symmetry group. The method works in any spatial dimensions and can be directly applied, among others, to the gauge groups $G=U(N)$ and $SU(2N)$, where $N\in\mathbb{N}$. For $SU(2N+1)$ one can also carry out the transformation after introducing an extra idle $\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge field, so that the resulting symmetry group trivially contains $\mathbb{Z}_2$ as a normal subgroup. Those results have implications in the field of quantum simulations of high-energy physics models.
- In the present work, we propose a scheme for digital formulation of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions in 3+1 dimensions. All interactions are obtained as a stroboscopic sequence of two-body interactions with an auxiliary system. This enables quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories where the magnetic four-body interactions arising in two and more spatial dimensions are obtained without the use of perturbation theory, thus resulting in stronger interactions compared with analogue approaches. The simulation scheme is applicable to lattice gauge theories with either compact or finite gauge groups. The required bounds on the digitization errors in lattice gauge theories, due to the sequential nature of the stroboscopic time evolution, are provided. Furthermore, an implementation of a lattice gauge theory with a non-abelian gauge group, the dihedral group $D_{3}$, is proposed employing the aforementioned simulation scheme using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
- Gauged gaussian Projected Entangled Pair States are particular tensor network constructions that describe lattice states of fermionic matter interacting with dynamical gauge fields. We show how one can efficiently compute, using Monte-Carlo techniques, expectation values of physical observables in that class of states. This opens up the possibility of using tensor network techniques to investigate lattice gauge theories in two and three spatial dimensions.
- Matrix Product States (MPS) are a particular type of one dimensional tensor network states, that have been applied to the study of numerous quantum many body problems. One of their key features is the possibility to describe and encode symmetries on the level of a single building block (tensor), and hence they provide a natural playground for the study of symmetric systems. In particular, recent works have proposed to use MPS (and higher dimensional tensor networks) for the study of systems with local symmetry that appear in the context of gauge theories. In this work we classify MPS which exhibit local invariance under arbitrary gauge groups. We study the respective tensors and their structure, revealing known constructions that follow known gauging procedures, as well as different, other types of possible gauge invariant states.
- We present a quantum simulation scheme for the Abelian-Higgs lattice gauge theory using ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices. The model contains both gauge and Higgs scalar fields, and exhibits interesting phases related to confinement and the Higgs mechanism. The model can be simulated by an atomic Hamiltonian, by first mapping the local gauge symmetry to an internal symmetry of the atomic system, the conservation of hyperfine angular momentum in atomic collisions. By including auxiliary bosons in the simulation, we show how the Abelian-Higgs Hamiltonian emerges effectively. We analyze the accuracy of our method in terms of different experimental parameters, as well as the effect of the finite number of bosons on the quantum simulator. Finally, we propose possible experiments for studying the ground state of the system in different regimes of the theory, and measuring interesting high energy physics phenomena in real time.
- Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.
- Jul 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.08122v2Stators, which may be intuitively defined as "half states, half operators" are mathematical objects which act on two Hilbert spaces and utilize entanglement to create remote operations and exchange information between two physical systems. In particular, they allow to induce effective dynamics on one physical system by acting on the other one, given they have properly been connected with the right stator. In this work, the concept of stators is generalized and formalized in a way that allows the utilization of stators for some physical problems based on symmetry groups, and in particular digital quantum simulation.
- We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with $2+1$ dimensions and higher, are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through pertubative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a $\mathbb{Z}_{3}$ lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in $2+1$ dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.
- We propose a scheme for digital quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. Using a layered optical lattice with ancilla atoms that can move and interact with the other atoms (simulating the physical degrees of freedom), we obtain a stroboscopic dynamics which yields the four-body plaquette interactions, arising in models with $2+1$ and higher dimensions, without the use of perturbation theory. As an example we show how to simulate a $\mathbb{Z}_2$ model in $2+1$ dimensions.
- Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states (PEPS), suggest an innovative approach for the study of lattice gauge theories, both from a pure theoretic point of view, and as a tool for the analysis of the recent proposals for quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories. In this paper we present a framework for describing locally gauge invariant states on lattices using PEPS. The PEPS constructed hereby shall include both bosonic and fermionic states, suitable for all combinations of matter and gauge fields in lattice gauge theories defined by either finite or compact Lie groups.
- Tensor networks, and in particular Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS), are a powerful tool for the study of quantum many body physics, thanks to both their built-in ability of classifying and studying symmetries, and the efficient numerical calculations they allow. In this work, we introduce a way to extend the set of symmetric PEPS in order to include local gauge invariance and investigate lattice gauge theories with fermionic matter. To this purpose, we provide as a case study and first example, the construction of a fermionic PEPS, based on Gaussian schemes, invariant under both global and local U(1) gauge transformations. The obtained states correspond to a truncated U(1) lattice gauge theory in 2 + 1 dimensions, involving both the gauge field and fermionic matter. For the global symmetry (pure fermionic) case, these PEPS can be studied in terms of spinless fermions subject to a p-wave superconducting pairing. For the local symmetry (fermions and gauge fields) case, we find confined and deconfined phases in the pure gauge limit, and we discuss the screening properties of the phases arising in the presence of dynamical matter.
- Using matrix product states, we explore numerically the phenomenology of string breaking in a non-Abelian lattice gauge theory, namely 1+1 dimensional SU(2). The technique allows us to study the static potential between external heavy charges, as traditionally explored by Monte Carlo simulations, but also to simulate the real-time dynamics of both static and dynamical fermions, as the latter are fully included in the formalism. We propose a number of observables that are sensitive to the presence or breaking of the flux string, and use them to detect and characterize the phenomenon in each of these setups.
- Can high energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems, such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective, low energy, symmetry, or as an "exact" symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to new type of (table-top) experiments, that shall be used to study various QCD phenomena, as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions, and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
- Remote state preparation is generation of a desired state by a remote observer. In spite of causality, it is well known, according to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem, that it is possible for relativistic quantum field theories, and a "physical" process achieving this task, involving superoscillatory functions, has recently been introduced. In this work we deal with non-relativistic fields, and show that remote state preparation is also possible for them, hence obtaining a Reeh-Schlieder-like result for general fields. Interestingly, in the nonrelativistic case, the process may rely on completely different resources than the ones used in the relativistic case.
- We examine the Kogut-Susskind formulation of lattice gauge theories under the light of fermionic and bosonic degrees of freedom that provide a description useful to the development of quantum simulators of gauge invariant models. We consider both discrete and continuous gauge groups and adopt a realistic multi-component Fock space for the definition of matter degrees of freedom. In particular, we express the Hamiltonian of the gauge theory and the Gauss law in terms of Fock operators. The gauge fields are described in two different bases, based on either group elements or group representations. This formulation allows for a natural scheme to achieve a consistent truncation of the Hilbert space for continuous groups, and provides helpful tools to study the connections of gauge theories with topological quantum double and string-net models for discrete groups. Several examples, including the case of the discrete $D_3$ gauge group, are presented.
- Quantum simulations of High Energy Physics, and especially of gauge theories, is an emerging and exciting direction in quantum simulations. However, simulations of such theories, compared to simulations of condensed matter physics, must satisfy extra restrictions, such as local gauge and Lorentz invariance. In this paper we discuss these special requirements, and present a new method for quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms. This method allows to include local gauge invariance as a fundamental symmetry of the atomic Hamiltonian, arising from natural atomic interactions and conservation laws (and not as a property of a low energy sector). This allows us to implement elementary gauge invariant interactions for three lattice gauge theories: compact QED (U(1)), SU(N) and Z_N, which can be used to build quantum simulators in 1+1 dimensions. We also present a new loop method, which uses the elementary interactions as building blocks in the effective construction of quantum simulations for d+1 dimensional lattice gauge theories (d>1), without having to use Gauss's law as a constraint, as in previous proposals. We discuss in detail the quantum simulation of 2+1 dimensional compact QED and provide a numerical proof of principle. The simplicity of the already gauge invariant elementary interactions of this model suggests it may be useful for future experimental realizations.
- Non-abelian gauge theories play an important role in the standard model of particle physics, and unfold a partially unexplored world of exciting physical phenomena. In this letter, we suggest a realization of a non-abelian lattice gauge theory - SU(2) Yang-Mills in 1+1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms. Remarkably, and in contrast to previous proposals, in our model gauge invariance is a direct consequence of angular momentum conservation and thus is fundamental and robust. Our proposal may serve as well as a starting point for higher dimensional realizations.
- We suggest a method to simulate lattice compact Quantum Electrodynamics (cQED) using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, which includes dynamical Dirac fermions in 2+1 dimensions. This allows to test dynamical effects of confinement as well as 2d flux loops deformations and breaking, and to observe Wilson-loop area-law.
- We introduce a new topological effect involving interference of two meson loops, manifesting a path-independent topological area dependence. The effect also draws a connection between quark confinement, Wilson-loops and topological interference effects. Although this is only a gedanken experiment in the context of particle physics, such an experiment may be realized and used as a tool to test confinement effects and phase transitions in quantum simulation of dynamic gauge theories.
- We propose a method for measuring the string tension in gauge theories, by considering an interference effect of mesons, which is governed by a space-time area law, due to confinement. Although it is only a gedanken experiment for real elementary particles, in the context of quantum simulations of confining gauge theories such an experiment can be realized.
- Recently, there has been much interest in simulating quantum field theory effects of matter and gauge fields. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 275301 (2011)] a method for simulating compact Quantum Electrodynamics (cQED) using Bose-Einstein condensates has been suggested. We suggest an alternative approach, which relies on single atoms in an optical lattice, carrying 2l+1 internal levels, which converges rapidly to cQED as l increases. That enables the simulation of cQED in 2+1 dimensions in both the weak and the strong coupling regimes, hence allowing to probe confinement as well as other nonperturbative effects of the theory. We provide an explicit construction for the case l=1 which is sufficient for simulating the effect of confinement between two external static charges.
- We propose a method for simulating 2+1-d compact lattice quantum-electrodynamics (QED), using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. In our model local Bose-Einstein condensates' phases correspond to the electromagnetic vector-potential, and the fluctuations of the local number operators represent the conjugate electric field. The gauge invariant Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian is obtained as an effective low energy theory. The field is then coupled to external static charges. We show that in the strong coupling limit this gives rise to 'electric flux-tubes' and to confinement. The effect can be observed by measuring the local density fluctuations of the BECs.
- Mar 30 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1103.5585v2The Fermi two-atom problem illustrates an apparent causality violation in Quantum Field Theory which has to do with the nature of the built in correlations in the vacuum. It has been a constant subject of theoretical debate and discussions during the last few decades. Nevertheless, although the issues at hand could in principle be tested experimentally, the smallness of such apparent violations of causality in Quantum Electrodynamics prevented the observation of the predicted effect. In the present paper we show that the problem can be simulated within the framework of discrete systems that can be manifested, for instance, by trapped atoms in optical lattices or trapped ions. Unlike the original continuum case, the causal structure is no longer sharp. Nevertheless, as we show, it is possible to distinguish between "trivial" effects due to "direct" causality violations, and the effects associated with Fermi's problem, even in such discrete settings. The ability to control externally the strength of the atom-field interactions, enables us also to study both the original Fermi problem with "bare atoms", as well as correction in the scenario that involves "dressed" atoms. Finally, we show that in principle, the Fermi effect can be detected using trapped ions.