results for au:Zhu_H in:quant-ph

- Oct 30 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.10045v1Collective measurements on identically prepared quantum systems can extract more information than local measurements, thereby enhancing information-processing efficiency. Although this nonclassical phenomenon has been known for two decades, it has remained a challenging task to demonstrate the advantage of collective measurements in experiments. Here we introduce a general recipe for performing deterministic collective measurements on two identically prepared qubits based on quantum walks. Using photonic quantum walks, we realize experimentally an optimized collective measurement with fidelity 0.9946 without post selection. As an application, we achieve the highest tomographic efficiency in qubit state tomography to date. Our work offers an effective recipe for beating the precision limit of local measurements in quantum state tomography and metrology. In addition, our study opens an avenue for harvesting the power of collective measurements in quantum information processing and for exploring the intriguing physics behind this power.
- Sep 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06112v2A quantum measurement is Fisher symmetric if it provides uniform and maximal information on all parameters that characterize the quantum state of interest. Using (complex projective) 2-designs, we construct measurements on a pair of identically prepared quantum states that are Fisher symmetric for all pure states. Such measurements are optimal in achieving the minimal statistical error without adaptive measurements. We then determine all collective measurements on a pair that are Fisher symmetric for the completely mixed state and for all pure states simultaneously. For a qubit, these measurements are Fisher symmetric for all states. The minimal optimal measurements are tied to the elusive symmetric informationally complete measurements, which reflects a deep connection between local symmetry and global symmetry. In the study, we derive a fundamental constraint on the Fisher information matrix of any collective measurement on a pair, which offers a useful tool for characterizing the tomographic efficiency of collective measurements.
- The entanglement properties of random quantum states or dynamics are important to the study of a broad spectrum of disciplines of physics, ranging from quantum information to high energy and many-body physics. This work investigates the interplay between the degrees of entanglement and randomness in pure states and unitary channels. We reveal strong connections between designs (distributions of states or unitaries that match certain moments of the uniform Haar measure) and generalized entropies (entropic functions that depend on certain powers of the density operator), by showing that Rényi entanglement entropies averaged over designs of the same order are almost maximal. This strengthens the celebrated Page's theorem. Moreover, we find that designs of an order that is logarithmic in the dimension maximize all Rényi entanglement entropies, and so are completely random in terms of the entanglement spectrum. Our results relate the behaviors of Rényi entanglement entropies to the complexity of scrambling and quantum chaos in terms of the degree of randomness, and suggest a generalization of the fast scrambling conjecture.
- To guarantee the security of uniform random numbers generated by a quantum random number generator, we study secure extraction of uniform random numbers when the environment of a given quantum state is controlled by the third party, the eavesdropper. Here we restrict our operations to incoherent strategies that are composed of the measurement on the computational basis and incoherent operations (or incoherence-preserving operations). We show that the maximum secure extraction rate is equal to the relative entropy of coherence. By contrast, the coherence of formation gives the extraction rate when a certain constraint is imposed on eavesdropper's operations. The condition under which the two extraction rates coincide is then determined. Furthermore, we find that the exponential decreasing rate of the leaked information is characterized by Rényi relative entropies of coherence. These results clarify the power of incoherent strategies in random number generation, and can be applied to guarantee the quality of random numbers generated by a quantum random number generator.
- We study systematically resource measures of coherence and entanglement based on Rényi relative entropies, which include the logarithmic robustness of coherence, geometric coherence, and conventional relative entropy of coherence together with their entanglement analogues. First, we show that each Rényi relative entropy of coherence is equal to the corresponding Rényi relative entropy of entanglement for any maximally correlated state. By virtue of this observation, we establish a simple operational connection between entanglement measures and coherence measures based on Rényi relative entropies. We then prove that all these coherence measures, including the logarithmic robustness of coherence, are additive. Accordingly, all these entanglement measures are additive for maximally correlated states. In addition, we derive analytical formulas for Rényi relative entropies of entanglement of maximally correlated states and bipartite pure states, which reproduce a number of classic results on the relative entropy of entanglement and logarithmic robustness of entanglement in a unified framework. Several nontrivial bounds for Rényi relative entropies of coherence (entanglement) are further derived, which improve over results known previously. Moreover, we determine all states whose relative entropy of coherence is equal to the logarithmic robustness of coherence. As an application, we provide an upper bound for the exact coherence distillation rate, which is saturated for pure states.
- Apr 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.02896v1Quantum coherence plays a central role in various research areas. The $l_1$-norm of coherence is one of the most important coherence measures that are easily computable, but it is not easy to find a simple interpretation. We show that the $l_1$-norm of coherence is uniquely characterized by a few simple axioms, which demonstrates in a precise sense that it is the analog of negativity in entanglement theory and sum negativity in the resource theory of magic state quantum computation. Furthermore, we provide an operational interpretation of $l_1$-norm of coherence as the maximum entanglement, measured by negativity, produced by (strictly) incoherent operations acting on our system and an incoherent ancilla. To achieve this goal, we clarify the relation between $l_1$-norm of coherence and negativity for all bipartite states, which leads to an interesting generalization of maximally correlated states.
- Apr 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.01935v2We establish a general operational one-to-one mapping between coherence measures and entanglement measures: Any entanglement measure of bipartite pure states is the minimum of a suitable coherence measure over product bases. Any coherence measure of pure states, with extension to mixed states by convex roof, is the maximum entanglement generated by incoherent operations acting on the system and an incoherent ancilla. Remarkably, the generalized CNOT gate is the universal optimal incoherent operation. In this way, all convex-roof coherence measures, including the coherence of formation, are endowed with (additional) operational interpretations. By virtue of this connection, many results on entanglement can be translated to the coherence setting, and vice versa. As applications, we provide tight observable lower bounds for generalized entanglement concurrence and coherence concurrence, which enable experimentalists to quantify entanglement and coherence of the maximal dimension in real experiments.
- Scrambling is a process by which the state of a quantum system is effectively randomized. Scrambling exhibits different complexities depending on the degree of randomness it produces. For example, the complete randomization of a pure quantum state (Haar scrambling) implies the inability to retrieve information of the initial state by measuring only parts of the system (Page/information scrambling), but the converse is not necessarily the case. Here, we formally relate scrambling complexities to the degree of randomness, by studying the behaviors of generalized entanglement entropies -- in particular Rényi entropies -- and their relationship to designs, ensembles of states or unitaries that match the completely random states or unitaries (drawn from the Haar measure) up to certain moments. The main result is that the Rényi-$\alpha$ entanglement entropies, averaged over $\alpha$-designs, are almost maximal. The result generalizes Page's theorem for the von Neumann entropies of small subsystems of random states. For designs of low orders, the average Rényi entanglement entropies can be non-maximal: we exhibit a projective 2-design such that all higher order Rényi entanglement entropies are bounded away from the maximum. However, we show that the Rényi entanglement entropies of all orders are almost maximal for state or unitary designs of order logarithmic in the dimension of the system. That is, such designs are indistinguishable from Haar-random by the entanglement spectrum. Our results establish a formal correspondence between generalized entropies and designs of the same order.
- Feb 22 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.06229v1The effects of different quantum feedback types on the estimation precision of the detection efficiency are studied. It is found that the precision can be more effective enhanced by a certain feedback type through comparing these feedbacks and the precision has a positive relation with detection efficiency for the optimal feedback when the system reach the state of dynamic balance. In addition, the bigger the proportion of is the higher the precision is and we will not obtain any information about the parameter to be estimated if is chosen as initial state for the feedback type \lambda\sigma_z.
- Feb 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.02678v1To generate a NOON state with a large photon number $N$, the number of operational steps could be large and the fidelity will decrease rapidly with $N$. Here we propose a method to generate a new type of quantum entangled states, $(|NN00\rangle+|00NN\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ called "double NOON" states, with a setup of two superconducting flux qutrits and five circuit cavities. This scheme operates essentially by employing a two-photon process, i.e., two photons are simultaneously and separately emitted into two cavities when each coupler qutrit is initially in a higher-energy excited state. As a consequence, the "double" NOON state creation needs only $N$+2 operational steps. One application of double NOON states is to get a phase error of $1/(2N)$ in phase measurement. In comparison, to achieve the same error, a normal NOON state of the form $(|2N,0\rangle+|0,2N\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ is needed, which requires at least $2N$ operational steps to prepare by using the existing schemes. Our numerical simulation demonstrates that high-fidelity generation of the double NOON states with $N\leq 10$ even for the imperfect devices is feasible with the present circuit QED technique.
- Dec 22 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1612.06959v2The parity-time ($\mathcal{PT}$) symmetric structures have exhibited potential applications in developing various robust quantum devices. In an optical trimmer with balanced loss and gain, we analytically study the $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetric phase transition by investigating the spontaneous symmetric breaking. We also illustrate the single-photon transmission behaviors in both of the $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetric and $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry broken phases. We find (i) the non-periodical dynamics of single-photon transmission in the $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry broken phase instead of $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetric phase can be regarded as a signature of phase transition; and (ii) it shows unidirectional single-photon transmission behavior in both of the phases but comes from different underlying physical mechanisms. The obtained results may be useful to implement the photonic devices based on coupled-cavity system.
- Dec 13 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.03234v2We reconstruct quantum theory starting from the premise that, as Asher Peres remarked, "Unperformed experiments have no results." The tools of modern quantum information theory, and in particular the symmetric informationally complete (SIC) measurements, provide a concise expression of how exactly Peres's dictum holds true. That expression is a constraint on how the probability distributions for outcomes of different, mutually exclusive experiments mesh together, a type of constraint not foreseen in classical thinking. Taking this as our foundational principle, we show how to reconstruct the formalism of quantum theory in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Along the way, we derive a condition for the existence of a d-dimensional SIC.
- We prove that low-rank matrices can be recovered efficiently from a small number of measurements that are sampled from orbits of a certain matrix group. As a special case, our theory makes statements about the phase retrieval problem. Here, the task is to recover a vector given only the amplitudes of its inner product with a small number of vectors from an orbit. Variants of the group in question have appeared under different names in many areas of mathematics. In coding theory and quantum information, it is the complex Clifford group; in time-frequency analysis the oscillator group; and in mathematical physics the metaplectic group. It affords one particularly small and highly structured orbit that includes and generalizes the discrete Fourier basis: While the Fourier vectors have coefficients of constant modulus and phases that depend linearly on their index, the vectors in said orbit have phases with a quadratic dependence. In quantum information, the orbit is used extensively and is known as the set of stabilizer states. We argue that due to their rich geometric structure and their near-optimal recovery properties, stabilizer states form an ideal model for structured measurements for phase retrieval. Our results hold for $m\geq C \kappa_r r d \log(d)$ measurements, where the oversampling factor k varies between $\kappa_r=1$ and $\kappa_r = r^2$ depending on the orbit. The reconstruction is stable towards both additive noise and deviations from the assumption of low rank. If the matrices of interest are in addition positive semidefinite, reconstruction may be performed by a simple constrained least squares regression. Our proof methods could be adapted to cover orbits of other groups.
- Sep 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.08172v1A unitary t-design is a set of unitaries that is "evenly distributed" in the sense that the average of any t-th order polynomial over the design equals the average over the entire unitary group. In various fields -- e.g. quantum information theory -- one frequently encounters constructions that rely on matrices drawn uniformly at random from the unitary group. Often, it suffices to sample these matrices from a unitary t-design, for sufficiently high t. This results in more explicit, derandomized constructions. The most prominent unitary t-design considered in quantum information is the multi-qubit Clifford group. It is known to be a unitary 3-design, but, unfortunately, not a 4-design. Here, we give a simple, explicit characterization of the way in which the Clifford group fails to constitute a 4-design. Our results show that for various applications in quantum information theory and in the theory of convex signal recovery, Clifford orbits perform almost as well as those of true 4-designs. Technically, it turns out that in a precise sense, the 4th tensor power of the Clifford group affords only one more invariant subspace than the 4th tensor power of the unitary group. That additional subspace is a stabilizer code -- a structure extensively studied in the field of quantum error correction codes. The action of the Clifford group on this stabilizer code can be decomposed explicitly into previously known irreps of the discrete symplectic group. We give various constructions of exact complex projective 4-designs or approximate 4-designs of arbitrarily high precision from Clifford orbits. Building on results from coding theory, we give strong evidence suggesting that these orbits actually constitute complex projective 5-designs.
- Sep 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.08595v1It is a fundamental property of quantum mechanics that information is lost as a result of performing measurements. Indeed, with every quantum measurement one can associate a number -- its POVM norm constant -- that quantifies how much the distinguishability of quantum states degrades in the worst case as a result of the measurement. This raises the obvious question which measurements preserve the most information in these sense of having the largest norm constant. While a number of near-optimal schemes have been found (e.g. the uniform POVM, or complex projective 4-designs), they all seem to be difficult to implement in practice. Here, we analyze the distinguishability of quantum states under measurements that are orbits of the Clifford group. The Clifford group plays an important role e.g. in quantum error correction, and its elements are considered simple to implement. We find that the POVM norm constants of Clifford orbits depend on the effective rank of the states that should be distinguished, as well as on a quantitative measure of the "degree of localization in phase space" of the vectors in the orbit. The most important Clifford orbit is formed by the set of stabilizer states. Our main result implies that stabilizer measurements are essentially optimal for distinguishing pure quantum states. As an auxiliary result, we use the methods developed here to prove new entropic uncertainty relations for stabilizer measurements. This paper is based on a very recent analysis of the representation theory of tensor powers of the Clifford group.
- Sep 09 2016 physics.plasm-ph quant-ph arXiv:1609.02522v2We show that the geometric phase of the gyro-motion of a classical charged particle in a uniform time-dependent magnetic field described by Newton's equation can be derived from a coherent Berry phase for the coherent states of the Schroedinger equation or the Dirac equation. This correspondence is established by constructing coherent states for a particle using the energy eigenstates on the Landau levels and proving that the coherent states can maintain their status of coherent states during the slow varying of the magnetic field. It is discovered that orbital Berry phases of the eigenstates interfere coherently to produce an observable effect (which we termed "coherent Berry phase"), which is exactly the geometric phase of the classical gyro-motion. This technique works for particles with and without spin. For particles with spin, on each of the eigenstates that makes up the coherent states, the Berry phase consists of two parts that can be identified as those due to the orbital and the spin motion. It is the orbital Berry phases that interfere coherently to produce a coherent Berry phase corresponding to the classical geometric phase of the gyro-motion. The spin Berry phases of the eigenstates, on the other hand, remain to be quantum phase factors for the coherent states and have no classical counterpart.
- Aug 05 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.01493v1Entangled systems with large quantum Fisher information (QFI) can be used to outperform the standard quantum limit of the separable systems in quantum metrology. However, the interaction between the system and the environments inevitably leads to decoherence and decrease of the QFI, and it is not clear whether the entanglement systems can be better resource than separable systems in the realistic physical condition. In this work, we study the steady QFI of two driven and collectively damped qubits with homodyne-mediated feedback. We show that the steady QFI can be significantly enhanced both in the cases of symmetric feedback and nonsymmetric feedback, and the shot-noise limit of separable states can be surpassed in both cases. The QFI can even achieve the Heisenberg limit for appropriate feedback parameters and initial conditions in the case of symmetric feedback. We also show that an initial-condition-independent steady QFI can be obtained by using nonsymmetric feedback.
- Apr 26 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.06974v2Quasiprobability representations, such as the Wigner function, play an important role in various research areas. The inevitable appearance of negativity in such representations is often regarded as a signature of nonclassicality, which has profound implications for quantum computation. However, little is known about the minimal negativity that is necessary in general quasiprobability representations. Here we focus on a natural class of quasiprobability representations that is distinguished by simplicity and economy. We introduce three measures of negativity concerning the representations of quantum states, unitary transformations, and quantum channels, respectively. Quite surprisingly, all three measures lead to the same representations with minimal negativity, which are in one-to-one correspondence with the elusive symmetric informationally complete measurements. In addition, most representations with minimal negativity are automatically covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl groups. Furthermore, our study reveals an interesting tradeoff between negativity and symmetry in quasiprobability representations.
- Jan 06 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1601.00962v2Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is an intermediate type of quantum nonlocality which sits between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. A set of correlations is Bell nonlocal if it does not admit a local hidden variable (LHV) model, while it is EPR nonlocal if it does not admit a local hidden variable-local hidden state (LHV-LHS) model. It is interesting to know what states can generate EPR-nonlocal correlations in the simplest nontrivial scenario, that is, two projective measurements for each party sharing a two-qubit state. Here we show that a two-qubit state can generate EPR-nonlocal full correlations (excluding marginal statistics) in this scenario if and only if it can generate Bell-nonlocal correlations. If full statistics (including marginal statistics) is taken into account, surprisingly, the same scenario can manifest the simplest one-way steering and the strongest hierarchy between steering and Bell nonlocality. To illustrate these intriguing phenomena in simple setups, several concrete examples are discussed in detail, which facilitates experimental demonstration. In the course of study, we introduce the concept of restricted LHS models and thereby derive a necessary and sufficient semidefinite-programming criterion to determine the steerability of any bipartite state under given measurements. Analytical criteria are further derived in several scenarios of strong theoretical and experimental interest.
- Jan 05 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1601.00113v2We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality.
- Dec 22 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.06531v1The biased Dicke model describes a system of biased two-level atoms coupled to a bosonic field, and is expected to produce new phenomena that are not present in the original Dicke model. In this paper, we study the critical properties of the biased Dicke model in the classical oscillator limits. For the finite-biased case in this limit, We present analytical results demonstrating that the excitation energy does not vanish for arbitrary coupling. This indicates that the second order phase transition is avoided in the biased Dicke model, which contrasts to the original Dicke model. We also analyze the squeezing and the entanglement in the ground state, and find that a finite bias will strongly modify their behaviors in the vicinity of the critical coupling point.
- Oct 19 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.04711v1We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended Rényi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of universal steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. As illustrations, we show unbounded violation of a steering inequality for assemblages constructed from mutually unbiased bases and establish an interesting connection between maximally steerable assemblages and complete sets of mutually unbiased bases. We also provide a single steering inequality that can detect all bipartite pure states of full Schmidt rank. In the course of study, we generalize a number of results intimately connected to data-processing inequalities, which are of independent interest.
- Unitary $t$-designs are a ubiquitous tool in many research areas, including randomized benchmarking, quantum process tomography, and scrambling. Despite the intensive efforts of many researchers, little is known about unitary $t$-designs with $t\geq3$ in the literature. We show that the multiqubit Clifford group in any even prime-power dimension is not only a unitary 2-design, but also a 3-design. Moreover, it is a minimal 3-design except for dimension~4. As an immediate consequence, any orbit of pure states of the multiqubit Clifford group forms a complex projective 3-design; in particular, the set of stabilizer states forms a 3-design. In addition, our study is helpful to studying higher moments of the Clifford group, which are useful in many research areas ranging from quantum information science to signal processing. Furthermore, we reveal a surprising connection between unitary 3-designs and the physics of discrete phase spaces and thereby offer a simple explanation of why no discrete Wigner function is covariant with respect to the multiqubit Clifford group, which is of intrinsic interest to studying quantum computation.
- Mutually unbiased bases (MUB) are useful in a number of research areas. The symmetry of MUB is an elusive and interesting subject. A (complete set of) MUB in dimension $d$ is sharply covariant if it can be generated by a group of order $d(d+1)$ from a basis state. Such MUB, if they exist, would be most appealing to theoretical studies and practical applications. Unfortunately, they seem to be quite rare. Here we prove that no MUB in odd prime dimensions is sharply covariant, by virtue of clever applications of Mersenne primes, Galois fields, and Frobenius groups. This conclusion provides valuable insight about the symmetry of MUB and the geometry of quantum state space. It complements and strengthens the earlier result of the author that only two stabilizer MUB are sharply covariant. Our study leads to the conjecture that no MUB other than those in dimensions 2 and 4 is sharply covariant.
- Mutually unbiased bases (MUB) are interesting for various reasons. The most attractive example of (a complete set of) MUB is the one constructed by Ivanović as well as Wootters and Fields, which is referred to as the canonical MUB. Nevertheless, little is known about anything that is unique to this MUB. We show that the canonical MUB in any prime power dimension is uniquely determined by an extremal orbit of the (restricted) Clifford group except in dimension 3, in which case the orbit defines a special symmetric informationally complete measurement (SIC), known as the Hesse SIC. Here the extremal orbit is the one with the smallest number of pure states. Quite surprisingly, this characterization does not rely on any concept that is related to bases or unbiasedness. As a corollary, the canonical MUB is the unique minimal 2-design covariant with respect to the Clifford group except in dimension 3. In addition, these MUB provide an infinite family of highly symmetric frames and positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs), which are of independent interest.
- The Wigner function provides a useful quasiprobability representation of quantum mechanics, with applications in various branches of physics. Many nice properties of the Wigner function are intimately connected with the high symmetry of the underlying operator basis composed of phase point operators: any pair of phase point operators can be transformed to any other pair by a unitary symmetry transformation. We prove that, in the discrete scenario, this permutation symmetry is equivalent to the symmetry group being a unitary 2-design. Such a highly symmetric representation can only appear in odd prime power dimensions besides dimensions 2 and 8. It suffices to single out a unique discrete Wigner function among all possible quasiprobability representations. In the course of our study, we show that this discrete Wigner function is uniquely determined by Clifford covariance, while no Wigner function is Clifford covariant in any even prime power dimension.
- Mar 24 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.06538v1The anisotropic Rabi model, which was proposed recently, differs from the original Rabi model: the rotating and counter-rotating terms are governed by two different coupling constants. This feature allows us to vary the counter-rotating interaction independently and explore the effects of it on some quantum properties. In this paper, we eliminate the counter-rotating terms approximately and obtain the analytical energy spectrums and wavefunctions. These analytical results agree well with the numerical calculations in a wide range of the parameters including the ultrastrong coupling regime. In the weak counter-rotating coupling limit we find out that the counter-rotating terms can be considered as the shifts to the parameters of the Jaynes-Cummings model. This modification shows the validness of the rotating-wave approximation on the assumption of near-resonance and relatively weak coupling. Moreover, the analytical expressions of several physics quantities are also derived, and the results show the break-down of the U(1)-symmetry and the deviation from the Jaynes-Cummings model.
- Mar 03 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.00003v1Mutually unbiased bases (MUB) are an elusive discrete structure in Hilbert spaces. Many (complete sets of) MUB are group covariant, but little is known whether they can be sharply covariant in the sense that the generating groups can have order equal to the total number of basis states, that is, $d(d+1)$ for MUB in dimension $d$. Sharply covariant MUB, if they exist, would be most appealing from both theoretical and practical point of view. Since stabilizer MUB subsume almost all MUB that have ever been constructed, it is of fundamental interest to single out those candidates that are sharply covariant. We show that, quite surprisingly, only two stabilizer MUB are sharply covariant, and the conclusion still holds even if antiunitary transformations are taken into account. Our study provides valuable insight on the symmetry of stabilizer MUB, which may have implications for a number of research topics in quantum information and foundations. In addition, it exposes a sharp contrast between MUB and another elusive discrete structure known as symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs), all known examples of which are sharply covariant.
- Mar 03 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.00263v1Systematic errors are inevitable in most measurements performed in real life because of imperfect measurement devices. Reducing systematic errors is crucial to ensuring the accuracy and reliability of measurement results. To this end, delicate error-compensation design is often necessary in addition to device calibration to reduce the dependence of the systematic error on the imperfection of the devices. The art of error-compensation design is well appreciated in nuclear magnetic resonance system by using composite pulses. In contrast, there are few works on reducing systematic errors in quantum optical systems. Here we propose an error-compensation design to reduce the systematic error in projective measurements on a polarization qubit. It can reduce the systematic error to the second order of the phase errors of both the half-wave plate (HWP) and the quarter-wave plate (QWP) as well as the angle error of the HWP. This technique is then applied to experiments on quantum state tomography on polarization qubits, leading to a 20-fold reduction in the systematic error. Our study may find applications in high-precision tasks in polarization optics and quantum optics.
- Mar 03 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.00264v2The precision limit in quantum state tomography is of great interest not only to practical applications but also to foundational studies. However, little is known about this subject in the multiparameter setting even theoretically due to the subtle information tradeoff among incompatible observables. In the case of a qubit, the theoretic precision limit was determined by Hayashi as well as Gill and Massar, but attaining the precision limit in experiments has remained a challenging task. Here we report the first experiment which achieves this precision limit in adaptive quantum state tomography on optical polarization qubits. The two-step adaptive strategy employed in our experiment is very easy to implement in practice. Yet it is surprisingly powerful in optimizing most figures of merit of practical interest. Our study may have significant implications for multiparameter quantum estimation problems, such as quantum metrology. Meanwhile, it may promote our understanding about the complementarity principle and uncertainty relations from the information theoretic perspective.
- Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analogy of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension~2, the Hesse SIC in dimension~3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension~8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg-Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.
- Aug 05 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1408.0560v1Generalized symmetric informationally complete (SIC) measurements are SIC measurements that are not necessarily rank one. They are interesting originally because of their connection with rank-one SICs. Here we reveal several merits of generalized SICs in connection with quantum state tomography and Lie algebra that are interesting in their own right. These properties uniquely characterize generalized SICs among minimal IC measurements although, on the face of it, they bear little resemblance to the original definition. In particular, we show that in quantum state tomography generalized SICs are optimal among minimal IC measurements with given average purity of measurement outcomes. Besides its significance to the current study, this result may help understand tomographic efficiencies of minimal IC measurements under the influence of noise. When minimal IC measurements are taken as bases for the Lie algebra of the unitary group, generalized SICs are uniquely characterized by the antisymmetry of the associated structure constants.
- Jun 27 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1406.6898v2The existence of observables that are incompatible or not jointly measurable is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics, which lies at the root of a number of nonclassical phenomena, such as uncertainty relations, wave--particle dual behavior, Bell-inequality violation, and contextuality. However, no intuitive criterion is available for determining the compatibility of even two (generalized) observables, despite the overarching importance of this problem and intensive efforts of many researchers. Here we introduce an information theoretic paradigm together with an intuitive geometric picture for decoding incompatible observables, starting from two simple ideas: Every observable can only provide limited information and information is monotonic under data processing. By virtue of quantum estimation theory, we introduce a family of universal criteria for detecting incompatible observables and a natural measure of incompatibility, which are applicable to arbitrary number of arbitrary observables. Based on this framework, we derive a family of universal measurement uncertainty relations, provide a simple information theoretic explanation of quantitative wave--particle duality, and offer new perspectives for understanding Bell nonlocality, contextuality, and quantum precision limit.
- Apr 15 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1404.3453v2We study informationally overcomplete measurements for quantum state estimation so as to clarify their tomographic significance as compared with minimal informationally complete measurements. We show that informationally overcomplete measurements can improve the tomographic efficiency significantly over minimal measurements when the states of interest have high purities. Nevertheless, the efficiency is still too limited to be satisfactory with respect to figures of merit based on monotone Riemannian metrics, such as the Bures metric and quantum Chernoff metric. In this way, we also pinpoint the limitation of nonadaptive measurements and motivate the study of more sophisticated measurement schemes. In the course of our study, we introduce the best linear unbiased estimator and show that it is equally efficient as the maximum likelihood estimator in the large-sample limit. This estimator may significantly outperform the canonical linear estimator for states with high purities. It is expected to play an important role in experimental designs and adaptive quantum state tomography besides its significance to the current study.
- Dec 03 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1312.0555v3Although symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures (SIC POVMs, or SICs for short) have been constructed in every dimension up to 67, a general existence proof remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to show that the SIC existence problem is equivalent to three other, on the face of it quite different problems. Although it is still not clear whether these reformulations of the problem will make it more tractable, we believe that the fact that SICs have these connections to other areas of mathematics is of some intrinsic interest. Specifically, we reformulate the SIC problem in terms of (1) Lie groups, (2) Lie algebras and (3) Jordan algebras (the second result being a greatly strengthened version of one previously obtained by Appleby, Flammia and Fuchs). The connection between these three reformulations is non-trivial: It is not easy to demonstrate their equivalence directly, without appealing to their common equivalence to SIC existence. In the course of our analysis we obtain a number of other results which may be of some independent interest.
- May 24 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1105.4561v1We introduce random matrix theory to study the tomographic efficiency of a wide class of measurements constructed out of weighted 2-designs, including symmetric informationally complete (SIC) probability operator measurements (POMs). In particular, we derive analytic formulae for the mean Hilbert-Schmidt distance and the mean trace distance between the estimator and the true state, which clearly show the difference between the scaling behaviors of the two error measures with the dimension of the Hilbert space. We then prove that the product SIC POMs---the multipartite analogue of the SIC POMs---are optimal among all product measurements in the same sense as the SIC POMs are optimal among all joint measurements. We further show that, for bipartite systems, there is only a marginal efficiency advantage of the joint SIC POMs over the product SIC POMs. In marked contrast, for multipartite systems, the efficiency advantage of the joint SIC POMs increases exponentially with the number of parties.
- Feb 15 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1102.2662v2Quantum state reconstruction on a finite number of copies of a quantum system with informationally incomplete measurements does, as a rule, not yield a unique result. We derive a reconstruction scheme where both the likelihood and the von Neumann entropy functionals are maximized in order to systematically select the most-likely estimator with the largest entropy, that is the least-bias estimator, consistent with a given set of measurement data. This is equivalent to the joint consideration of our partial knowledge and ignorance about the ensemble to reconstruct its identity. An interesting structure of such estimators will also be explored.
- Oct 13 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1010.2361v3We study the geometric measure of entanglement (GM) of pure symmetric states related to rank-one positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs) and establish a general connection with quantum state estimation theory, especially the maximum likelihood principle. Based on this connection, we provide a method for computing the GM of these states and demonstrate its additivity property under certain conditions. In particular, we prove the additivity of the GM of pure symmetric multiqubit states whose Majorana points under Majorana representation are distributed within a half sphere, including all pure symmetric three-qubit states. We then introduce a family of symmetric states that are generated from mutually unbiased bases (MUBs), and derive an analytical formula for their GM. These states include Dicke states as special cases, which have already been realized in experiments. We also derive the GM of symmetric states generated from symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC~POVMs) and use it to characterize all inequivalent SIC~POVMs in three-dimensional Hilbert space that are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg--Weyl group. Finally, we describe an experimental scheme for creating the symmetric multiqubit states studied in this article and a possible scheme for measuring the permanent of the related Gram matrix.
- Aug 09 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1008.1138v1In the four-dimensional Hilbert space, there exist 16 Heisenberg--Weyl (HW) covariant symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures (SIC~POVMs) consisting of 256 fiducial states on a single orbit of the Clifford group. We explore the structure of these SIC~POVMs by studying the symmetry transformations within a given SIC~POVM and among different SIC~POVMs. Furthermore, we find 16 additional SIC~POVMs by a regrouping of the 256 fiducial states, and show that they are unitarily equivalent to the original 16 SIC~POVMs by establishing an explicit unitary transformation. We then reveal the additional structure of these SIC~POVMs when the four-dimensional Hilbert space is taken as the tensor product of two qubit Hilbert spaces. In particular, when either the standard product basis or the Bell basis are chosen as the defining basis of the HW group, in eight of the 16 HW covariant SIC~POVMs, all fiducial states have the same concurrence of $\sqrt{2/5}$. These SIC~POVMs are particularly appealing for an experimental implementation, since all fiducial states can be connected to each other with just local unitary transformations. In addition, we introduce a concise representation of the fiducial states with the aid of a suitable tabular arrangement of their parameters.
- Jun 08 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1006.1152v1We consider the mixed three-qubit bound entangled state defined as the normalized projector on the subspace that is complementary to an Unextendible Product Basis [C. H. Bennett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)]. Using the fact that no product state lies in the support of that state, we compute its entanglement by providing a basis of its subspace formed by "minimally-entangled" states. The approach is in principle applicable to any entanglement measure; here we provide explicit values for both the geometric measure of entanglement and a generalized concurrence.
- Mar 19 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1003.3591v2We show that in prime dimensions not equal to three, each group covariant symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measure (SIC~POVM) is covariant with respect to a unique Heisenberg--Weyl (HW) group. Moreover, the symmetry group of the SIC~POVM is a subgroup of the Clifford group. Hence, two SIC~POVMs covariant with respect to the HW group are unitarily or antiunitarily equivalent if and only if they are on the same orbit of the extended Clifford group. In dimension three, each group covariant SIC~POVM may be covariant with respect to three or nine HW groups, and the symmetry group of the SIC~POVM is a subgroup of at least one of the Clifford groups of these HW groups respectively. There may exist two or three orbits of equivalent SIC~POVMs for each group covariant SIC~POVM, depending on the order of its symmetry group. We then establish a complete equivalence relation among group covariant SIC~POVMs in dimension three, and classify inequivalent ones according to the geometric phases associated with fiducial vectors. Finally, we uncover additional SIC~POVMs by regrouping of the fiducial vectors from different SIC~POVMs which may or may not be on the same orbit of the extended Clifford group.
- Feb 15 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1002.2511v5We study the additivity property of three multipartite entanglement measures, i.e. the geometric measure of entanglement (GM), the relative entropy of entanglement and the logarithmic global robustness. First, we show the additivity of GM of multipartite states with real and non-negative entries in the computational basis. Many states of experimental and theoretical interests have this property, e.g. Bell diagonal states, maximally correlated generalized Bell diagonal states, generalized Dicke states, the Smolin state, and the generalization of Dür's multipartite bound entangled states. We also prove the additivity of other two measures for some of these examples. Second, we show the non-additivity of GM of all antisymmetric states of three or more parties, and provide a unified explanation of the non-additivity of the three measures of the antisymmetric projector states. In particular, we derive analytical formulae of the three measures of one copy and two copies of the antisymmetric projector states respectively. Third, we show, with a statistical approach, that almost all multipartite pure states with sufficiently large number of parties are nearly maximally entangled with respect to GM and relative entropy of entanglement. However, their GM is not strong additive; what's more surprising, for generic pure states with real entries in the computational basis, GM of one copy and two copies, respectively, are almost equal. Hence, more states may be suitable for universal quantum computation, if measurements can be performed on two copies of the resource states. We also show that almost all multipartite pure states cannot be produced reversibly with the combination multipartite GHZ states under asymptotic LOCC, unless relative entropy of entanglement is non-additive for generic multipartite pure states.
- Nov 10 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0911.1493v6We provide methods for computing the geometric measure of entanglement for two families of pure states with both experimental and theoretical interests: symmetric multiqubit states with non-negative amplitudes in the Dicke basis and symmetric three-qubit states. In addition, we study the geometric measure of pure three-qubit states systematically in virtue of a canonical form of their two-qubit reduced states, and derive analytical formulae for a three-parameter family of three-qubit states. Based on this result, we further show that the W state is the maximally entangled three-qubit state with respect to the geometric measure.
- Jul 27 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0907.4258v1State tomography on qubit pairs is routinely carried out by measuring the two qubits separately, while one expects a higher efficiency from tomography with highly symmetric joint measurements of both qubits. Our numerical study of simulated experiments does not support such expectations.
- Jun 23 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0906.3985v1We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic construction, and illustrate the matter at the example of two qubits.
- This paper has been withdrawn.
- Jan 13 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0401057v5This paper has been withdrawn.
- In the m-out-of-n oblivious transfer (OT) model, one party Alice sends n bits to another party Bob, Bob can get only m bits from the n bits. However, Alice cannot know which m bits Bob received. Y.Mu[MJV02] and Naor[Naor01] presented classical m-out-of-n oblivious transfer based on discrete logarithm. As the work of Shor [Shor94], the discrete logarithm can be solved in polynomial time by quantum computers, so such OTs are unsafe to the quantum computer. In this paper, we construct a quantum m-out-of-n OT (QOT) scheme based on the transmission of polarized light and show that the scheme is robust to general attacks, i.e. the QOT scheme satisfies statistical correctness and statistical privacy.
- Jan 21 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0301095v1The Kerr metric of spherically symmetric gravitational field is analyzed through the coordinate transformation from the rotating frame to fixing frame, and consequently that the inertial force field (with the exception of the centrifugal force field) in the rotating system is one part of its gravitomagnetic field is verified. We investigate the spin-rotation coupling and, by making use of Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant theory, we obtain exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation of a spinning particle in a time-dependent rotating reference frame. A potential application of these exact solutions to the investigation of Earth$^{,}$s rotating frequency fluctuation by means of neutron-gravity interferometry experiment is briefly discussed in the present paper.
- May 28 2002 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0205170v1There exist a number of typical and interesting systems or models which possess three-generator Lie-algebraic structure in atomic physics, quantum optics, nuclear physics and laser physics. The well-known fact that all simple 3-generator algebras are either isomorphic to the algebra $sl(2,C)$ or to one of its real forms enables us to treat these time-dependent quantum systems in a unified way. By making use of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant theory and the invariant-related unitary transformation formulation, the present paper obtains exact solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equations governing various three-generator quantum systems. For some quantum systems whose time-dependent Hamiltonians have no quasialgebraic structures, we show that the exact solutions can also be obtained by working in a sub-Hilbert-space corresponding to a particular eigenvalue of the conserved generator (i.e., the time-independent invariant that commutes with the time-dependent Hamiltonian). The topological property of geometric phase factors in time-dependent systems is briefly discussed.