results for au:Zhou_H in:quant-ph

- May 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1805.05538v1Quantum key distribution allows remote parties to generate information-theoretic secure keys. The bottleneck throttling its real-life applications lies in the limited communication distance and key generation speed, due to the fact that the information carrier can be easily lost in the channel. For all the current implementations, the key rate is bounded by the channel transmission probability, $\eta$. Rather surprisingly, by matching the phases of two coherent states and encoding the key information into the common phase, this linear key-rate constraint can be overcome --- the secure key rate scales with the square root of the transmission probability, $O(\sqrt{\eta})$. To achieve this, we develop an optical-mode-based security proof that is different from the conventional qubit-based security proofs. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is measurement-device-independent, i.e., it is immune to all possible detection attacks. The simulation result shows that the key rate can even exceed the transmission probability $\eta$ between two communication parties. In addition, we apply phase post-compensation to devise a practical version of the scheme without phase-locking, which makes the proposed scheme feasible with the current technology. This means that quantum key distribution can enjoy both sides of the world --- practicality and security.
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01752v1In this paper, we proposed an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator(QRNG) with inherent randomness of quantum tunneling effect of electrons. We exploited InGaAs/InP diodes, whose valance band and conduction band shared a quasi-constant energy barrier. We applied a bias voltage on the InGaAs/InP avalanche diode, which made the diode works under Geiger mode, and triggered the tunneling events with a periodic pulse. Finally, after data collection and post-processing, our quantum random number generation rate reached 8Mb/s, and final data was verified by NIST test and Diehard test. Our experiment is characterized as an innovative low-cost, photonic source free, integratable or even chip-achievable method in quantum random number generation.
- Sep 29 2017 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1709.09838v1Fidelity mechanics is formalized as a framework to investigate quantum critical phenomena in quantum many-body systems. This is achieved by introducing fidelity temperature to properly quantify quantum fluctuations, which, together with fidelity entropy and fidelity internal energy, constitute three basic state functions in fidelity mechanics, thus enabling us to formulate analogues of the four thermodynamic laws and Landauer's principle at zero temperature. Fidelity flows are defined and may be interpreted as an alternative form of renormalization group flows. Thus, both stable and unstable fixed points are characterized in terms of fidelity temperature and fidelity entropy: divergent fidelity temperature for unstable fixed points and zero fidelity temperature and (locally) maximal fidelity entropy for stable fixed points. In addition, an inherently fundamental role of duality is clarified, resulting in a canonical form of the Hamiltonian in fidelity mechanics. Dualities, together with symmetry groups and factorizing fields, impose the constraints on a fidelity mechanical system, thus shaping fidelity flows from an unstable fixed point to a stable fixed point. A detailed analysis of fidelity mechanical state functions is presented for the quantum XY model, the transverse field quantum Ising chain in a longitudinal field, the spin-$1/2$ XYZ model and the XXZ model in a magnetic field.
- Topologically ordered phases are characterized by long-range quantum entanglement and fractional statistics rather than by symmetry breaking. First observed in a fractionally filled continuum Landau level, topological order has since been proposed to arise more generally at fractional filling of topologically non-trivial "Chern" bands. Here, we report the observation of gapped states at fractional filling of Harper-Hofstadter bands arising from the interplay of a magnetic field and a superlattice potential in a bilayer graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure. We observe new phases at fractional filling of bands with Chern indices $\mathcal{C} = -1, \pm 2,$ and $\pm 3$. Some of these, in $\mathcal{C}=-1$ and $\mathcal{C}=2$ bands, are characterized by fractional Hall conductance---they are `fractional Chern insulators' and constitute a new example of topological order beyond Landau levels.
- Jun 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.04853v1From an operational perspective, quantumness characterizes the exotic behavior in a physical process which cannot be explained with Newtonian physics. There are several widely used measures of quantumness, including coherence, discord, and entanglement, each proven to be essential resources in particular situations. There exists evidence of fundamental connections amongst the three measures. However, those quantumnesses are still regarded differently and such connections are yet to be elucidated. Here, we introduce a general framework of defining a unified quantumness with an operational motivation founded on the capability of interferometry. The quantumness appears differently as coherence, discord, and entanglement in different scenarios with local measurement, weak reference frame free measurement, and strong reference frame free measurement, respectively. Our results also elaborate how these three measures are related and how they can be transformed from each other. This framework can be further extended to other scenarios and serves as a universal quantumness measure.
- Mar 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.03000v2Entanglement, a unique quantum resource with no classical counterpart, remains at the heart of quantum information. The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and $W$ states are two inequivalent classes of multipartite entangled states which can not be transformed into each other by means of local operations and classic communication. In this paper, we present the methods to prepare the GHZ and $W$ states via global controls on a long-range Ising spin model. For the GHZ state, general solutions are analytically obtained for an arbitrary-size spin system, while for the $W$ state, we find a standard way to prepare the $W$ state that is analytically illustrated in three- and four-spin systems and numerically demonstrated for larger-size systems. The number of parameters required in the numerical search increases only linearly with the size of the system.
- The randomness from a quantum random number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real-time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 Kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully-integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.
- Nov 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.07126v2Random numbers are indispensable for a variety of applications ranging from testing physics foundation to information encryption. In particular, nonlocality tests provide a strong evidence to our current understanding of nature -- quantum mechanics. All the random number generators (RNG) used for the existing tests are constructed locally, making the test results vulnerable to the freedom-of-choice loophole. We report an experimental realization of RNGs based on the arrival time of cosmic photons. The measurement outcomes (raw data) pass the standard NIST statistical test suite. We present a realistic design to employ these RNGs in a Bell test experiment, which addresses the freedom-of-choice loophole.
- Oct 27 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.dis-nn cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el physics.atom-ph arXiv:1610.08057v1Understanding quantum dynamics away from equilibrium is an outstanding challenge in the modern physical sciences. It is well known that out-of-equilibrium systems can display a rich array of phenomena, ranging from self-organized synchronization to dynamical phase transitions. More recently, advances in the controlled manipulation of isolated many-body systems have enabled detailed studies of non-equilibrium phases in strongly interacting quantum matter. As a particularly striking example, the interplay of periodic driving, disorder, and strong interactions has recently been predicted to result in exotic "time-crystalline" phases, which spontaneously break the discrete time-translation symmetry of the underlying drive. Here, we report the experimental observation of such discrete time-crystalline order in a driven, disordered ensemble of $\sim 10^6$ dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room-temperature. We observe long-lived temporal correlations at integer multiples of the fundamental driving period, experimentally identify the phase boundary and find that the temporal order is protected by strong interactions; this order is remarkably stable against perturbations, even in the presence of slow thermalization. Our work opens the door to exploring dynamical phases of matter and controlling interacting, disordered many-body systems.
- Statistical mechanics underlies our understanding of macroscopic quantum systems. It is based on the assumption that out-of-equilibrium systems rapidly approach their equilibrium states, forgetting any information about their microscopic initial conditions. This fundamental paradigm is challenged by disordered systems, in which a slowdown or even absence of thermalization is expected. We report the observation of critical thermalization in a three dimensional ensemble of $\sim 10^6$ electronic spins coupled via dipolar interactions. By controlling the spin states of nitrogen vacancy color centers in diamond, we observe slow, sub-exponential relaxation dynamics and identify a regime of power-law decay with disorder-dependent exponents; this behavior is modified at late times owing to many-body interactions. These observations are quantitatively explained by a resonance counting theory that incorporates the effects of both disorder and interactions.
- Aug 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.07709v1We study the dynamical properties of the quantum Rabi model within a systematic expansion method. Based on the observation that the parity symmetry of the Rabi model is kept during the evolution of the states, we decompose the initial state and the time-dependent one into a part of a positive and a negative parity expanded by the superposition of the coherent states. The evolutions for the corresponding positive and the negative parity are obtained, where the expansion coefficients in the dynamical equations are known from the recurrence relation derived.
- We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.
- Apr 26 2016 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1604.07278v2Geometric entanglement(GE), as a measure of multipartite entanglement, has been investigated as a universal tool to detect phase transitions in quantum many-body lattice models. We outline a systematic method to compute GE for two-dimensional (2D) quantum many-body lattice models based on the translational invariant structure of infinite projected entangled pair state (iPEPS) representations. By employing this method, the $q$-state quantum Potts model on the square lattice with $q \in \{2, 3 ,4, 5\}$ is investigated as a prototypical example. Further, we have explored three 2D Heisenberg models, such as the spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ XXX and antiferromagnetic anisotropic XYX models in an external magnetic field, and the spin-1 antiferromagnetic XXZ model. We find that continuous GE does not guarantee a continuous phase transition across a phase transition point. We observe and thus classify three different types of continuous GE across a phase transition point: (i) GE is continuous with maximum value at the transition point and the phase transition is continuous, (ii) GE is continuous with maximum value at the transition point but the phase transition is discontinuous, and (iii) GE is continuous with non-maximum value at the transition point and the phase transition is continuous. For the models under consideration we find that the second and the third types are related to a point of dual symmetry and a fully polarized phase, respectively.
- Jan 21 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1601.05379v1We examine the problem of finding the minimum number of Pauli measurements needed to uniquely determine an arbitrary $n$-qubit pure state among all quantum states. We show that only $11$ Pauli measurements are needed to determine an arbitrary two-qubit pure state compared to the full quantum state tomography with $16$ measurements, and only $31$ Pauli measurements are needed to determine an arbitrary three-qubit pure state compared to the full quantum state tomography with $64$ measurements. We demonstrate that our protocol is robust under depolarizing error with simulated random pure states. We experimentally test the protocol on two- and three-qubit systems with nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. We show that the pure state tomography protocol saves us a number of measurements without considerable loss of fidelity. We compare our protocol with same-size sets of randomly selected Pauli operators and find that our selected set of Pauli measurements significantly outperforms those random sampling sets. As a direct application, our scheme can also be used to reduce the number of settings needed for pure-state tomography in quantum optical systems.
- Dec 17 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.05052v3We investigate all possible noise environments for controlled remote state preparation. We find that the optimal efficiency is not only dependent on the isolate decay rate but also dependent on the coupling term of environments. Such a coupling provides a clue to control the noisy quantum system for realistic quantum communication. We show that, furthermore, the noise channel can be used as an important resource for quantum information tasks. Especially, an approach is proposed to realize a perfect controlled remote state preparation under the noisy effects environments by choosing the noisy environments and adjusting their relations in terms of noisy rates.
- A central tenet of theoretical cryptography is the study of the minimal assumptions required to implement a given cryptographic primitive. One such primitive is the one-time memory (OTM), introduced by Goldwasser, Kalai, and Rothblum [CRYPTO 2008], which is a classical functionality modeled after a non-interactive 1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer, and which is complete for one-time classical and quantum programs. It is known that secure OTMs do not exist in the standard model in both the classical and quantum settings. Here, we show how to use quantum information, together with the assumption of stateless (i.e., reusable) hardware tokens, to build statistically secure OTMs. This is in sharp contrast with the classical case, where stateless hardware tokens alone cannot yield OTMs. In addition, our scheme is technologically simple. We prove security in the quantum universal composability framework, employing semi-definite programming results of Molina, Vidick and Watrous [TQC 2013] and combinatorial techniques of Pastawski et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2012].
- Nov 02 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.08960v1Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) output genuine random numbers based upon the uncertainty principle. A QRNG contains two parts in general --- a randomness source and a readout detector. How to remove detector imperfections has been one of the most important questions in practical randomness generation. We propose a simple solution, measurement-device-independent QRNG, which not only removes all detector side channels but is robust against losses. In contrast to previous fully device-independent QRNGs, our scheme does not require high detector efficiency or nonlocality tests. Simulations show that our protocol can be implemented efficiently with a practical coherent state laser and other standard optical components. The security analysis of our QRNG consists mainly of two parts: measurement tomography and randomness quantification, where several new techniques are developed to characterize the randomness associated with a positive-operator valued measure.
- Oct 22 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.06126v1The binary (one-bit-per-photon) encoding that most existing quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols employ puts a fundamental limit on their achievable key rates, especially under high channel loss conditions associated with long-distance fiber-optic or satellite-to-ground links. Inspired by the pulse-position-modulation (PPM) approach to photon-starved classical communications, we design and demonstrate the first PPM-QKD, whose security against collective attacks is established through continuous-variable entanglement measurements that also enable a novel decoy-state protocol performed conveniently in post processing. We achieve a throughput of 8.0 Mbit/s (2.5 Mbit/s for loss equivalent to 25 km of fiber) and secret-key capacity up to 4.0 bits per detected photon, thus demonstrating the significant enhancement afforded by high-dimensional encoding. These results point to a new avenue for realizing high-throughput satellite-based or long-haul fiber-optic quantum communications beyond their photon-reception-rate limits.
- Sep 23 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1509.06572v2We examine the energy surfaces of the driven Rabi model, also known as the biased or generalised Rabi model, as a function of the coupling strength and the driving term. The energy surfaces are plotted numerically from the known analytic solution. The resulting energy landscape consists of an infinite stack of sheets connected by conical intersection points located at the degenerate Juddian points in the eigenspectrum. Trajectories encircling these points are expected to exhibit a nonzero geometric phase.
- Aug 21 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1508.04880v2Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts---a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over $5\times 10^3$ bit/s.
- May 19 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.04032v2Based on the theory of quantum mechanics, intrinsic randomness in measurement distinguishes quantum effects from classical ones. From the perspective of states, this quantum feature can be summarized as coherence or superposition in a specific (classical) computational basis. Recently, by regarding coherence as a physical resource, Baumgratz et al.~present a comprehensive framework for coherence measures. Here, we propose a quantum coherence measure essentially using the intrinsic randomness of measurement. The proposed coherence measure provides an answer to the open question in completing the resource theory of coherence. Meanwhile, we show that the coherence distillation process can be treated as quantum extraction, which can be regarded as an equivalent process of classical random number extraction. From this viewpoint, the proposed coherence measure also clarifies the operational aspect of quantum coherence. Finally, our results indicate a strong similarity between two types of quantumness --- coherence and entanglement.
- May 15 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.03740v1Random number plays a key role in information science, especially in cryptography. Based on the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics, quantum random number generators can produce genuine randomness. In particular, random numbers can be produced from laser phase fluctuations with a very high speed, typically in the Gbps regime. In this work, by developing a physical model, we investigate the origin of the randomness in quantum random number generators based on laser phase fluctuations. We show how the randomness essentially stems from spontaneous emissions. The laser phase fluctuation can be quantitatively evaluated from basic principles and also qualitatively explained by the Brownian motion model. After taking account of practical device precision, we show that the randomness generation speed is limited by the finite resolution of detection devices. Our result also provides the optimal experiment design in order to achieve the maximum generation speed.
- Aug 19 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1408.3816v3The Rabi model describes the simplest interaction between light and matter via a two-level quantum system interacting with a bosonic field. We demonstrate that the fully quantised version of the Rabi model is integrable in the Yang-Baxter sense at two parameter values. The model is argued to be not Yang-Baxter integrable in general. This is in contrast to the claim that the quantum Rabi model is integrable based on a phenomenological criterion of quantum integrability not presupposing the existence of a set of commuting operators. Similar Yang-Baxter integrable points are identified for the generalised Rabi model and the fully quantised Dicke model. The integrable points have particular implications for the level statistics of the Dicke model.
- Mar 24 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1403.5383v1Lee-Yang zeros are points on the complex plane of magnetic field where the partition function of a spin system is zero and therefore the free energy diverges. Lee-Yang zeros and their generalizations are ubiquitous in many-body systems and they fully characterize the analytic properties of the free energy and hence thermodynamics of the systems. Determining the Lee-Yang zeros is not only fundamentally important for conceptual completeness of thermodynamics and statistical physics but also technically useful for studying many-body systems. However, Lee-Yang zeros have never been observed in experiments, due to the intrinsic difficulty that Lee-Yang zeros would occur only at complex values of magnetic field, which are unphysical. Here we report the first observation of Lee-Yang zeros, by measuring quantum coherence of a probe spin coupled to an Ising-type spin bath. As recently proposed, the quantum evolution of the probe spin introduces a complex phase factor, and therefore effectively realizes an imaginary magnetic field on the bath. From the measured Lee-Yang zeros, we reconstructed the free energy of the spin bath and determined its phase transition temperature. This experiment demonstrates quantum coherence probe as a useful approach to studying thermodynamics in the complex plane, which may reveal a broad range of new phenomena that would otherwise be inaccessible if physical parameters are restricted to be real numbers.
- Dec 18 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1312.4648v3We formulate a series of non-trivial equalities which are satisfied by all no-signaling correlations, meaning that no faster-than-light communication is allowed with the resource of these correlations. All quantum and classical correlations satisfy these equalities since they are no-signaling. By applying these equalities, we provide a general framework for solving the multipartite "guess your neighbor's input" (GYNI) game, which is naturally no-signaling but shows conversely that general no-signaling correlations are actually more non-local than those allowed by quantum mechanics. We confirm the validity of our method for number of players from 3 up to 19, thus providing convincing evidence that it works for the general case. In addition, we solve analytically the tripartite GYNI and obtain a computable measure of supra-quantum correlations. This result simplifies the defined optimization procedure to an analytic formula, thus characterizing explicitly the boundary between quantum and supra-quantum correlations. In addition, we show that the gap between quantum and no-signaling boundaries containing supra-quantum correlations can be closed by local orthogonality conditions in the tripartite case. Our results provide a computable classification of no-signaling correlations.
- Oct 10 2012 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1210.2505v1Even at zero temperature, there exist phase fluctuations associated with an array of Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We demonstrate a method to measure the phase fluctuations based on the Fourier spectrum of the atomic density for a condensate released from the optical lattice. The phase variance is extracted from the relative intensities of different peaks in the Fourier spectrum. This method works even for high lattice strength where interference peaks disappear in the atomic density distribution.
- Feb 24 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1102.4731v1The reflection spectrum of a probe light in a -type three-level atomic system coupled by an off-resonant standing-wave is investigated experimentally and theoretically. We show that the maximum value of reflection coefficient occurs when both of the coupling and probe lights are tuned off resonances from the atomic transitions. The nature of enhanced reflection is attributed to the phase compensation caused by the anomalous dispersion, which leads to a significant reduction of nonlinear phase mismatch in atomic four-wave mixing. At certain detuning of coupling and probe frequencies near two-photon resonance, there exits a best compensation, so the reflection efficiency reaches its maximum. The dependences of efficiency on the intensity of coupling fields and the density of atoms are also studied.
- May 04 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1005.0034v1We present an efficient and economic scheme for five-party quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state with $2m$ three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and three-particle GHZ-state measurements. It is more convenient than other schemes as it only resorts to three-particle GHZ states and three-particle joint measurement, not five-particle entanglements and five-particle joint measurements. Moreover, this symmetric scheme is in principle secure even though the number of the dishonest agents is more than one. Its total efficiency approaches the maximal value.
- Jul 02 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0907.0052v2We explore the connection between quantum brachistochrone (time-optimal) evolution of a three-qubit system and its residual entanglement called three-tangle. The result shows that the entanglement between two qubits is not required for some brachistochrone evolutions of a three-qubit system. However, the evolution between two distinct states cannot be implemented without its three-tangle, except for the trivial cases in which less than three qubits attend evolution. Although both the probability density function of the time-averaged three-tangle and that of the time-averaged squared concurrence between two subsystems become more and more uniform with the decrease in angles of separation between an initial state and a final state, the features of their most probable values exhibit a different trend.
- Jul 02 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0907.0053v2We propose an efficient faithful polarization-state transmission scheme by utilizing frequency degree of freedom besides polarization and an additional qubit prepared in a fixed polarization. An arbitrary single-photon polarization state is protected against the collective noise probabilistically. With the help of frequency beam splitter and frequency shifter, the success probability of our faithful qubit transmission scheme with frequency degree of freedom can be 1/2 in principle.
- Jul 02 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0907.0050v2We present a single-photon entanglement concentration protocol for long-distance quantum communication with quantum nondemolition detector. It is the first concentration protocol for single-photon entangled states and it dose not require the two parties of quantum communication to know the accurate information about the coefficient $\alpha$ and $\beta$ of the less entangled states. Also, it does not resort to sophisticated single-photon detectors, which makes this protocol more feasible in current experiments. Moreover, it can be iterated to get a higher efficiency and yield. All these advantages maybe make this protocol have more practical applications in long-distance quantum communication and quantum internet.
- Apr 02 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0904.0056v2We present two robust quantum key distribution protocols against two kinds of collective noise, following some ideas in quantum dense coding. Three-qubit entangled states are used as quantum information carriers, two of which forming the logical qubit which is invariant with a special type of collective noise. The information is encoded on logical qubits with four unitary operations, which can be read out faithfully with Bell-state analysis on two physical qubits and a single-photon measurement on the other physical qubit, not three-photon joint measurements. Two bits of information are exchanged faithfully and securely by transmitting two physical qubits through a noisy channel. When the losses in the noisy channel is low, these protocols can be used to transmit a secret message directly in principle.
- Nov 04 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0811.0050v2We present an entanglement concentration protocol for electrons based on their spins and their charges. The combination of an electronic polarizing beam splitter and a charge detector functions as a parity check device for two electrons, with which the parties can reconstruct maximally entangled electron pairs from those in a less-entanglement state nonlocally. This protocol has a higher efficiency than those based on linear optics and it does not require the parties to know accurately the information about the less-entanglement state, which makes it more convenient in a practical application of solid quantum computation and communication.
- Oct 02 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0810.0071v2We present a scheme for multipartite entanglement purification of quantum systems in a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with quantum nondemolition detectors (QNDs). This scheme does not require the controlled-not gates which cannot be implemented perfectly with linear optical elements at present, but QNDs based on cross-Kerr nonlinearities. It works with two steps, i.e., the bit-flipping error correction and the phase-flipping error correction. These two steps can be iterated perfectly with parity checks and simple single-photon measurements. This scheme does not require the parties to possess sophisticated single photon detectors. These features maybe make this scheme more efficient and feasible than others in practical applications.
- Aug 04 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0808.0042v3We present two efficient quantum key distribution schemes over two different collective-noise channels. The accepted hypothesis of collective noise is that photons travel inside a time window small compared to the variation of noise. Noiseless subspaces are made up of two Bell states and the spatial degree of freedom is introduced to form two nonorthogonal bases. Although these protocols resort to entangled states for encoding the key bit, the receiver is only required to perform single-particle product measurements and there is no basis mismatch. Moreover, the detection is passive as the receiver does not switch his measurements between two conjugate measurement bases to get the key.
- Jun 03 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0806.0115v3We present a nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for reconstructing some maximally entangled multipartite states from partially entangled ones by exploiting cross-Kerr nonlinearities to distinguish the parity of two polarization photons. Compared with the entanglement concentration schemes based on two-particle collective unitary evolution, this scheme does not require the parties to know accurately information about the partially entangled states--i.e., their coefficients. Moreover, it does not require the parties to possess sophisticated single-photon detectors, which makes this protocol feasible with present techniques. By iteration of entanglement concentration processes, this scheme has a higher efficiency and yield than those with linear optical elements. All these advantages make this scheme more efficient and more convenient than others in practical applications.
- May 02 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0805.0032v1We present a way for entanglement purification based on two parametric down-conversion (PDC) sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearities. It is comprised of two processes. The first one is a primary entanglement purification protocol for PDC sources with nondestructive quantum nondemolition (QND) detectors by transferring the spatial entanglement of photon pairs to their polarization. In this time, the QND detectors act as the role of controlled-not (CNot) gates. Also they can distinguish the photon number of the spatial modes, which provides a good way for the next process to purify the entanglement of the photon pairs kept more. In the second process for entanglement purification, new QND detectors are designed to act as the role of CNot gates. This protocol has the advantage of high yield and it requires neither CNot gates based on linear optical elements nor sophisticated single-photon detectors, which makes it more convenient in practical applications.
- Jan 02 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0801.0259v2We present a stable and deterministic quantum key distribution (QKD) system based on differential phase shift. With three cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with different arm-length differences for creating key, its key creation efficiency can be improved to be 7/8, more than other systems. Any birefringence effects and polarization-dependent losses in the long-distance fiber are automatically compensated with a Faraday mirror. Added an eavesdropping check, this system is more secure than some other phase-coding-based QKD systems. Moreover, the classical information exchanged is reduces largely and the modulation of phase shifts is simplified. All these features make this QKD system more convenient than others in a practical application.
- Jan 02 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0801.0256v3We propose a passively self-error-rejecting single-qubit transmission scheme for an arbitrary polarization state of a single qubit over a collective-noise channel, without resorting to additional qubits and entanglement. By splitting a single qubit into some wavepackets with some Mach-Zehnder interferometers, we can obtain an uncorrupted state with a success probability approaching 100% via postselection in different time bins, independent of the parameters of collective noise. It is simpler and more flexible than the schemes utilizing decoherence-free subspace and those with additional qubits. One can directly apply this scheme to almost all quantum communication protocols based on single photons or entangled photon systems against a collective noise.
- Aug 02 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0708.0068v2We present a faithful qubit transmission scheme with linear optics against collective noise, not resorting to ancillary qubits. Its set-up is composed of three unbalanced polarization interferometers, based on a polarizing beam splitter, a beam splitter and a half-wave plate, which makes this scheme more feasible than others with present technology. The fidelity of successful transmission is 1, independent of the parameters of the collective noise, and the success probability for obtaining an uncorrupted state can be improved to 100% with some time delayers. Moreover, this scheme has some good applications in one-way quantum communication for rejecting the errors caused by the collective noise in quantum channel.
- Jun 04 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0706.0097v1We present a scheme for multiparty quantum secret sharing of a private key with pure entangled states and decoy photons. The boss, say Alice uses the decoy photons, which are randomly in one of the four nonorthogonal single-photon states, to prevent a potentially dishonest agent from eavesdropping freely. This scheme requires the parties of communication to have neither an ideal single-photon quantum source nor a maximally entangled one, which makes this scheme more convenient than others in a practical application. Moreover, it has the advantage of having high intrinsic efficiency for qubits and exchanging less classical information in principle.
- Jun 04 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0706.0098v1A general scheme for controlled teleportation of an arbitrary multi-qudit state with d-dimensional Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is proposed. For an arbitrary m-qudit state, the sender Alice performs m generalized Bell-state projective measurements on her 2m qudits and the controllers need only take some single-particle measurements. The receiver Charlie can reconstruct the unknown m-qudit state by performing some single-qudit unitary operations on her particles if she cooperates with all the controllers. As the quantum channel is a sequence of maximally entangled GHZ states, the intrinsic efficiency for qudits in this scheme approaches 100% in principle.
- May 21 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0705.2660v3We present a general scheme for multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary m-qudit ($d$-dimensional quantum system) state by using non-maximally entangled states as the quantum channel. The sender performs m generalized Bell-state measurements on her 2$m$ particles, the controllers take some single-particle measurements with the measuring basis $X_{d}$ and the receiver only need to introduce one auxiliary two-level particle to extract quantum information probabilistically with the fidelity unit if he cooperates with all the controllers. All the parties can use some decoy photons to set up their quantum channel securely, which will forbid some a dishonest party to eavesdrop freely. This scheme is optimal as the probability that the receiver obtains the originally unknown m-qudit state equals to the entanglement of the quantum channel.
- May 15 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0705.1746v1We propose a theoretical scheme for secure quantum key distribution network following the ideas in quantum dense coding. In this scheme, the server of the network provides the service for preparing and measuring the Bell states, and the users encodes the states with local unitary operations. For preventing the server from eavesdropping, we design a decoy when the particle is transmitted between the users. It has high capacity as one particle carries two bits of information and its efficiency for qubits approaches 100%. Moreover, it is not necessary for the users to store the quantum states, which makes this scheme more convenient for application than others.
- May 15 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0705.1748v1An efficient quantum cryptography network protocol is proposed with d-dimension polarized photons, without resorting to entanglement and quantum memory. A server on the network, say Alice, provides the service for preparing and measuring single photons whose initial state are |0>. The users code the information on the single photons with some unitary operations. For preventing the untrustworthy server Alice from eavesdropping the quantum lines, a nonorthogonal-coding technique (decoy-photon technique) is used in the process that the quantum signal is transmitted between the users. This protocol does not require the servers and the users to store the quantum state and almost all of the single photons can be used for carrying the information, which makes it more convenient for application than others with present technology. We also discuss the case with a faint laser pulse.
- May 03 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0705.0279v2Security of the three-party quantum secret sharing (QSS) schemes based on entanglement and a collective eavesdropping check is analyzed in the case of considerable quantum channel losses. An opaque attack scheme is presented for the dishonest agent to eavesdrop the message obtained by the other agent freely, which reveals that these QSS schemes are insecure for transmission efficiencies lower than 50%, especially when they are used to share an unknown quantum state. Finally, we present a general way to improve the security of QSS schemes for sharing not only a private key but also an unknown quantum state.
- Dec 05 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0612016v1We analyzed the security of the secure direct communication protocol based on secret transmitting order of particles recently proposed by Zhu, Xia, Fan, and Zhang [Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006)], and found that this scheme is insecure if an eavesdropper, say Eve, wants to steal the secret message with Trojan horse attack strategies. The vital loophole in this scheme is that the two authorized users check the security of their quantum channel only once. Eve can insert another spy photon, an invisible photon or a delay one in each photon which the sender Alice sends to the receiver Bob, and capture the spy photon when it returns from Bob to Alice. After the authorized users check the security, Eve can obtain the secret message according to the information about the transmitting order published by Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of this protocol.
- Dec 05 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0612017v1We present two schemes for multiparty quantum remote secret conference in which each legitimate conferee can read out securely the secret message announced by another one, but a vicious eavesdropper can get nothing about it. The first one is based on the same key shared efficiently and securely by all the parties with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, and each conferee sends his secret message to the others with one-time pad crypto-system. The other one is based on quantum encryption with a quantum key, a sequence of GHZ states shared among all the conferees and used repeatedly after confirming their security. Both these schemes are optimal as their intrinsic efficiency for qubits approaches the maximal value.
- Oct 05 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0610020v1This paper reviews some characterizations of positive matrices and discusses which lead to useful parametrizations. It is argued that one of them, which we dub the Schur-Constantinescu parametrization is particularly useful. Two new applications of it are given. One shows all block-Toeplitz states are PPT. The other application is to relaxation rates.
- Jun 05 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0606021v1A multiparty quantum secret report scheme is proposed with quantum encryption. The boss Alice and her $M$ agents first share a sequence of ($M$+1)-particle Greenberger--Horne--Zeilinger (GHZ) states that only Alice knows which state each ($M$+1)-particle quantum system is in. Each agent exploits a controlled-not (CNot) gate to encrypt the travelling particle by using the particle in the GHZ state as the control qubit. The boss Alice decrypts the travelling particle with a CNot gate after performing a $\sigma_x$ operation on her particle in the GHZ state or not. After the GHZ states (the quantum key) are used up, the parties check whether there is a vicious eavesdropper, say Eve, monitoring the quantum line, by picking out some samples from the GHZ states shared and measure them with two measuring bases. After confirming the security of the quantum key, they use the GHZ states remained repeatedly for next round of quantum communication. This scheme has the advantage of high intrinsic efficiency for qubits and the total efficiency.
- Jun 02 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0606007v3Two deterministic secure quantum communication schemes are proposed, one based on pure entangled states and the other on $d$-dimensional single-photon states. In these two schemes, only single-photon measurements are required for the two authorized users, which makes the schemes more convenient than others in practical applications. Although each qubit can be read out after a transmission of additional classical bit, it is unnecessary for the users to transmit qubits double the distance between the sender and the receiver, which will increase their bit rate and their security. The parties use decoy photons to check eavesdropping efficiently. The obvious advantage in the first scheme is that the pure entangled source is feasible with present techniques.
- Jun 02 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0606008v2A scheme for quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network is proposed with a sequence of polarized single photons. The single photons are prepared originally in the same state |0> by the servers on the network, which will reduce the difficulty for the legitimate users to check eavesdropping largely. The users code the information on the single photons with two unitary operations which do not change their measuring bases. Some decoy photons, which are produced by operating the sample photons with a Hadamard, are used for preventing a potentially dishonest server from eavesdropping the quantum lines freely. This scheme is an economical one as it is the easiest way for QSDC network communication securely.
- May 26 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0605214v2A quantum secure direct communication network scheme is proposed with quantum superdense coding and decoy photons. The servers on a passive optical network prepare and measure the quantum signal, i.e., a sequence of the $d$-dimensional Bell states. After confirming the security of the photons received from the receiver, the sender codes his secret message on them directly. For preventing a dishonest server from eavesdropping, some decoy photons prepared by measuring one photon in the Bell states are used to replace some original photons. One of the users on the network can communicate any other one. This scheme has the advantage of high capacity, and it is more convenient than others as only a sequence of photons is transmitted in quantum line.
- Apr 11 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0604060v1We present a fake-signal-and-cheating attack strategy for the dishonest agent in quantum secret sharing (QSS) to steal the information of the other agents' fully and freely. It is found that almost all the QSS protocols existing, such as the two famous QSS protocols, the Hillery-Bu$\check{z}$ek-Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A \textbf59, 1829 (1999)] and the Karlsson-Koashi-Imoto [Phys. Rev. A \textbf59, 162 (1999)], can be eavesdropped freely if the process for the eavesdropping check is accomplished with the cooperation of the dishonest agent. He can sends a fake signal to the other agents after intercepting the original photons and storing them. His action can be hidden with entanglement swapping and cheating when the photons are chosen as the samples for checking eavesdropping. Finally, we present a possible improvement of these QSS protocols' security with decoy photons.
- Feb 21 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0602160v4An efficient high-capacity quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed following some ideas in quantum dense coding with two-photon entanglement. The message sender, Alice prepares and measures the two-photon entangled states, and the two agents, Bob and Charlie code their information on their photons with four local unitary operations, which makes this scheme more convenient for the agents than others. This scheme has a high intrinsic efficiency for qubits and a high capacity.
- Dec 05 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0512014v2We present a scheme for quantum secure direct communication with quantum encryption. The two authorized users use repeatedly a sequence of the pure entangled pairs (quantum key) shared for encrypting and decrypting the secret message carried by the traveling photons directly. For checking eavesdropping, the two parties perform the single-photon measurements on some decoy particles before each round. This scheme has the advantage that the pure entangled quantum signal source is feasible at present and any eavesdropper cannot steal the message.
- Dec 01 2005 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:cond-mat/0511732v1We investigate boundary critical phenomena from a quantum information perspective. Bipartite entanglement in the ground state of one-dimensional quantum systems is quantified using the Renyi entropy S_alpha, which includes the von Neumann entropy (alpha=1) and the single-copy entanglement (alpha=infinity) as special cases. We identify the contribution from the boundary entropy to the Renyi entropy, and show that there is an entanglement loss along boundary renormalization group (RG) flows. This property, which is intimately related to the Affleck-Ludwig g-theorem, can be regarded as a consequence of majorization relations between the spectra of the reduced density matrix along the boundary RG flows. We also point out that the bulk contribution to the single-copy entanglement is half of that to the von Neumann entropy, whereas the boundary contribution is the same.
- Nov 24 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0511223v2We present a scheme for symmetric multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary $m$-qubit state with $m$ Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states following some ideas from the controlled teleportation [Phys. Rev. A \textbf72, 02338 (2005)]. The sender Alice performs $m$ Bell-state measurements on her $2m$ particles and the controllers need only to take some single-photon product measurements on their photons independently, not Bell-state measurements, which makes this scheme more convenient than the latter. Also it does not require the parties to perform a controlled-NOT gate on the photons for reconstructing the unknown $m$-qubit state and it is an optimal one as its efficiency for qubits approaches the maximal value.
- Sep 06 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0509029v2Two schemes for sharing an arbitrary two-qubit state based on entanglement swapping are proposed with Bell-state measurements and local unitary operations. One is based on the quantum channel with four Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs shared in advance. The other is based on a circular topological structure, i.e., each user shares an EPR pair with his neighboring one. The advantage of the former is that the construction of the quantum channel between the agents is controlled by the sender Alice, which will improve the security of the scheme. The circular scheme reduces the quantum resource largely when the number of the agents is large. Both of those schemes have the property of high efficiency as almost all the instances can be used to split the quantum information. They are more convenient in application than the other schemes existing as they require only two-qubit entanglements and two-qubit joint measurements for sharing an arbitrary two-qubit state.
- Aug 24 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0508168v1We discuss the robustness of two-way quantum communication protocols against Trojan horse attack and introduce a novel attack, delay-photon Trojan horse attack. Moreover, we present a practical way for two-way quantum communication protocols to prevent the eavesdropper from stealing the information transmitted with Trojan horse attacks. It means that two-way quantum communication protocols is also secure in a practical application.
- Aug 24 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0508171v1Recently, Yan and Gao proposed a quantum secret sharing protocol between multiparty ($m$ members in group 1) and multiparty ($n$ members in group 2) using a sequence of single photons (Phys. Rev. A \textbf72, 012304 (2005)). We find that it is secure if the quantum signal transmitted is only a single photon but insecure with a multi-photon signal as some agents can get the information about the others' message if they attack the communication with a Trojan horse. However, security against this attack can be attained with a simple modification.
- Aug 17 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0508118v3A protocol for multiparty quantum secret splitting is proposed with an ordered $N$ EPR pairs and Bell state measurements. It is secure and has the high intrinsic efficiency and source capacity as almost all the instances are useful and each EPR pair carries two bits of message securely. Moreover, we modify it for multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary $m$-particle entangled state based on quantum teleportation with only Bell state measurements and local unitary operations which make this protocol more convenient in a practical application than others.
- Aug 03 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0508015v4We discuss the four requirements for a real point-to-point quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) first, and then present two efficient QSDC network schemes with an N ordered Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. Any one of the authorized users can communicate another one on the network securely and directly.
- Jul 18 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0507143v2We introduce an attack scheme for eavesdropping the ping-pong quantum communication protocol proposed by Bostr$\ddot{o}$m and Felbinger [Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf89, 187902 (2002)] freely in a noise channel. The vicious eavesdropper, Eve, intercepts and measures the travel photon transmitted between the sender and the receiver. Then she replaces the quantum signal with a multi-photon signal in a same state, and measures the photons return with the measuring basis with which Eve prepares the fake signal except for one photon. This attack increase neither the quantum channel losses nor the error rate in the sampling instances for eavesdropping check. It works for eavesdropping the secret message transmitted with the ping-pong protocol. Finally, we propose a way for improving the security of the ping-pong protocol.
- Jun 24 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0506194v3We analyzed the security of the multiparty quantum secret sharing (MQSS) protocol recently proposed by Zhang, Li and Man [Phys. Rev. A \textbf71, 044301 (2005)] and found that this protocol is secure for any other eavesdropper except for the agent Bob who prepares the quantum signals as he can attack the quantum communication with a Trojan horse. That is, Bob replaces the single-photon signal with a multi-photon one and the other agent Charlie cannot find this cheating as she does not measure the photons before they runs back from the boss Alice, which reveals that this MQSS protocol is not secure for Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of the MQSS protocol security with two single-photon measurements and six unitary operations.
- Apr 22 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0504158v4A scheme for multiparty quantum state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state is presented with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. Any one of the $N$ agents has the access to regenerate the original state with two local unitary operations if he collaborates with the other agents, say the controllers. Moreover, each of the controllers is required to take only a product measurement $\sigma_x \otimes \sigma_x$ on his two particles, which makes this scheme more convenient for the agents in the applications on a network than others. As all the quantum source can be used to carry the useful information, the intrinsic efficiency of qubits approaches the maximal value. With a new notation for the multipartite entanglement, the sender need only publish two bits of classical information for each measurement, which reduces the information exchanged largely.
- Apr 18 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0504120v2An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed. In this scheme, the particles in an entangled pair group form two particle sequences. One sequence is sent to Bob and the other is sent to Charlie after rearranging the particle orders. Bob and Charlie make coding unitary operations and send the particles back. Alice makes Bell-basis measurement to read their coding operations.
- Apr 18 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0504119v1In this Letter, we present quantum secret sharing and secret splitting protocols with single photons running forth and back between the participating parties. The protocol has a high intrinsic efficiency, namely all photons except those chosen for eavesdropping check could be used for sharing secret. The participants need not to announce the measuring bases at most of the time and this reduces the classical information exchanged largely.
- Jan 25 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0501129v3We present a way for symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entangled state based on Bell-basis measurements by using two Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, i.e., a sender transmits an arbitrary two-particle entangled state to a distant receiver, an arbitrary one of the $n+1$ agents via the control of the others in a network. It will be shown that the outcomes in the cases that $n$ is odd or it is even are different in principle as the receiver has to perform a controlled-not operation on his particles for reconstructing the original arbitrary entangled state in addition to some local unitary operations in the former. Also we discuss the applications of this controlled teleporation for quantum secret sharing of classical and quantum information. As all the instances can be used to carry useful information, its efficiency for qubits approaches the maximal value.
- The concept of local concurrence is used to quantify the entanglement between a single qubit and the remainder of a multi-qubit system. For the ground state of the BCS model in the thermodynamic limit the set of local concurrences completely describe the entanglement. As a measure for the entanglement of the full system we investigate the Average Local Concurrence (ALC). We find that the ALC satisfies a simple relation with the order parameter. We then show that for finite systems with fixed particle number, a relation between the ALC and the condensation energy exposes a threshold coupling. Below the threshold, entanglement measures besides the ALC are significant.