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### results for au:Zheng_S in:math

• Motivated by the Hopf algebra structures established on free commutative Rota-Baxter algebras, we explore Hopf algebra related structures on free commutative Nijenhuis algebras. Applying a cocycle condition, we first prove that a free commutative Nijenhuis algebra on a left counital bialgebra (in the sense that the right-sided counicity needs not hold) can be enriched to a left counital bialgebra. We then establish a general result that a connected graded left counital bialgebra is a left counital right antipode Hopf algebra in the sense that the antipode is also only right-sided. We finally apply this result to show that the left counital bialgebra on a free commutative Nijenhuis algebra on a connected left counital bialgebra is connected and graded, hence is a left counital right antipode Hopf algebra.
• Oct 17 2017 math.CO arXiv:1710.05795v1
A sequence $(a_n)_{n \geq 0}$ is Stieltjes moment sequence if it has the form $a_n = \int_0^\infty x^n d\mu(x)$ for $\mu$ is a nonnegative measure on $[0,\infty)$. It is known that $(a_n)_{n \geq 0}$ is a Stieltjes moment sequence if and only if the matrix $H =[a_{i+j}]_{i,j \geq 0}$ is totally positive, i.e., all its minors are nonnegative. We define a sequence of polynomials in $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n$ $(a_n(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n))_{n \geq 0}$ to be a Stieltjes moment sequence of polynomials if the matrix $H =[a_{i+j} (x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)]_{i,j \geq 0}$ is $(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)$-totally positive, i.e., all its minors are polynomials in $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n$ with nonnegative coefficients. The main goal of this paper is to produce a large class of Stieltjes moment sequences of polynomials by finding multivariable analogues of Catalan-like numbers as defined by Aigner.
• We consider the blowup rate for blowup solutions to $L^2$-critical, focusing NLS with a harmonic potential and a rotation term. Under a suitable spectral condition we prove that there holds the "$\log$-$\log$ law" when the initial data is slightly above the ground state. We also construct minimal mass blowup solutions near the ground state level with distinct blowup rates.
• This paper investigates the central limit theorem for linear spectral statistics of high dimensional sample covariance matrices of the form $\mathbf{B}_n=n^{-1}\sum_{j=1}^{n}\mathbf{Q}\mathbf{x}_j\mathbf{x}_j^{*}\mathbf{Q}^{*}$ where $\mathbf{Q}$ is a nonrandom matrix of dimension $p\times k$, and $\{\mathbf{x}_j\}$ is a sequence of independent $k$-dimensional random vector with independent entries, under the assumption that $p/n\to y>0$. A key novelty here is that the dimension $k\ge p$ can be arbitrary, possibly infinity. This new model of sample covariance matrices $\mathbf{B}_n$ covers most of the known models as its special cases. For example, standard sample covariance matrices are obtained with $k=p$ and $\mathbf{Q}=\mathbf{T}_n^{1/2}$ for some positive definite Hermitian matrix $\mathbf{T}_n$. Also with $k=\infty$ our model covers the case of repeated linear processes considered in recent high-dimensional time series literature. The CLT found in this paper substantially generalizes the seminal CLT in Bai and Silverstein (2004). Applications of this new CLT are proposed for testing the structure of a high-dimensional covariance matrix. The derived tests are then used to analyse a large fMRI data set regarding its temporary correlation structure.
• This paper introduces a class of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs), whose coefficients not only depend on the value of its solutions of the present but also the past and the future. For a sufficiently small time delay or a sufficiently small Lipschitz constant, the existence and uniqueness of such BSDEs is obtained. As the adjoint process, a class of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) is introduced, whose coefficients also depend on the present, the past and the future of its solutions. The existence and uniqueness of such SDEs is proved for a sufficiently small time advance or a sufficiently small Lipschitz constant. A duality between such BSDEs and SDEs is established.
• Nov 29 2016 math.CO arXiv:1611.09018v4
The study of patterns in permutations associated with forests of binary shrubs was initiated by D. Bevan et al.. In this paper, we study five different types of rise statistics that can be associated with such permutations and find the generating functions for the distribution of such rise statistics.
• We investigate blow-up properties for the initial-boundary value problem of a Keller-Segel model with consumption of chemoattractant when the spatial dimension is three. Through a kinetic reformulation of the Keller-Segel model, we first derive some higher-order estimates and obtain certain blow-up criteria for the local classical solutions. These blow-up criteria generalize the results in [4,5] from the whole space $\mathbb{R}^3$ to the case of bounded smooth domain $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^3$. Lower global blow-up estimate on $\|n\|_{L^\infty(\Omega)}$ is also obtained based on our higher-order estimates. Moreover, we prove local non-degeneracy for blow-up points.
• A Hom-type algebra is called involutive if its Hom map is multiplicative and involutive. In this paper, we obtain an explicit construction of the free involutive Hom-associative algebra on a Hom-module. We then apply this construction to obtain the universal enveloping algebra of an involutive Hom-Lie algebra. Finally we obtain a Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt theorem for the enveloping associative algebra of an involutive Hom-Lie algebra.
• Apr 26 2016 cs.LG math.OC stat.ML arXiv:1604.07070v3
The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is a powerful optimization solver in machine learning. Recently, stochastic ADMM has been integrated with variance reduction methods for stochastic gradient, leading to SAG-ADMM and SDCA-ADMM that have fast convergence rates and low iteration complexities. However, their space requirements can still be high. In this paper, we propose an integration of ADMM with the method of stochastic variance reduced gradient (SVRG). Unlike another recent integration attempt called SCAS-ADMM, the proposed algorithm retains the fast convergence benefits of SAG-ADMM and SDCA-ADMM, but is more advantageous in that its storage requirement is very low, even independent of the sample size $n$. We also extend the proposed method for nonconvex problems, and obtain a convergence rate of $O(1/T)$. Experimental results demonstrate that it is as fast as SAG-ADMM and SDCA-ADMM, much faster than SCAS-ADMM, and can be used on much bigger data sets.
• In modern large-scale machine learning applications, the training data are often partitioned and stored on multiple machines. It is customary to employ the "data parallelism" approach, where the aggregated training loss is minimized without moving data across machines. In this paper, we introduce a novel distributed dual formulation for regularized loss minimization problems that can directly handle data parallelism in the distributed setting. This formulation allows us to systematically derive dual coordinate optimization procedures, which we refer to as Distributed Alternating Dual Maximization (DADM). The framework extends earlier studies described in (Boyd et al., 2011; Ma et al., 2015a; Jaggi et al., 2014; Yang, 2013) and has rigorous theoretical analyses. Moreover with the help of the new formulation, we develop the accelerated version of DADM (Acc-DADM) by generalizing the acceleration technique from (Shalev-Shwartz and Zhang, 2014) to the distributed setting. We also provide theoretical results for the proposed accelerated version and the new result improves previous ones (Yang, 2013; Ma et al., 2015a) whose runtimes grow linearly on the condition number. Our empirical studies validate our theory and show that our accelerated approach significantly improves the previous state-of-the-art distributed dual coordinate optimization algorithms.
• We consider a parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel system of chemotaxis model with singular sensitivity $u_t=\Delta u-\chi\nabla\cdot(\frac{u}{v}\nabla v)$, $v_t=k\Delta v-v+u$ under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a smooth bounded domain $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ $(n\geq2)$, with $\chi,k>0$. It is proved that for any $k>0$, the problem admits global classical solutions, whenever $\chi\in\big(0,-\frac{k-1}{2}+\frac{1}{2}\sqrt{(k-1)^2+\frac{8k}{n}}\big)$. The global solutions are moreover globally bounded if $n\le 8$. This shows an exact way the size of the diffusion constant $k$ of the chemicals $v$ effects the behavior of solutions.
• A system of dynamically consistent nonlinear evaluation (${\cal{F}}$-evaluation) provides an ideal characterization for the dynamical behaviors of risk measures and the pricing of contingent claims. The purpose of this paper is to study the representation for the ${\cal{F}}$-evaluation by the solution of a backward stochastic differential equation (BSDE). Under a general domination condition, we prove that any ${\cal{F}}$-evaluation can be represented by the solution of a BSDE with a generator which is Lipschitz in $y$ and uniformly continuous in $z$.
• In any reaction-diffusion system of predator-prey models, the population densities of species are determined by the interactions between them, together with the influences from the spatial environments surrounding them. Generally, the prey species would die out when their birth rate is too low, the habitat size is too small, the predator grows too fast, or the predation pressure is too high. To save the endangered prey species, some human interference is useful, such as creating a protection zone where the prey could cross the boundary freely but the predator is prohibited from entering. This paper studies the existence of positive steady states to a predator-prey model with reaction-diffusion terms, Beddington-DeAngelis type functional response and non-flux boundary conditions. It is shown that there is a threshold value $\theta_0$ which characterizes the refuge ability of prey such that the positivity of prey population can be ensured if either the prey's birth rate satisfies $\theta\geq\theta_0$ (no matter how large the predator's growth rate is) or the predator's growth rate satisfies $\mu\le 0$, while a protection zone $\Omega_0$ is necessary for such positive solutions if $\theta<\theta_0$ with $\mu>0$ properly large. The more interesting finding is that there is another threshold value $\theta^*=\theta^*(\mu,\Omega_0)<\theta_0$, such that the positive solutions do exist for all $\theta\in(\theta^*,\theta_0)$. Letting $\mu\rightarrow\infty$, we get the third threshold value $\theta_1=\theta_1(\Omega_0)$ such that if $\theta>\theta_1(\Omega_0)$, prey species could survive no matter how large the predator's growth rate is. In addition, we get the fourth threshold value $\theta_*$ for negative $\mu$ such that the system admits positive steady states if and only if $\theta>\theta_*$.
• This paper deals with the higher dimension quasilinear parabolic-parabolic Keller-Segel system involving a source term of logistic type $u_t=\nabla\cdot(\phi(u)\nabla u)-\chi\nabla\cdot(u\nabla v)+g(u)$, $\tau v_t=\Delta v-v+u$ in $\Omega\times (0,T)$, subject to nonnegative initial data and homogeneous Neumann boundary condition, where $\Omega$ is smooth and bounded domain in $\mathbb{R}^n$, $n\ge 2$, $\phi$ and $g$ are smooth and positive functions satisfying $ks^p\le\phi$ when $s\ge s_0>1$, $g(s) \le as - \mu s^2$ for $s>0$ with $g(0)\ge0$ and constants $a\ge 0$, $\tau,\chi,\mu>0$. It was known that the model without the logistic source admits both bounded and unbounded solutions, identified via the critical exponent $\frac{2}{n}$. On the other hand, the model is just a critical case with the balance of logistic damping and aggregation effects, for which the property of solutions should be determined by the coefficients involved. In the present paper it is proved that there is $\theta_0>0$ such that the problem admits global bounded classical solutions, regardless of the size of initial data and diffusion whenever $\frac{\chi}{\mu}<\theta_0$. This shows the substantial effect of the logistic source to the behavior of solutions.
• An algorithm for estimating quasi-stationary distribution of finite state space Markov chains has been proven in a previous paper. Now this paper proves a similar algorithm that works for general state space Markov chains under very general assumptions.
• In this paper, we consider filtration-consistent nonlinear expectations which satisfy a general domination condition (dominated by ${\cal{E}}^{\phi}$). We show that this kind of nonlinear expectations can be represented by $g$-expectations defined by the solutions of backward stochastic differential equations, whose generators are independent on $y$ and uniformly continuous in $z$.
• In this paper we apply the methods of rewriting systems and Gröbner-Shirshov bases to give a unified approach to a class of linear operators on associative algebras. These operators resemble the classic Rota-Baxter operator, and they are called \it Rota-Baxter type operators. We characterize a Rota-Baxter type operator by the convergency of a rewriting system associated to the operator. By associating such an operator to a Gröbner-Shirshov basis, we obtain a canonical basis for the free algebras in the category of associative algebras with that operator. This construction include as special cases several previous ones for free objects in similar categories, such as those of Rota-Baxter algebras and Nijenhuis algebras.
• In this paper we construct free Hom-semigroups when its unary operation is multiplicative and is an involution. Our method of construction is by bracketed words. As a consequence, we obtain free Hom-associative algebras generated by a set under the same conditions for the unary operation.
• In this paper, we study an initial boundary value problem of the Cahn-Hilliard-Darcy system with a non-autonomous mass source term $S$ that models tumor growth. We first prove the existence of global weak solutions as well as the existence of unique local strong solutions in both 2D and 3D. Then we investigate the qualitative behavior of solutions in details when the spatial dimension is two. More precisely, we prove that the strong solution exists globally and it defines a closed dynamical process. Then we establish the existence of a minimal pullback attractor for translated bounded mass source $S$. Finally, when $S$ is assumed to be asymptotically autonomous, we demonstrate that any global weak/strong solution converges to a single steady state as $t\to+\infty$. An estimate on the convergence rate is also given.
• In this paper, we investigate an initial-boundary value problem for a chemotaxis-fluid system in a general bounded regular domain $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^N$ ($N\in\{2,3\}$), not necessarily being convex. Thanks to the elementary lemma given by Mizoguchi & Souplet [10], we can derive a new type of entropy-energy estimate, which enables us to prove the following: (1) for $N=2$, there exists a unique global classical solution to the full chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system, which converges to a constant steady state $(n_\infty, 0,0)$ as $t\to+\infty$, and (2) for $N=3$, the existence of a global weak solution to the simplified chemotaxis-Stokes system. Our results generalize the recent work due to Winkler [15,16], in which the domain $\Omega$ is essentially assumed to be convex.
• Rota-Baxter operators are an algebraic abstraction of integration. Following this classical connection, we study the relationship between Rota-Baxter operators and integrals in the case of the polynomial algebra $\mathbf{k}[x]$. We consider two classes of Rota-Baxter operators, monomial ones and injective ones. For the first class, we apply averaging operators to determine monomial Rota-Baxter operators. For the second class, we make use of the double product on Rota-Baxter algebras.
• In this paper, we establish representation theorems for generators of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs in short), whose generators are monotonic and convex growth in $y$ and quadratic growth in $z$. We also obtain a converse comparison theorem for such BSDEs.
• In this paper, we establish a general representation theorem for generator of backward stochastic differential equation (BSDE), whose generator has a quadratic growth in $z$. As some applications, we obtain a general converse comparison theorem of such quadratic BSDEs and uniqueness theorem, translation invariance for quadratic $g$-expectation.
• Random Fisher matrices arise naturally in multivariate statistical analysis and understanding the properties of its eigenvalues is of primary importance for many hypothesis testing problems like testing the equality between two multivariate population covariance matrices, or testing the independence between sub-groups of a multivariate random vector. This paper is concerned with the properties of a large-dimensional Fisher matrix when the dimension of the population is proportionally large compared to the sample size. Most of existing works on Fisher matrices deal with a particular Fisher matrix where populations have i.i.d components so that the population covariance matrices are all identity. In this paper, we consider general Fisher matrices with arbitrary population covariance matrices. The first main result of the paper establishes the limiting distribution of the eigenvalues of a Fisher matrix while in a second main result, we provide a central limit theorem for a wide class of functionals of its eigenvalues. Some applications of these results are also proposed for testing hypotheses on high-dimensional covariance matrices.
• In this paper, we establish a local representation theorem for generators of reflected backward stochastic differential equations (RBSDE), whose generators are continuous with linear growth. It generalizes some known representation theorems for generators of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDE). As some applications, a general converse comparison theorem for RBSDE is obtained and some properties of RBSDE are discussed.
• In this paper we determine all the Rota-Baxter operators of weight zero on semigroup algebras of order two and three with the help of computer algebra. We determine the matrices for these Rota-Baxter operators by directly solving the defining equations of the operators. We also produce a Mathematica procedure to predict and verify these solutions.
• Bracketed words are basic structures both in mathematics (such as Rota-Baxter algebras) and mathematical physics (such as rooted trees) where the locations of the substructures are important. In this paper we give the classification of the relative locations of two bracketed subwords of a bracketed word in an operated semigroup into the separated, nested and intersecting cases. We achieve this by establishing a correspondence between relative locations of bracketed words and those of words by applying the concept of Motzkin words which are the algebraic forms of Motzkin paths.
• This paper studies a method, which has been proposed in the Physics literature by [8, 7, 10], for estimating the quasi-stationary distribution. In contrast to existing methods in eigenvector estimation, the method eliminates the need for explicit transition matrix manipulation to extract the principal eigenvector. Our paper analyzes the algorithm by casting it as a stochastic approximation algorithm (Robbins-Monro) [23, 16]. In doing so, we prove its convergence and obtain its rate of convergence. Based on this insight, we also give an example where the rate of convergence is very slow. This problem can be alleviated by using an improved version of the algorithm that is given in this paper. Numerical experiments are described that demonstrate the effectiveness of this improved method.
• This paper proposes a CLT for linear spectral statistics of random matrix $S^{-1}T$ for a general non-negative definite and \bf non-random Hermitian matrix $T$.
• Sample covariance matrix and multivariate $F$-matrix play important roles in multivariate statistical analysis. The central limit theorems \sl (CLT) of linear spectral statistics associated with these matrices were established in Bai and Silverstein (2004) and Zheng (2012) which received considerable attentions and have been applied to solve many large dimensional statistical problems. However, the sample covariance matrices used in these papers are not centralized and there exist some questions about CLT's defined by the centralized sample covariance matrices. In this note, we shall provide some short complements on the CLT's in Bai and Silverstein (2004) and Zheng (2012), and show that the results in these two papers remain valid for the centralized sample covariance matrices, provided that the ratios of dimension $p$ to sample sizes $(n,n_1,n_2)$ are redefined as $p/(n-1)$ and $p/(n_i-1)$, $i=1,2$, respectively.
• In this paper, we construct a canonical linear basis for free commutative integro-differential algebras by applying the method of Gröbner-Shirshov bases. We establish the Composition-Diamond Lemma for free commutative differential Rota-Baxter algebras of order $n$. We also obtain a weakly monomial order on these algebras, allowing us to obtain Gröbner-Shirshov bases for free commutative integro-differential algebras on a set. We finally generalize the concept of functional derivations to free differential algebras with arbitrary weight and generating sets from which to construct a canonical linear basis for free commutative integro-differential algebras.
• For a multivariate linear model, Wilk's likelihood ratio test (LRT) constitutes one of the cornerstone tools. However, the computation of its quantiles under the null or the alternative requires complex analytic approximations and more importantly, these distributional approximations are feasible only for moderate dimension of the dependent variable, say $p\le 20$. On the other hand, assuming that the data dimension $p$ as well as the number $q$ of regression variables are fixed while the sample size $n$ grows, several asymptotic approximations are proposed in the literature for Wilk's $\bLa$ including the widely used chi-square approximation. In this paper, we consider necessary modifications to Wilk's test in a high-dimensional context, specifically assuming a high data dimension $p$ and a large sample size $n$. Based on recent random matrix theory, the correction we propose to Wilk's test is asymptotically Gaussian under the null and simulations demonstrate that the corrected LRT has very satisfactory size and power, surely in the large $p$ and large $n$ context, but also for moderately large data dimensions like $p=30$ or $p=50$. As a byproduct, we give a reason explaining why the standard chi-square approximation fails for high-dimensional data. We also introduce a new procedure for the classical multiple sample significance test in MANOVA which is valid for high-dimensional data.
• We consider in dimension four weakly convergent sequences of approximate biharmonic maps to a Riemannian manifold with bi-tension fields bounded in $L^p$ for $p>\frac43$. We prove an energy identity that accounts for the loss of hessian energies by the sum of hessian energies over finitely many nontrivial biharmonic maps on $\mathbb R^4$. As a corollary, we obtain an energy identity for the heat flow of biharmonic maps at time infinity.
• We consdier in dimension four weakly convergent sequences of approximate biharmonic maos into sphere with bi-tension fields bounded in $L^p$ for some $p>1$. We prove an energy identity that accounts for the loss of Hessian energies by the sum of Hessian energies over finitely many nontrivial biharmonic maps on $\mathbb R^4$.
• In this paper, we give an explanation to the failure of two likelihood ratio procedures for testing about covariance matrices from Gaussian populations when the dimension is large compared to the sample size. Next, using recent central limit theorems for linear spectral statistics of sample covariance matrices and of random F-matrices, we propose necessary corrections for these LR tests to cope with high-dimensional effects. The asymptotic distributions of these corrected tests under the null are given. Simulations demonstrate that the corrected LR tests yield a realized size close to nominal level for both moderate p (around 20) and high dimension, while the traditional LR tests with chi-square approximation fails. Another contribution from the paper is that for testing the equality between two covariance matrices, the proposed correction applies equally for non-Gaussian populations yielding a valid pseudo-likelihood ratio test.
• We prove a complex and a real interpolation theorems on Besov spaces and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces associated with a selfadjoint operator $L$, without assuming the gradient estimate for its spectral kernel. The result applies to the cases where $L$ is a uniformly elliptic operator or a Schrödinger operator with electro-magnetic potential.
• We obtain certain time decay and regularity estimates for 3D Schroedinger equation with a potential in the Kato class by using Besov spaces associated with Schroedinger operators.
• In this article we give an overview on some recent development of Littlewood-Paley theory for Schrödinger operators. We extend the Littlewood-Paley theory for special potentials considered in the authors' previous work. We elaborate our approach by considering potential in $C^\infty_0$ or Schwartz class in one dimension. In particular the low energy estimates are treated by establishing some new and refined asymptotics for the eigenfunctions and their Fourier transforms. We give maximal function characterization of the Besov spaces and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces associated with $H$. Then we prove a spectral multiplier theorem on these spaces and derive Strichartz estimates for the wave equation with a potential. We also consider similar problem for the unbounded potentials in the Hermite and Laguerre cases, whose potentials $V=a|x|^2+b|x|^{-2}$ are known to be critical in the study of perturbation of nonlinear dispersive equations. This improves upon the previous results when we apply the upper Gaussian bound for the heat kernel and its gradient.
• We prove a sharp Mihlin-Hormander multiplier theorem for Schroedinger operators $H$ on $\R^n$. The method, which allows us to deal with general potentials, improves Hebisch's method relying on heat kernel estimates for positive potentials. Our result applies to, in particular, the negative Poeschl-Teller potential $V(x)= -\nu(\nu+1) \sech^2 x$, $\nu\in \N$, for which $H$ has a resonance at zero.
• Let $H$ be a Schrödinger operator on $\R^n$. Under a polynomial decay condition for the kernel of its spectral operator, we show that the Besov spaces and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces associated with $H$ are well defined. We further give a Littlewood-Paley characterization of $L_p$ spaces as well as Sobolev spaces in terms of dyadic functions of $H$. This generalizes and strengthens the previous result when the heat kernel of $H$ satisfies certain upper Gaussian bound.
• We address the function space theory associated with the Schroedinger operator H. The discussion is featured with the Poeschl-Teller potential in quantum physics. Using biorthogonal dyadic system, we introduce Besov spaces and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces (including Sobolev spaces) associated with H. We then use interpolation method to identify these spaces with the classical ones for a certain range of p,q> 1. A physical implication is that the corresponding wave function $\psi(t,x)=e^{-i t H }f(x)$ admits appropriate time decay in the Besov space scale.
• Let H be a Schrodinger operator on the real line, where the potential is in L^1 and L^2. We define the perturbed Fourier transform F for H and show that F is an isometry from the absolute continuous subspace onto L^2. This property allows us to construct a kernel formula for spectral operators. The main theorem improves the author's previous result for certain short-range potentials.
• Let H be a Schrodinger operator with barrier potential on the real line. We define the Besov spaces for H by developing the associated Littlewood-Paley theory. This theory depends on the decay estimates of the spectral operator in the high and low energies. We also prove a Mikhlin-Hormander type multiplier theorem on these spaces, including the Lp boundedness result. Our approach has potential applications to other Schrodinger operators with short-range potentials, as well as in higher dimensions.