results for au:Zhao_Z in:quant-ph

- Apr 10 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1804.02594v1The capacity of a channel is known to be equivalent to the highest rate at which it can generate entanglement. Analogous to entanglement, the notion of quantum causality characterises the temporal aspect of quantum correlations. Despite holding an equally fundamental role in physics, temporal quantum correlations have yet to find their operational significance in quantum communication. Here we uncover a connection between quantum causality and channel capacity. We show the amount of temporal correlations between two ends of the noisy quantum channel, as quantified by a causality measure, implies a general upper bound on its channel capacity. The expression of this new bound is simpler to evaluate than most previously known bounds. We demonstrate the utility of this bound by applying it to a class of shifted depolarizing channels, which results in improvement over previously known bounds for this class of channels.
- The intersection between the fields of machine learning and quantum information processing is proving to be a fruitful field for the discovery of new quantum algorithms, which potentially offer an exponential speed-up over their classical counterparts. However, many such algorithms require the ability to produce states proportional to vectors stored in quantum memory. Even given access to quantum databases which store exponentially long vectors, the construction of which is considered a one-off overhead, it has been argued that the cost of preparing such amplitude-encoded states may offset any exponential quantum advantage. Here we argue that specifically in the context of machine learning applications it suffices to prepare a state close to the ideal state only in the $\infty$-norm, and that this can be achieved with only a constant number of memory queries.
- Gaussian processes (GPs) are important models in supervised machine learning. Training in Gaussian processes refers to selecting the covariance functions and the associated parameters in order to improve the outcome of predictions, the core of which amounts to evaluating the logarithm of the marginal likelihood (LML) of a given model. LML gives a concrete measure of the quality of prediction that a GP model is expected to achieve. The classical computation of LML typically carries a polynomial time overhead with respect to the input size. We propose a quantum algorithm that computes the logarithm of the determinant of a Hermitian matrix, which runs in logarithmic time for sparse matrices. This is applied in conjunction with a variant of the quantum linear system algorithm that allows for logarithmic time computation of the form $\mathbf{y}^TA^{-1}\mathbf{y}$, where $\mathbf{y}$ is a dense vector and $A$ is the covariance matrix. We hence show that quantum computing can be used to estimate the LML of a GP with exponentially improved efficiency under certain conditions.
- Nov 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05955v1The traditional formalism of non-relativistic quantum theory allows the state of a quantum system to extend across space, but only restricts it to a single instant in time, leading to distinction between theoretical treatments of spatial and temporal quantum correlations. Here we unify the geometrical description of two-point quantum correlations in space-time. Our study presents the geometry of correlations between two sequential Pauli measurements on a single qubit undergoing an arbitrary quantum channel evolution together with two-qubit spatial correlations under a common framework. We establish a symmetric structure between quantum correlations in space and time. This symmetry is broken in the presence of non-unital channels, which further reveals a set of temporal correlations that are indistinguishable from correlations found in bipartite entangled states.
- Apr 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.06174v2Solving linear systems of equations is a frequently encountered problem in machine learning and optimisation. Given a matrix $A$ and a vector $\mathbf b$ the task is to find the vector $\mathbf x$ such that $A \mathbf x = \mathbf b$. We describe a quantum algorithm that achieves a sparsity-independent runtime scaling of $\mathcal{O}(\kappa^2 \|A\|_F \text{polylog}(n)/\epsilon)$, where $n\times n$ is the dimensionality of $A$ with Frobenius norm $\|A\|_F$, $\kappa$ denotes the condition number of $A$, and $\epsilon$ is the desired precision parameter. When applied to a dense matrix with spectral norm bounded by a constant, the runtime of the proposed algorithm is bounded by $\mathcal{O}(\kappa^2\sqrt{n} \text{polylog}(n)/\epsilon)$, which is a quadratic improvement over known quantum linear system algorithms. Our algorithm is built upon a singular value estimation subroutine, which makes use of a memory architecture that allows for efficient preparation of quantum states that correspond to the rows and row Frobenius norms of $A$.
- Mar 30 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1703.09830v2When overlapping in an optical medium with nonlinear susceptibility, light waves can interact with each other, changing their phases, wavelengths, shapes, and so on. Such nonlinear effects, discovered over a half century ago, have given rise to a breadth of important applications. Applying to quantum-mechanical signals, however, they face fundamental challenges arising from the multimode nature of the interacting electromagnetic fields, such as phase noises and Raman scattering. Quantum Zeno blockade allows strong interaction of light waves without them physically overlapping, thus providing a viable solution for those challenges, as indicated in recent bulk-optics experiments. Here, we report on the observation of quantum Zeno blockade on chip, where a light wave is modulated by another in a distinct "interaction-free" manner. For quantum applications, we also verify its operations on a single-photon level. Our results promise a scalable platform for overcoming several grand challenges faced by nonlinear optics and quantum information processing, enabling, e.g., manipulation and interaction of quantum signals without decoherence.
- Gaussian processes (GP) are a widely used model for regression problems in supervised machine learning. Implementation of GP regression typically requires $O(n^3)$ logic gates. We show that the quantum linear systems algorithm [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)] can be applied to Gaussian process regression (GPR), leading to an exponential reduction in computation time in some instances. We show that even in some cases not ideally suited to the quantum linear systems algorithm, a polynomial increase in efficiency still occurs.
- We investigate the localization properties of atoms moving in a three-dimensional optical lattice in the presence of an uncorrelated disorder potential having the same probability distribution $P(V)$ as laser speckles. We find that the disorder-averaged (single-particle) Green's function, calculated via the coherent potential approximation, is in very good agreement with exact numerics. Using the transfer-matrix method, we compute the phase diagram in the energy-disorder plane and show that its peculiar shape can be understood from the self-consistent theory of localization. In particular, we recover the large asymmetry in the position of the mobility edge for blue and red speckles, which was recently observed numerically for correlated speckle potentials.
- Sep 01 2015 cond-mat.mtrl-sci quant-ph arXiv:1508.07550v1The dielectric properties of strontium titanate (SrTiO$_3$) have previously been reported from room temperature to low temperatures with conflicting results. In this work, precision measurement of the permittivity is undertaken by simultaneously measuring transverse electric and transverse magnetic resonant modes within a single crystal. It is unequivocally shown that the permittivity is isotropic at room temperature with a permittivity of order $316.3\pm2.2$ by measuring multiple modes of different electric field polarisations. As the crystal is cooled to 5 K and undergoes well known phase transitions, we show the material becomes uniaxial anisotropic with the ratio of the parallel to perpendicular permittivity to the cylinder z-axis of the sample as high as 2.4 below 6 K.
- Jul 28 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0607194v1The correlations between two qubits belonging to a three-qubit system can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-Bell inequality beyond Cirel'son's bound [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 060403 (2002)]. We experimentally demonstrate such a violation by 7 standard deviations by using a three-photon polarization-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state produced by Type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion. In addition, using part of our results, we obtain a violation of the Mermin inequality by 39 standard deviations.
- Aug 09 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0508062v1The maximum distance of quantum communication is limited due to the photon loss and detector noise. Exploiting entanglement swapping, quantum relay could offer ways to extend the achievable distance by increasing the signal to noise ratio. In this letter we present an experimental simulation of long distance quantum communication, in which the superiority of quantum relay is demonstrated. Assisted by quantum relay, we greatly extend the distance limit of unconditional secure quantum communication.
- May 04 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0505015v2We report an experimental realization of bit-flip error rejection for error-free transfer of quantum information through a noisy quantum channel. In the experiment, an unknown state to be transmitted is encoded into a two-photon entangled state, which is then sent through an engineered noisy quantum channel. At the final stage, the unknown state is decoded by a quantum parity measurement, successfully rejecting the erroneous transmission over the noisy quantum channel.
- Feb 22 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0502131v2Quantum secret sharing (QSS) is a protocol to split a message into several parts so that no subset of parts is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. In the scheme, three parties Alice, Bob and Charlie first share a three-photon entangled state, Charlie can then force Alice and Bob to cooperate to be able to establish the secret key with him by performing proper polarization measurements on his photon and announcing which polarization basis he has chosen. In a similar manner, in third-man quantum cryptography (TQC) the third-man, Charlie, can control whether Alice and Bob can communicate in a secure way while he has no access whatsoever on the content of the communication between Alice and Bob. Although QSS and TQC are essential for advanced quantum communication, the low intensity multi-photon entanglement source has made their realization an extreme experimental challenge. Here, exploiting a high intensity four-photon entanglement source we report an experimental realization of QSS and TQC . In the experiment, a key of low quantum bit error rate (QBER) 0.35% is obtained using a simple error reduction scheme.
- Feb 15 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0502085v3We develop and exploit a source of two-photon four-dimensional entanglement to report the first two-particle all-versus-nothing test of local realism with a linear optics setup, but without resorting to a non-contextuality ssumption. Our experimental results are in well agreement with quantum mechanics while in extreme contradiction with local realism. Potential applications of our experiment are briefly discussed.
- Jan 11 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0501036v1Cluster states serve as the central physical resource for the measurement-based quantum computation. We here present a simple experimental demonstration of the scalable cluster-state-construction scheme proposed by Browne and Rudolph. In our experiment, three-photon cluster states are created from two Bell states using linear optical devices. By observing a violation of three-particle Mermin inequality of $|< \textit{A}>| = 3.10\pm0.03 $, we also for the first time report a genuine three-photon entanglement. In addition, the entanglement properties of the cluster states are examined under $\sigma_z$ and $\sigma_x$ measurements on a qubit.
- Dec 03 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0412017v2We report an experimental realization of both optimal asymmetric cloning and telecloning of single photons by making use of partial teleportation of an unknown state. In the experiment, we demonstrate that, conditioned on the success of partial teleportation of single photons, not only the optimal asymmetric cloning can be accomplished, but also one of two outputs can be transfered to a distant location, realizing the telecloning. The experimental results represent a novel way to achieve the quantum cloning and may have potential applications in the context of quantum communication.
- Apr 23 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0404129v2Universal logic gates for two quantum bits (qubits) form an essential ingredient of quantum information processing. However, the photons, one of the best candidates for qubits, suffer from the lack of strong nonlinear coupling required for quantum logic operations. Here we show how this drawback can be overcome by reporting a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of a non-destructive controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate for two independent photons using only linear optical elements in conjunction with single-photon sources and conditional dynamics. Moreover, we have exploited the CNOT gate to discriminate all the four Bell-states in a teleportation experiment.
- Feb 17 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0402096v1Universal quantum error-correction requires the ability of manipulating entanglement of five or more particles. Although entanglement of three or four particles has been experimentally demonstrated and used to obtain the extreme contradiction between quantum mechanics and local realism, the realization of five-particle entanglement remains an experimental challenge. Meanwhile, a crucial experimental challenge in multi-party quantum communication and computation is the so-called open-destination teleportation. During open-destination teleportation, an unknown quantum state of a single particle is first teleported onto a N-particle coherent superposition to perform distributed quantum information processing. At a later stage this teleported state can be readout at any of the N particles for further applications by performing a projection measurement on the remaining N-1 particles. Here, we report a proof-of-principle demonstration of five-photon entanglement and open-destination teleportation. In the experiment, we use two entangled photon pairs to generate a four-photon entangled state, which is then combined with a single photon state to achieve the experimental goals. The methods developed in our experiment would have various applications e.g. in quantum secret sharing and measurement-based quantum computation.
- Feb 20 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0302137v3We report the first experimental violation of local realism in four-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement. In the experiment, the non-statistical GHZ conflicts between quantum mechanics and local realism are confirmed, within the experimental accuracy, by four specific measurements of polarization correlations between four photons. In addition, our experimental results not only demonstrate a violation of Mermin-Ardehali-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality by 76 standard deviations, but also for the first time provide sufficient evidence to confirm the existence of genuine four-particle entanglement.
- Jan 23 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0301118v1We report an experimental realization of entanglement concentration using two polarization-entangled photon pairs produced by pulsed parametric down-conversion. In the meantime, our setup also provides a proof-in-principle demonstration of a quantum repeater. The quality of our procedure is verified by observing a violation of Bell's inequality by more than 5 standard deviations. The high experimental accuracy achieved in the experiment implies that the requirement of tolerable error rate in multi-stage realization of quantum repeaters can be fulfilled, hence providing a practical toolbox for quantum communication over large distances.
- Dec 31 2002 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0212149v1The quantum random walk has drawn special interests because its remarkable features to the classical counterpart could lead to new quantum algorithms. In this paper, we propose a feasible scheme to implement quantum random walks on a line using only linear optics elements. With current single-photon interference technology, the steps that could be experimentally implemented can be extended to very large numbers. We also show that, by decohering the quantum states, our scheme for quantum random walk tends to be classical.
- Nov 19 2002 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0211098v2We present a protocol for deterministic and highly efficient quantum cryptography with entangled photon pairs in a 4x4-dimentional Hilbert space. Two communicating parties, Alice and Bob first share a both polarization- and path-entangled photon pair, and then each performs a complete Bell-state measurement on their own photon in one of two complementary Bell-state bases. It is demonstrated that each measurement in which both Alice and Bob register a photon can build certain perfect correlation and generate 1.5 key bits on average. The security of our protocol is guaranteed by the non-cloning theorem.
- Apr 10 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0104039v1We present a realistic purification scheme for pure non-maximally entangled states. In the scheme, Alice and Bob at two distant parties first start with two shared but less entangled photon pairs to produce a conditional four-photon GHZ state, then perform a 45-degree polarization measurement onto one of the two photons at each party such that the remaining two photons are projected onto a maximally entangled state.