results for au:Zhang_W in:quant-ph

- Nov 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.04653v1The quantum coherence (QC) of two comoving atoms in an arbitrary stationary trajectory is investigated. We give a criteria under which QC can be frozen to a nonzero value. For static atoms in thermal bath or not, we find that only in the case of the superradiant or subradiant spontaneous emission rate of atom equaling zero can QC be frozen, which implies that the presence of thermal reservoir does not affect the frozen condition (FC) for atoms at rest. The results may provide a more efficient way to utilize QC in practical quantum technologies.
- Nov 08 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1711.02299v1We investigate the process of spin squeezing in a ferromagnetic dipolar spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate under the driven oneaxis twisting scheme, with emphasis on the detrimental effect of noisy environments (stray magnetic fields) which completely destroy the spin squeezing. By applying concatenated dynamical decoupling pulse sequences with a moderate bias magnetic field to suppress the effect of the noisy environments, we faithfully reconstruct the spin squeezing process under realistic experimental conditions. Our noise-resistant method is ready to be employed to generate the spin squeezed state in a dipolar spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate and paves a feasible way to the Heisenberg-limit quantum metrology
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01752v1In this paper, we proposed an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator(QRNG) with inherent randomness of quantum tunneling effect of electrons. We exploited InGaAs/InP diodes, whose valance band and conduction band shared a quasi-constant energy barrier. We applied a bias voltage on the InGaAs/InP avalanche diode, which made the diode works under Geiger mode, and triggered the tunneling events with a periodic pulse. Finally, after data collection and post-processing, our quantum random number generation rate reached 8Mb/s, and final data was verified by NIST test and Diehard test. Our experiment is characterized as an innovative low-cost, photonic source free, integratable or even chip-achievable method in quantum random number generation.
- Nov 03 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.00766v1Characterizing quantum phase transitions through quantum correlations has been deeply developed for a long time, while the connections between dynamical phase transitions (DPTs) and quantum entanglement is not yet well understood. In this work, we show that the time-averaged two-mode entanglement in the spin space reaches a maximal value when it undergoes a DPT induced by external perturbation in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. We employ the von Neumann entropy and a correlation-based entanglement criterion as entanglement measures and find that both of them can infer the existence of DPT. While the von Neumann entropy works only for a pure state at zero temperature and requires state tomography to reconstruct, the experimentally more feasible correlation-based entanglement criterion acts as an excellent proxy for entropic entanglement and can determine the existence of entanglement for a mixed state at finite temperature, making itself an excellent indicator for DPT. Our work provides a deeper understanding about the connection between DPTs and quantum entanglement, and may allow the detection of DPT via entanglement become accessible as the examined criterion is suitable for measuring entanglement.
- Nov 01 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.11308v1A scheme is presented to optimize the optomechanical cooling of mechanical resonator in instability regime. Based on the stability analysis, we uncovered a distinct bistable effect of photons and phonons, which can be used to realize a strong nonlinear effect even in the single-photon weak coupling regime. Considering the experimental realization, we investigate the sideband cooling in bistable regime with and without quantum nonlinearity. It is shown that the fluctuation of the steady state phonons can be excellently suppressed at a rather low level due to the anti-rotating-wave effect, and it does not require high quality factor of the cavity. Our scheme offers a new perspective for optimizing the sideband cooling of mechanical resonators in the weak coupling regime.
- Oct 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.07951v1Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is an important quantum communication branch, which realizes the secure information transmission directly without encryption and decryption processes. Recently, two table-top experiments have demonstrated the principle of QSDC. Here, we report the first long-distance QSDC experiment, including the security test, information encoding, fiber transmission and decoding. After the fiber transmission of 0.5 km, quantum state fidelities of the two polarization entangled Bell states are 91% and 88%, respectively, which are used for information coding. We theoretically analyze the performance of the QSDC system based on current optical communication technologies, showing that QSDC over fiber links of several tens kilometers could be expected. It demonstrates the potential of long-distance QSDC and supports its future applications on quantum communication networks.
- We present a versatile rf pulse control system that has been designed for multi-qubit quantum experiments. One instrument can be scaled to provide 32 channels of rf between 10 - 450 MHz. Synchronization can be achieved across multiple instruments. By using direct digital synthesis and custom control circuitry contained within a field-programmable gate array, sequences of transform-limited pulses can be produced. These have been used to carry out quantum gates that are able to meet fault-tolerant thresholds for single- and two-qubit gate fidelities, as published elsewhere. We have also extended the frequency to the gigahertz regime using additional mixers to address hyperfine transitions in atomic systems. The system uses an efficient memory management scheme and a low-latency communications protocol that allows pulse sequences to be updated in real-time. Together these can enable outcome-based algorithms such as quantum error correction to be executed. The system is fully programmable in C++, and other languages such as Python can be supported by the on-board CPU, offering a highly flexible platform for a wide variety of experimental systems, and has been proven in trapped-ion quantum information experiments.
- Oct 12 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.03903v1Absolute sensitivity is measured for the phase measurement in an SU(1,1) type interferometer and the results are compared to that of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated under the condition of the same intra-interferometer intensity. The interferometer is phase locked to a point with the largest quantum noise cancellation, and a simulated phase modulation is added in one arm of SU(1,1) interferometer. Both the signal and noise level are estimated at the same frequency range, and we obtain 3dB improvement in sensitivity for the SU(1,1) interferometer over the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our results demonstrate a direct phase estimation, and may pave the way for practical applications of nonlinear interferometer.
- Oct 02 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1709.10331v2In this paper, we derive the exact master equation to investigate the decoherence dynamics of Majorana zero modes in the Kitaev model, a 1D $p\,$-wave spinless topological superconducting chain (TSC), that is disturbed by charge fluctuations through gate controls. The exact master equation is derived by extending Feynman-Vernon influence functional approach to fermionic open systems involving pairing excitations. We obtain the exact master equations for the zero-energy bogoliubon in the TSC, and then transfer it into the master equation for Majorana zero modes. Within this exact master equation formalism, we can describe in detail the non-Markovian decoherence dynamics of zero-energy bogolibons as well as the Majorana zero modes under local perturbations. We find that at zero temperature, there is a zero-energy localized bound state which is not the original zero-energy bogoliubon or the original Majorana zero mode but a localized bound state of Majorana zero mode after the charge fluctuation is taken into account. It is this zero-energy localized bound state that protects Majorana zero modes from decoherence, as a long-time non-Markovain memory effect. However, for the environment at finite temperature, the zero-energy localized bound state cannot be formed when Majorana zero modes are locally perturbed, and decoherence is inevitable.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06755v1Covert communication offers a method to transmit messages in such a way that it is not possible to detect that the communication is happening at all. In this work, we report an experimental demonstration of covert communication that is provably secure against unbounded quantum adversaries. The covert communication is carried out over 10 km of optical fiber, addressing the challenges associated with transmission over metropolitan distances. We deploy the protocol in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing infrastructure, where our system has to coexist with a co-propagating C-band classical channel. The noise from the classical channel allows us to perform covert communication in a neighbouring channel. We perform an optimization of all protocol parameters and report the transmission of three different messages with varying levels of security. Our results showcase the feasibility of secure covert communication in a practical setting, with several possible future improvements from both theory and experiment.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06779v1Quantum mechanics provides means of generating genuine randomness that is impossible with deterministic classical processes. Remarkably, the unpredictability of randomness can be certified in a self-testing manner that is independent of implementation devices. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of self-testing quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. In the randomness analysis, without the assumption of independent identical distribution, we consider the worst case scenario that the adversary launches the most powerful attacks against quantum adversary. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb $\times$ 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than $10^{-5}$. Such self-testing random number generators mark a critical step towards realistic applications in cryptography and fundamental physics tests.
- Sep 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.05882v1A quantum money scheme enables a trusted bank to provide untrusted users with verifiable quantum banknotes that cannot be forged. In this work, we report an experimental demonstration of the preparation and verification of unforgeable quantum banknotes. We employ a security analysis that takes experimental imperfections fully into account. We measure a total of $3.6\times 10^6$ states in one verification round, limiting the forging probability to $10^{-7}$ based on the security analysis. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of preparing and verifying quantum banknotes using currently available experimental techniques.
- Sep 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.01728v1The Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) entangled quantum state is of special importance not only for fundamental research in quantum mechanics, but also for information processing in the field of quantum information. Previous EPR entangled state demonstrations were constructed with photons of equal phase wave fronts. More complex scenarios with structured wave fronts have not been investigated. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR entanglement for photon pairs carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) information, resulting in an OAM embedded EPR entangled state. We measured the dynamics of the dependence of the ghost interference on relative phase under projection. In addition, the reconstructed matrix in the OAM and EPR position momentum spaces shows a specific hyper entanglement in high dimension.
- Jul 21 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1707.06522v1Recent breakthroughs in solid-state photonic quantum technologies enable generating and detecting single photons with near-unity efficiency as required for a range of photonic quantum technologies. The lack of methods to simultaneously generate and control photons within the same chip, however, has formed a main obstacle to achieving efficient multi-qubit gates and to harness the advantages of chip-scale quantum photonics. Here we propose and demonstrate an integrated voltage-controlled phase shifter based on the electro-optic effect in suspended photonic waveguides with embedded quantum emitters. The phase control allows building a compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer with two orthogonal arms, taking advantage of the anisotropic electro-optic response in gallium arsenide. Photons emitted by single self-assembled quantum dots can be actively routed into the two outputs of the interferometer. These results, together with the observed sub-microsecond response time, constitute a significant step towards chip-scale single-photon-source de-multiplexing, fiber-loop boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05449v1In recent decades, a great variety of researches and applications concerning Bell nonlocality have been developed with the advent of quantum information science. Providing that Bell nonlocality can be revealed by the violation of a family of Bell inequalities, finding maximal Bell violation (MBV) for unknown quantum states becomes an important and inevitable task during Bell experiments. In this paper we introduce a self-guide method to find MBVs for unknown states using a stochastic gradient ascent algorithm (SGA), by parameterizing the corresponding Bell operators. For all the investigated systems (2-qubit, 3-qubit and 2-qutrit), this method can ascertain the MBV accurately within 100 iterations. Moreover, SGA exhibits significant superiority in efficiency, robustness and versatility compared to other possible methods.
- Jun 13 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.03313v2We experimentally demonstrate room-temperature storage of quantum entanglement using two nuclear spins weakly coupled to the electronic spin carried by a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. We realize universal quantum gate control over the three-qubit spin system and produce entangled states encoded within the decoherence-free subspace of the two nuclear spins. By injecting arbitrary collective noise, we demonstrate that the decoherence-free entangled state has coherence time longer than that of other entangled states by an order of magnitude in our experiment.
- Jun 07 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1706.01585v1We propose an efficient stepwise adiabatic merging (SAM) method to generate many-body singlet states in antiferromagnetic spin-1 bosons in concatenated optical superlattices with isolated double-well arrays, by adiabatically ramping up the double-well bias. With an appropriate choice of bias sweeping rate and magnetic field, the SAM protocol predicts a fidelity as high as 90% for a sixteen-body singlet state and even higher fidelities for smaller even-body singlet states. During their evolution, the spin-1 bosons exhibit interesting squeezing dynamics, manifested by an odd-even oscillation of the experimentally observable squeezing parameter. The generated many-body singlet states may find practical applications in precision measurement of magnetic field gradient and in quantum information processing.
- Jun 01 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.11036v1We analyze a continuous-time quantum walk on a chimera graph, which is a graph of choice for designing quantum annealers, and we discover beautiful quantum-walk features such as localization that starkly distinguishes classical from quantum behavior. Motivated by technological thrusts, we study continuous-time quantum walks on enhanced variants of the chimera graph and on a diminished chimera graph with a random removal of sites. We explain the quantum walk by constructing a generating set for a suitable subgroup of graph isomorphisms and corresponding symmetry operators that commute with the quantum-walk Hamiltonian; the Hamiltonian and these symmetry operators provide a complete set of labels for the spectrum and the stationary states. Our quantum-walk characterization of the chimera graph and its variants yields valuable insights into graphs used for designing quantum-annealers.
- May 30 2017 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1705.10237v1The high index contrast of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform allows the realization of ultra-compact photonic circuits. However, this high contrast hinders the implementation of narrow-band Bragg filters. These typically require corrugations widths of a few nanometers or double-etch geometries, hampering device fabrication. Here we report, for the first time, on the realization of SOI Bragg filters based on sub-wavelength index engineering in a differential corrugation width configuration. The proposed double periodicity structure allows narrow-band rejection with a single etch step and relaxed width constraints. Based on this concept, we experimentally demonstrate a single-etch, $\mathbf{220\,nm}$ thick, Si Bragg filter featuring a corrugation width of $\mathbf{150\,nm}$, a rejection bandwidth of $\mathbf{1.1\,nm}$ and an extinction ratio exceeding $\mathbf{40\,dB}$. This represents a ten-fold width increase compared to conventional single-periodicity, single-etch counterparts with similar bandwidths.
- May 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.04936v3Cavity optomechanics provides a unique platform for controlling micromechanical systems by means of optical fields that crosses the classical-quantum boundary to achieve solid foundations for quantum technologies. Currently, optomechanical resonators have become promising candidates for the development of precisely controlled nano-motors, ultrasensitive sensors and robust quantum information processors. For all these applications, a crucial requirement is to cool the mechanical resonators down to their quantum ground states. In this paper, we present a novel cooling scheme to further cool a micromechanical resonator via the noise squeezing effect. One quadrature in such a resonator can be squeezed to induce enhanced fluctuation in the other, "heated" quadrature, which can then be used to cool the mechanical motion via conventional optomechanical coupling. Our theoretical analysis and numerical calculations demonstrate that this squeeze-and-cool mechanism offers a quick technique for deeply cooling a macroscopic mechanical resonator to an unprecedented temperature region below the zero-point fluctuations.
- Apr 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.03960v1Realizing long distance entanglement swapping with independent sources in the real-world condition is important for both future quantum network and fundamental study of quantum theory. Currently, demonstration over a few of tens kilometer underground optical fiber has been achieved. However, future applications demand entanglement swapping over longer distance with more complicated environment. We exploit two independent 1-GHz-clock sequential time-bin entangled photon-pair sources, develop several automatic stability controls, and successfully implement a field test of entanglement swapping over more than 100-km optical fiber link including coiled, underground and suspended optical fibers. Our result verifies the feasibility of such technologies for long distance quantum network and for many interesting quantum information experiments.
- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1703.05938v2We construct a decomposition procedure for converting split-step quantum walks into ordinary quantum walks with alternating coins, and we show that this decomposition enables a feasible linear optical realization of split-step quantum walks by eliminating quantum-control requirements. As salient applications, we show how our scheme will simulate Majorana modes and edge states.
- Mar 13 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1703.03704v2Both classical and quantum dynamics of the synchronization between two nonlinear mechanical modes scattered from Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) by the standing-wave laser beam are comparatively investigated. As the ultra-low dissipations of the momentum modes in the atomic BECs, the synchronized dynamics are studied in a framework of closed-system theory in order to track down both the classical and the quantum synchronizations from an angle of quantum control. The classical synchronization and the relevant dynamics of measure synchronization, the quantum synchronization and two different types of measures proposed by Mari and estimated by mutual information based on $Q$-function are studied respectively in order to reveal both the macroscopic and the microscopic signatures of synchronized behaviors in a closed quantum system. The results demonstrate that the "revival and collapse" of the quantum fluctuations beyond the classical mean-value dynamics due to long-lasting mode coherence discriminates the quantum synchronization from the classical one, which not only excludes the possibilities of an exact synchronization and a perfect density overlap in phase space, but also leads to upper limitations to Mari measure and large unceasing fluctuations to mutual information between two scattering modes. We reveal a close dynamic connection between Mari measure and the mutual information of two nonlinear momentum modes in closed BEC systems by demonstrating an opposite mean-value behavior but a similar fluctuation variation with respect to their respective evolutionary scales.
- Mar 06 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.01021v2Quantum digital signatures (QDS) provide a means for signing electronic communications with informationtheoretic security. However, all previous demonstrations of quantum digital signatures assume trusted measurement devices. This renders them vulnerable against detector side-channel attacks, just like quantum key distribution. Here, we exploit a measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum network, over a 200-square-kilometer metropolitan area, to perform a field test of a three-party measurement-device-independent quantum digital signature (MDI-QDS) scheme that is secure against any detector side-channel attack. In so doing, we are able to successfully sign a binary message with a security level of about 1E-7. Remarkably, our work demonstrates the feasibility of MDI-QDS for practical applications.
- Feb 28 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.08131v1The impacts that the environment has on the quantum phase transition of light in the DickeBose-Hubbard model are investigated. Based on the quasibosonic approach, mean field theory and the perturbation theory, the formulation of the Hamiltonian, the eigenenergies and the superfluid order parameter are obtained analytically. Compared with the ideal cases, the order parameter of the system evolves with time as the photons naturally decay in their environment. When the system starts with the superfluid state, the dissipation makes the photons tend to localize, and a greater hopping energy of photon is required to restore the long-range phase coherence of the localized state of the system. Furthermore, the Mott lobes disappears and the system tends to be classical with the number of atoms increasing; however, the atomic number is far lower than that expected under ideal circumstances. Therefore, our theoretical results offer valuable insight into the quantum phase transition of a dissipative system.
- We develop a scheme for deterministic generation of an entangled state between two atoms on different Rydberg states via a chirped adiabatic passage, which directly connects the initial ground and target entangled states and also does not request the normally needed blockade effect. The occupancy of intermediate states suffers from a strong reduction via two pulses with proper time-dependent detunings and the electromagnetically induced transparency condition. By solving the analytical expressions of eigenvalues and eigenstates of a two-atom system, we investigate the optimal parameters for guaranteeing the adiabatic condition. We present a detailed study for the effect of pulse duration, changing rate, different Rydberg interactions on the fidelity of the prepared entangled state with experimentally feasible parameters, which reveals a good agreement between the analytic and full numerical results.
- Strontium optical lattice clocks have the potential to simultaneously interrogate millions of atoms with a high spectroscopic quality factor of $4 \times 10^{-17}$. Previously, atomic interactions have forced a compromise between clock stability, which benefits from a large atom number, and accuracy, which suffers from density-dependent frequency shifts. Here, we demonstrate a scalable solution which takes advantage of the high, correlated density of a degenerate Fermi gas in a three-dimensional optical lattice to guard against on-site interaction shifts. We show that contact interactions are resolved so that their contribution to clock shifts is orders of magnitude lower than in previous experiments. A synchronous clock comparison between two regions of the 3D lattice yields a $5 \times 10^{-19}$ measurement precision in 1 hour of averaging time.
- We study a single quantized vortex in the fermionic component of a mixture of Fermi superfluid and Bose-Einstein condensate. As the density ratio between the boson and the fermion components is tuned, we identify a transition in the vortex-core structure, across which fermions in the vortex core become completely depleted even in the weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer regime. This is accompanied by changes in key properties of the vortex state, as well as by the localization of the Bose-Einstein condensate in the vortex core. The transition in the vortex-core structure can be experimentally probed in Bose-Fermi superfluid mixtures by detecting the size and visibility of the vortices.
- Jan 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.05401v1Based on photon-phonon nonlinear interaction, a scheme is proposed to realize a controllable multi-path photon-phonon converter at single-quantum level in a composed quadratically coupled optomechanical system. Considering the realization of the scheme, an associated mechanical oscillator is introduced to enhance the effective nonlinear effect. Thus, the single-photon state can be converted to the phonon state with high fidelity even under the current experimental condition that the single-photon coupling rate is much smaller than mechanical frequency ($g\ll\omega_m$). The state transfer protocols and their transfer fidelity are discussed both analytically and numerically. A multi-path photon-phonon converter is designed, by combining the optomechanical system with low frequency resonators, which can be controlled by experimentally adjustable parameters. This work provides us a potential platform for quantum state transfer and quantum information processing.
- Jan 13 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.03317v1Multi-photon entangled states play a crucial role in quantum information applications such as secure quantum communication, scalable computation, and high-precision quantum metrology. Quantum memory for entangled states is a key component of quantum repeaters, which are indispensable in realizing quantum communications. Storing a single photon or an entangled photon has been realized through different protocols. However, there has been no report demonstrating whether a multi-photon state can be stored in any physical system or not. Here, we report on the experimental storage of a two-photon NOON state in a cold atomic ensemble. Quantum interference measured before and after storage clearly shows that the properties of the two-photon NOON state are preserved during storage. Our experiment completes the first step towards storing a multi-photon entangled state.
- Jan 13 2017 physics.ins-det quant-ph arXiv:1701.03262v1A highly integrated, high performance, and re-configurable device, which is designed for the Nitrogen-Vacancy center based quantum applications, is reported. The digital compartment of the device is fully implemented in a Field-Programmable-Gate- Array. The digital compartment is designed to manage the multi-function digital waveform generation and the Time-to-Digital-Convertors. The device provides two Arbitrary-Waveform-Generator channels which operate at a 1 Gsps sampling rate with a maximum bandwidth of 500 MHz. There are twelve pulse channels integrated in the device with a 50 ps time resolution in both duration and delay. The pulse channels operate with the 3.3 V Transistor-Transistor logic. The FPGA-based Timeto- Digital-Convertor provides a 23-ps time measurement precision. A data accumulation module, which can record the input count rate and the distributions of the time measurement, is also available. A Digital-to-Analog-Convertor board is implemented as the analog compartment, which converts the digital waveforms to analog signals with 500 MHz low-pass-filters. All the input and output channels of the device are equipped with 50 Sub-Miniature version A termination. The hardware design is modularized thus it can be easily upgraded with compatible components. The device is suitable to be applied in the quantum technologies based on the N-V centers, as well as in other quantum solid state systems, such as quantum dots, phosphorus doped in silicon and defect spins in silicon carbide.
- We discuss the quantum simulation of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states for interacting fermions in quasi-one-dimensional gases of alkaline-earth-like atoms such as $^{173}$Yb. Taking advantage of the separation of orbital and nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in these atoms, we consider Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings in the clock states, which, together with the spin-exchange interactions in the clock-state manifolds, give rise to SPT states for interacting fermions. We numerically investigate the phase diagram of the system, and study the phase transitions between the SPT phase and the symmetry-breaking phases. The interaction-driven topological phase transition can be probed by measuring local density distribution of the topological edge modes.
- Dec 23 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1612.07427v1Improving the precision of measurements is a prime challenge to the scientific community. Quantum metrology provides methods to overcome the standard quantum limit (SQL) of 1/sqrtN and to reach the fundamental Heisenberg-limit (HL) of 1/N. While a lot of theoretical and experimenta works have been dedicated to this task, most of the attempts focused on utilizing NOON and squeezed states, which exhibit unique quantum correlations. Here we present, and experimentally implement, a new scheme for precision measurements that enables reaching the HL. Our scheme is based on a probe in a mixed state with a large uncertainty, combined with a post-selection, such that the Fisher information is maximized, and the Carmer-Rao bound is saturated. We performed a Heisenberg limited measurement of the Kerr non-linearity of a single photon, where an ultra-small Kerr phase of 6 *10^-8$ was observed with an unprecedented precision of 10^-9. Our method paves the way to Heisenberg-limited metrology with only mixed state.
- Dec 15 2016 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1612.04482v1A spatial light modulator (SLM) is one of the most useful and convenient device to generate structural light beams such as twisted light and complexed images used in modern optical science. The unbounded dimension of twisted light makes it promising in harnessing information carrying ability of a single photon, which greatly enhances the channel capacity in optical communications. We perform a detail theoretical study of the birth, evolution and reverse transformation of twisted light generated from a phase-only SLM based on diffraction theory, analytical expressions are obtained to show the special evolution behaviors of the light beam with the propagation distance. Beam intensity distributions calculated theoretically are in well agreement with experimental observations. Our findings clearly reveal how twisted light gradually emerges from a Gaussian spatial shape to a ring shape, and also the ring shape will gradually evolve to a quasi-Gaussian shape conversely, in the reverse transformation. These results will provide guidelines for using SLM in many optical experiments and OAM-mode multiplexing in optical communications.
- Dec 13 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.03170v3Semi-quantum key distribution protocols are allowed to set up a secure secret key between two users. Compared with their full quantum counterparts, one of the two users is restricted to perform some "classical" or "semi-quantum" operations, which makes them easily realizable by using less quantum resource. However, the semi-quantum key distribution protocols mainly rely on a two-way quantum channel. The eavesdropper has two opportunities to intercept the quantum states transmitted in the quantum communication stage. It may allow the eavesdropper to get more information and make the security analysis more complicated. In the past ten years, many semi-quantum key distribution protocols have been proposed and proved to be robust. But there are few works concerned about their unconditional security. It is doubted that how secure the semi-quantum ones are and how much noise can they tolerate to establish a secure secret key. In this paper, we prove the unconditional security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol proposed by $Zou$ et al. in [Phys. Rev. A. 79]. We present a complete proof from information theory aspect by deriving a lower bound of the protocol's key rate in the asymptotic scenario. Using this bound, we figure out an error threshold value such that all error rates are less than this threshold value, the secure secret key can be established between the legitimate users definitely. Otherwise, the users should abort the protocol. we make an illustration of the protocol under the circumstance of the reverse quantum channel is a depolarizing one with parameter $q$. Additionally, we compare the error threshold value with some full quantum protocols and several existing semi-quantum ones whose unconditional security proofs have been provided recently.
- Dec 12 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.03087v4Semi-quantum key distribution (SQKD) can share secret keys by using less quantum resource than its fully quantum counterparts, and this likely makes SQKD become more practical and realizable. In this paper, we present a new SQKD protocol by introducing the idea of B92 into semi-quantum key distribution and prove its unconditional security. In this protocol, the sender Alice just sends one qubit to the classical Bob and Bob just prepares one state in the preparation process. Indeed the classical user's measurement is not necessary either. This protocol can reduce some quantum communication and make it easier to be implemented. It can be seen as the semi-quantum version of B92 protocol, comparing to the protocol BKM2007 as the semi-quantum version of BB84 in fully quantum cryptography. We verify it has higher key rate and therefore is more efficient. Specifically we prove it is unconditionally secure by computing a lower bound of the key rate in the asymptotic scenario from information theory aspect. Then we can find a threshold value of errors such that for all error rates less than this value, the secure key can be established between the legitimate users definitely. We make an illustration of how to compute the threshold value in case of the reverse channel is a depolarizing one with parameter $p$. Though the threshold value is a little smaller than those of some existed SQKD protocols, it can be comparable to the B92 protocol in fully quantum cryptography.
- Dec 12 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.03088v2A broadcasting multiple blind signature scheme based on quantum GHZ entanglement has been presented recently by Tian et al. It is said that the scheme's unconditional security is guaranteed by adopting quantum key preparation, quantum encryption algorithm and quantum entanglement. In this paper, we prove that each signatory can get the signed message just by an intercept-resend attack. Then, we show there still exists some participant attacks and external attacks. Specifically, we verify the message sender Alice can impersonate each signatory to sign the message at will, and so is the signature collector Charlie. Also, we demonstrate that the receiver Bob can forge the signature successfully, and with respect to the external attacks, the eavesdropper Eve can modify the signature at random. Besides, we discover Eve can change the signed message at will, and Eve can impersonate Alice as the message sender without being discovered. In particular, we propose an improved scheme based on the original one and show that it is secure against not only the attacks mentioned above but also some collusion attacks.
- Dec 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.09982v1Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global real-time quantum communication. In such a SC, most of the satellites will work in sunlight. Unfortunately, none of previous ground testing experiments could be implemented at daytime. During daytime, the bright sunlight background prohibits quantum communication in transmission over long distances. In this letter, by choosing a working wavelength of 1550 nm and developing free-space single-mode fibre coupling technology and ultralow noise up-conversion single photon detectors, we overcome the noise due to sunlight and demonstrate a 53-km free space quantum key distribution (QKD) in the daytime through a 48-dB loss channel. Our system not only shows the feasibility of satellite based quantum communication in daylight, but also has the ability to naturally adapt to ground fibre optics, representing an essential step towards a SC-based global quantum network.
- Dec 01 2016 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1611.10135v1A challenge in precision measurement with squeezed spin state arises from the spin dephasing due to stray magnetic fields. To suppress such environmental noises, we employ a continuous driving protocol, rotary echo, to enhance the spin coherence of a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in stray magnetic fields. Our analytical and numerical results show that the coherent and the squeezed spin states are preserved for a significantly long time, compared to the free induction decay time, if the condition $h\tau = m\pi$ is met with $h$ the pulse amplitude and $\tau$ pulse width. In particular, both the spin average and the spin squeezing, including the direction and the amplitude, are simultaneously fixed for a squeezed spin state. Our results point out a practical way to implement quantum measurements based on a spin-1 condensate beyond the standard quantum limit.
- Nov 30 2016 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1611.09617v1Based on the spin-orbit coupling recently implemented in a neutral cold-atom gas, we propose a scheme to realize spin-dependent scattering of cold atoms. In particular we consider a matter wave packet of cold-atom gas impinging upon a step potential created by the optical light field, inside of which the atoms are subject to spin-orbit interaction. We show that the proposed system can act as a spin polarizer or spin-selective atom mirror for the incident atomic beam. The principle and the operating parameter regime of the system are carefully discussed.
- Nov 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.06749v1The realization of cross-Kerr nonlinearity is an important task for many applications in quantum information processing. In this work, we propose a method for realizing cross-Kerr nonlinearity interaction between two superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators coupled by a three-level superconducting flux qutrit (coupler). By employing the qutrit-resonator dispersive interaction, we derive an effective Hamiltonian involving two-photon number operators and a coupler operator. This Hamiltonian can be used to describe a cross-Kerr nonlinearity interaction between two resonators when the coupler is in the ground state. Because the coupler is unexcited during the entire process, the effect of coupler decoherence can be greatly minimized. More importantly, compared with the previous proposals, our proposal does not require classical pulses. Furthermore, due to use of only a three-level qutrit, the experimental setup is much simplified when compared with previous proposals requiring a four-level artificial atomic systems. Based on our Hamiltonian, we implement a two-resonator qubits controlled-phase gate and generate a two-resonator entangled coherent state. Numerical simulation shows that the high-fidelity implementation of the phase gate and creation of the entangled coherent state are feasible with current circuit QED technology.
- Oct 19 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.05389v1A scheme of single-photon multi-port router is put forward by coupling two optomechanical cavities with waveguides. It is shown that the coupled two optomechanical cavities can exhibit photon blockade effect, which is generated from interference of three mode interaction. A single-photon travel along the system is calculated. The results show that the single photon can be controlled in the multi-port system because of the radiation pressure, which should be useful for constructing quantum network.
- Oct 14 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.03919v1We investigate the decoherence dynamics of continuous variable entanglement as the system-environment coupling strength varies from the weak-coupling to the strong-coupling regimes. Due to the existence of localized modes in the strong-coupling regime, the system cannot approach equilibrium with its environment, which induces a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition. We analytically solve the entanglement decoherence dynamics for an arbitrary spectral density. The nonequilibrium quantum phase transition is demonstrated as the system-environment coupling strength varies for all the Ohmic-type spectral densities. The 3-D entanglement quantum phase diagram is obtained.
- Oct 07 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.01764v2We propose a realization of a quantum heat engine in a hybrid microwave-optomechanical system that is the analog of a classical straight-twin engine. It exploits a pair of polariton modes that operate as out-of-phase quantum Otto cycles. A third polariton mode that is essential in the coupling of the optical and microwave fields is maintained in a quasi-dark mode to suppress disturbances from the mechanical noise. We also find that the fluctuations in the contributions to the total work from the two polariton modes are characterized by quantum correlations that generally lead to a reduction in the extractable work compared to its classical version.
- Sep 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.09184v2Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this paper, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We used the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding was verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.
- Sep 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.06437v1We experimentally demonstrate a robust dynamical decoupling protocol with bounded controls using long soft pulses, eliminating a challenging requirement of strong control pulses in conventional implementations. This protocol is accomplished by designing the decoupling propagators to go through a Eulerian cycle of the coupler group [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 037901(2003)]. We demonstrate that this Eulerian decoupling scheme increases the coherence time by two orders of magnitude in our experiment under either dephasing or a universal noise environment.
- Sep 20 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.05491v3The optomechanical force sensor in non-Markovian environment for a mechanical oscillator is presented. By performing homodyne detection we obtain an generally expression for the output signal. It is shown that the weak force detection is sensitive to the non-Markovian environment. The additional noise can be obviously reduced comparing to the Markovian condition. Moreover, the optimal additional noise can be maintained in a rather low level without using assistant system or squeezing under available experimental condition in unsolved sideband regime. Our results provides a promising platform for reducing the additional noise by using engineered non-Markovian reservoir in ultrasensitive detection.
- Sep 13 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.03141v1We observe spin squeezing in three-component Bose gases where all three hyperfine states are coupled by synthetic spin-orbit coupling. This phenomenon is a direct consequence of spin-orbit coupling, as can be seen clearly from an effective spin Hamiltonian. By solving this effective model analytically with the aid of a Holstein-Primakoff transformation for spin-1 system in the low excitation limit, we conclude that the spin-nematic squeezing, a novel category of spin squeezing existing exclusively in large spin systems, is enhanced with increasing spin-orbit intensity and effective Zeeman field, which correspond to Rabi frequency and two-photon detuning within the Raman scheme for synthetic spin-orbit coupling, respectively. These trends of dependence are in clear contrast to spin-orbit coupling induced spin squeezing in spin-1/2 systems. We also analyze the effects of harmonic trap and interaction with realistic experimental parameters numerically, and find that a strong harmonic trap favors spin-nematic squeezing. We further show spin-nematic squeezing can be interpreted as two-mode entanglement or two-spin squeezing at low excitation. Our findings can be observed in ^87Rb gases with existing techniques of synthetic spin-orbit coupling and spin-selectively imaging.
- Sep 13 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.03308v1We theoretically derive the lower and upper bounds of quantum Fisher information (QFI) of an SU(1,1) interferometer whatever the input state chosen. According to the QFI, the crucial resource for quantum enhancement is shown to be large intramode correlations indicated by the Mandel $Q$-parameter. For a photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum state with high super-Poissonian statistics in one input port and a coherent state in the other input port, the quantum Cramér-Rao bound of the SU(1,1) interferometer can beat $1/\langle\hat{N}\rangle$ scaling in presence of large fluctuations in the number of photons, with a given fixed input mean number of photons. The definition of the Heisenberg limit (HL) should take into account the amount of fluctuations. The HL considering the number fluctuation effect may be the ultimate phase limit.
- Sep 05 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1609.00521v2We report an efficient energy-time entangled photon-pair source based on four-wave mixing in a CMOS-compatible silicon photonics ring resonator. Thanks to suitable optimization, the source shows a large spectral brightness of 400\u2009pairs of entangled photons /s/MHz for $\rm 500\,\mu W$ pump power. Additionally, the resonator has been engineered so as to generate a frequency comb structure compatible with standard telecom dense wavelength division multiplexers. We demonstrate high-purity energy-time entanglement, i.e., free of photonic noise, with near perfect raw visibilities ($>$~98\%) between various channel pairs in the telecom C-band. Such a compact source stands as a path towards more complex quantum photonic circuits dedicated to quantum communication systems.
- The fast development of superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) in the past decade has enabled many advances in quantum information technology. The best system detection efficiency (SDE) record at 1550 nm wavelength was 93% obtained from SNSPD made of amorphous WSi which usually operated at sub-kelvin temperatures. We first demonstrate SNSPD made of polycrystalline NbN with SDE of 90.2% for 1550 nm wavelength at 2.1K, accessible with a compact cryocooler. The SDE saturated to 92.1% when the temperature was lowered to 1.8K. The results lighten the practical and high performance SNSPD to quantum information and other high-end applications.
- Aug 16 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.04215v2The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement is of special importance not only for fundamental research in quantum mechanics, but also for quantum information processing. Quantum storage of EPR entanglement in physical systems, such as atomic ensembles, nitrogen-vacancy centers, and rare-earth-ion-doped solids is promising in realizing spatial-multimode based quantum communication, quantum computation, and quantum imaging. To date, there have been few reports on realizing storage of EPR entanglement in true position and momentum. Here we describe successfully achieving the quantum storage of such entanglements in two separated atomic ensembles. We clearly prove the existence of EPR entanglement in position and momentum after storage by demonstrating the violation of the separability criterion with the aid of quantum ghost-imaging and ghost-interference experiments.
- Aug 09 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.02108v1In this paper, we report an experiment about the device-independent tests of classical and quantum entropy based on a recent proposal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 110501 (2015)], in which the states are encoded on the polarization of a biphoton system and measured by the state tomography technology. We also theoretically obtained the minimal quantum entropy for three widely used linear dimension witnesses. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis, demonstrating that lower entropy is needed in quantum systems than that in classical systems under given values of the dimension witness.
- Aug 04 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.01086v1Quantum digital signature (QDS) is an approach to guarantee the nonrepudiation, unforgeability and transferability of a signature with the information-theoretical security. All previous experimental realizations of QDS relied on an unrealistic assumption of secure channels and the longest distance is only several kilometers. Here, we have experimentally demonstrated a recently proposed QDS protocol without any secure channel. Exploiting the decoy state modulation, we have successfully signed one bit message through up to 102 km optical fiber. Furthermore, we continuously run the system to sign the longer message "USTC" with 32 bit at the distance of 51 km. Our results pave the way towards the practical application of QDS.
- Aug 02 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.00389v2We theoretically present the quantum Cramér-Rao bounds (QCRB) of an SU(1,1) interferometer for Gaussian states input with and without the internal photonic losses. The phase shifts in the single arm and in the double arms are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of quantum Fisher information with Gaussian input states are presented. Different from the traditional Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the QCRB of single arm case is slightly higher or lower than that of double arms case depending on the input states. With a fixed mean photon number and for pure Gaussian state input, the optimal sensitivity is achieved with a squeezed vacuum input in one mode and the vacuum input in the other. We compare the QCRB with the standard quantum limit and Heisenberg limit. In the case of small internal losses the QCRB can beat the standard quantum limit.
- We investigate the magnetic properties of the ground state of the repulsive fermionic SU($3$) Hubbard model on the Lieb lattice from weak to strong interactions, by means of mean-field approximation. To see how well the mean-field method works, we first study the magnetic properties of the ground state of SU($2$) Hubbard model at the mean-field level, and find that our results are consistent with known rigorous theorems. We then extend the mean-field calculation for Hubbard model with SU($3$) symmetry. We find that, at $4/9$ filling, SU$(3)$ symmetry spontaneously breaks into SU$(2)\times$U$(1)$ symmetry in the ground state, resulting in a staggered ferromagnetic state for any $U$ at zero temperature. At finite temperature, the long-range order is absent by Mermin-Wagner theorem. However, the quasi long-range magnetic order may exist. Our mean-field calculation estimate the quasi long-range order is destroyed by thermal fluctuation, but it can persist up to a finite temperature. These results are relevant to current experiments with fermionic alkaline-earth (-like) atoms loaded into optical lattice, and could be observed in experiments.
- Jul 27 2016 quant-ph physics.atom-ph arXiv:1607.07689v1Optical fields with orbital angular momentum (OAM) interact with medium have many remarkable properties with its unique azimuthal phase, showing many potential applications in high capacity information processing, high precision measurement etc. The dephasing mechanics of optical fields with OAM in an interface between light and matter plays a vital role in many areas of physics. In this work, we study the transverse azimuthal dephasing of OAM spin wave in a hot atomic gas via OAM storage. The transverse azimuthal phase difference between the control and probe beams is mapped onto the spin wave, which essentially results in dephasing of atomic spin wave. The dephasing of OAM spin wave can be controlled by the parameters of OAM topological charge and beam waist. Our results are helpful for studying OAM light interaction with matter, maybe hold a promise in OAM-based quantum information processing.
- Jul 18 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.04380v1Single-photon stimulated four wave mixing (StFWM) processes have great potential for photonic quantum information processing, compatible with optical communication technologies and integrated optoelectronics. In this paper, we demonstrate single-photon StFWM process in a piece of optical fiber, with seeded photons generated by spontaneous four wave mixing process (SpFWM). The effect of the single-photon StFWM is confirmed by time-resolved four-photon coincidence measurement and variation of four-photon coincidence counts under different seed-pump delays. According to the experiment results, the potential performance of quantum cloning machine based on the process is analyzed.
- Jul 12 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1607.02934v1We demonstrate how dispersive atom number measurements during evaporative cooling can be used for enhanced determination of the non-linear parameter dependence of the transition to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Our analysis demonstrates that conventional averaging of shot-to-shot fluctuations introduces systematic errors and reduces precision in comparison with our method. We furthermore compare in-situ images from dispersive probing of a BEC with corresponding absorption images in time-of-flight. This allows for the determination of the transition point in a single experimental realization by applying multiple dispersive measurements. Finally, we explore the continuous probing of several consecutive phase transition crossings using the periodic addition of a focused "dimple" potential.
- Jul 04 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.00119v2Hybrid quantum systems can often be described in terms of polaritons. These are quasiparticles formed of superpositions of their constituents, with relative weights depending on some control parameter in their interaction. In many cases, these constituents are coupled to reservoirs at different temperatures. This suggests a general approach to the realization of polaritonic heat engines where a thermodynamic cycle is realized by tuning this control parameter. Here we discuss what is arguably the simplest such engine, a single qubit coupled to a single photon. We show that this system can extract work from feeble thermal microwave fields. We also propose a quantum measurement scheme of the work and evaluate its back-action on the operation of the engine.
- Jun 27 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.07503v1Teleportation of an entangled state, known as entanglement swapping, plays an essential role in quantum communication and network.Here we report a field-test entanglement swapping experiment with two independent telecommunication band entangled photon-pair sources over the optical fibre network of Hefei city. The two sources are located at two nodes 12 km apart and the Bell-state measurement is performed in a third location which is connected to the two source nodes with 14.7 km and 10.6 km optical fibres. An average visibility of 79.9+/-4.8% is observed in our experiment, which is high enough to infer a violation of Bell inequality. With the entanglement swapping setup, we demonstrate a source independent quantum key distribution, which is also immune to any attack against detection in the measurement site.
- Jun 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.06821v1Quantum key distribution (QKD) can provide unconditional secure communication between two distant parties. Although the significance of QKD is undisputed, its feasibility has been questioned because of certain limitations in the practical application of real-life QKD systems. It is a common belief the lack of perfect single-photon source and the existence of detection loss will handicap the feasibility of QKD by creating security loopholes and distance limitations. The measurement device independent QKD (MDIQKD) with decoy-state method removes the security threats from both the imperfect single-photon source and the detection loss. Lengthening the distance and improving the key rate of QKD with such a superior method is thus the central issue in the practical application of QKD. Here, we report the results of MDIQKD over 404 km of ultralow-loss optical fibre and 311 km of standard optical fibre by employing an optimized four-intensity decoy-state method. This record-breaking implementation of MDIQKD method not only provides a new distance record for both MDIQKD and all types of QKD systems, more significantly, it achieves a distance that the traditional BB84 QKD would not be able to achieve with the same detection devices even with ideal single-phone sources. For the first time, our work demonstrates that with the MDIQKD method, imperfect devices can achieve better results than what ideal sources could have achieved. This work represents a significant step towards proving and developing a feasible long-distance QKD.
- Jun 17 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.05149v1We study the resonance interaction between two quantum electric dipoles immersed in optically active surroundings. Quantum electrodynamics is employed to deal with dipole-vacuum interaction. Our results show that the optical activity of surroundings will not change the single atom behaviors while it can change the collective behaviors of the two dipoles, as well as greatly affect the dipole-dipole resonance interaction. Especially, if the orientations of two dipoles are orthogonal and respectively perpendicular to the interdipole axis, the interdipole resonance interaction can be established with the help of optically active surroundings while there is no resonance interaction in vacuum.
- Jun 09 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.02397v1We investigate the transient dynamics of photon statistics through two-time correlation functions for optical fields. We find that the transient correlations at different time t yield a smooth transition from antibunching to bunching photon statistics in the weak system-environment coupling regime. In the strong-coupling regime, the two-time correlations exhibit bunching-antibunching oscillations that persists both in the transient process and in the steady-state limit. The photon bunching-antibunching oscillations is a manifestation of strong non-Markovian dynamics, where the system remains in nonequilibrium from its environment. We also find that the antibunching to bunching transition in the weak-coupling regime and the bunching-antibunching oscillation in the strong-coupling regime are strongly influenced by the initial environment temperature.
- Jun 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.09536v1Standard weak measurement (SWM) has been proved to be a useful ingredient for measuring small longitudinal phase shifts. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033604 (2013)]. In this letter, we show that with specfic pre-coupling and postselection, destructive interference can be observed for the two conjugated variables, i.e. time and frequency, of the meter state. Using a broad band source, this conjugated destructive interference (CDI) can be observed in a regime approximately 1 attosecond, while the related spectral shift reaches hundreds of THz. This extreme sensitivity can be used to detect tiny longitudinal phase perturbation. Combined with a frequency-domain analysis, conjugated destructive interference weak measurement (CDIWM) is proved to outperform SWM by two orders of magnitude.
- May 31 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1605.09097v1Entanglement is a vital resource for realizing many tasks such as teleportation, secure key distribution, metrology and quantum computations. To effectively build entanglement between different quantum systems and share information between them, a frequency transducer to convert between quantum states of different wavelengths while retaining its quantum features is indispensable. Information encoded in the photons orbital angular momentum OAM degrees of freedom is preferred in harnessing the information carrying capacity of a single photon because of its unlimited dimensions. A quantum transducer, which operates at wavelengths from 1558.3 nm to 525 nm for OAM qubits, OAMpolarization hybrid entangled states, and OAM entangled states, is reported for the first time. Nonclassical properties and entanglements are demonstrated following the conversion process by performing quantum tomography, interference, and Bell inequality measurements. Our results demonstrate the capability to create an entanglement link between different quantum systems operating in photons OAM degrees of freedoms, which will be of great importance in building a high capacity OAM quantum network.
- May 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.08521v2We show that the exact master equation incorporating initial correlations for open quantum systems, within the Nakajima-Zwanzig operator-projection method, is a homegenous master equation for the reduced density matrix. We also derive explicitly the exact master equation for a large class of bosonic and fermionic open quantum systems incorporating initial correlations, the resulting master equation is homogenous. We find that the effects of the initial correlations can be fully embedded into the fluctuation dynamics through the exact homogenous master equation. Also a generalized nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem incorporating the initial correlations is obtained.
- May 25 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1605.07539v2Cat states are coherent quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states and are useful for understanding the boundary between the classical and the quantum world. Due to their macroscopic nature, cat states are difficult to prepare in physical systems. We propose a method to create cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states of the walker. Since the quantum walks can be performed on any quantum system, our proposal enables a platform-independent realization of the cat states. We further show that the linear dispersion relation of the effective quantum walk Hamiltonian, which governs the dynamics of the delocalized states, is responsible for the formation of the cat states. We analyze the robustness of these states against environmental interactions and present methods to control and manipulate the cat states in the photonic implementation of quantum walks.
- May 25 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1605.07257v2Fundamentally, the dynamics of micro-macro transitions is instrumental to understanding the process of quantum-to-classical transitions; technologically, it can also facilitate the detection of the microscopic signals in quantum experiments via convenient detectors. Here, we demonstrate a scheme to characterize micro-macro transitions based on a four-wave mixing linear optical amplification process in a hot rubidium vapor. The linear optical amplifier provides a large optical gain of $10^7$ for injected single-photon-level pulses, enabling photon-number-resolving detection by average via non-single-photon counting detectors with a large dynamic range. The scheme exhibits strong dispersion which is sensitive to the input's change at the single-photon level, resulting in the group-velocity delay time scaling with $1/\sqrt{N}$, where $N$ is the average input photon number. The output probe and conjugate modes have different coefficients of this $1/\sqrt{N}$ scaling, indicating the coefficient can serve as an efficient parameter to characterize the specified micro-macro transitions. The demonstrated results are generally applicable for quantum detection and optical signal processing in light-atom interfaces. Furthermore, the present system is suitable for the study of relevant time-resolved dynamics of the quantum-to-classical transitions.
- May 16 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.04030v1Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means--quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information, in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004)] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by Fawzi, Hayde, and Sen [J. ACM. 60, 44 (2013)]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.