results for au:Yard_J in:quant-ph

- Jan 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.05200v1We give an overview of some remarkable connections between symmetric informationally complete measurements (SIC-POVMs, or SICs) and algebraic number theory, in particular, a connection with Hilbert's 12th problem. The paper is meant to be intelligible to a physicist who has no prior knowledge of either Galois theory or algebraic number theory.
- Let K be a real quadratic field. For certain K with sufficiently small discriminant we produce explicit unit generators for specific ray class fields of K using a numerical method that arose in the study of complete sets of equiangular lines in $\mathbb{C}^d$ (known in quantum information as symmetric informationally complete measurements or SICs). The construction in low dimensions suggests a general recipe for producing unit generators in infinite towers of ray class fields above arbitrary K and we summarise this in a conjecture. Such explicit generators are notoriously difficult to find, so this recipe may be of some interest. In a forthcoming paper we shall publish promising results of numerical comparisons between the logarithms of these canonical units and the values of L-functions associated to the extensions, following the programme laid out in the Stark Conjectures.
- Oct 15 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.03888v1We present an algorithm for efficiently approximating of qubit unitaries over gate sets derived from totally definite quaternion algebras. It achieves $\varepsilon$-approximations using circuits of length $O(\log(1/\varepsilon))$, which is asymptotically optimal. The algorithm achieves the same quality of approximation as previously-known algorithms for Clifford+T [arXiv:1212.6253], V-basis [arXiv:1303.1411] and Clifford+$\pi/12$ [arXiv:1409.3552], running on average in time polynomial in $O(\log(1/\varepsilon))$ (conditional on a number-theoretic conjecture). Ours is the first such algorithm that works for a wide range of gate sets and provides insight into what should constitute a "good" gate set for a fault-tolerant quantum computer.
- Exact synthesis is a tool used in algorithms for approximating an arbitrary qubit unitary with a sequence of quantum gates from some finite set. These approximation algorithms find asymptotically optimal approximations in probabilistic polynomial time, in some cases even finding the optimal solution in probabilistic polynomial time given access to an oracle for factoring integers. In this paper, we present a common mathematical structure underlying all results related to the exact synthesis of qubit unitaries known to date, including Clifford+T, Clifford-cyclotomic and V-basis gate sets, as well as gates sets induced by the braiding of Fibonacci anyons in topological quantum computing. The framework presented here also provides a means to answer questions related to the exact synthesis of unitaries for wide classes of other gate sets, such as Clifford+T+V and SU(2) level k anyons.
- The same bulk two-dimensional topological phase can have multiple distinct, fully-chiral edge phases. We show that this can occur in the integer quantum Hall states at $\nu=8$ and 12, with experimentally-testable consequences. We show that this can occur in Abelian fractional quantum Hall states as well, with the simplest examples being at $\nu=8/7, 12/11, 8/15, 16/5$. We give a general criterion for the existence of multiple distinct chiral edge phases for the same bulk phase and discuss experimental consequences. Edge phases correspond to lattices while bulk phases correspond to genera of lattices. Since there are typically multiple lattices in a genus, the bulk-edge correspondence is typically one-to-many; there are usually many stable fully chiral edge phases corresponding to the same bulk. We explain these correspondences using the theory of integral quadratic forms. We show that fermionic systems can have edge phases with only bosonic low-energy excitations and discuss a fermionic generalization of the relation between bulk topological spins and the central charge. The latter follows from our demonstration that every fermionic topological phase can be represented as a bosonic topological phase, together with some number of filled Landau levels. Our analysis shows that every Abelian topological phase can be decomposed into a tensor product of theories associated with prime numbers $p$ in which every quasiparticle has a topological spin that is a $p^n$-th root of unity for some $n$. It also leads to a simple demonstration that all Abelian topological phases can be represented by $U(1)^N$ Chern-Simons theory parameterized by a K-matrix.
- As with classical information, error-correcting codes enable reliable transmission of quantum information through noisy or lossy channels. In contrast to the classical theory, imperfect quantum channels exhibit a strong kind of synergy: there exist pairs of discrete memoryless quantum channels, each of zero quantum capacity, which acquire positive quantum capacity when used together. Here we show that this "superactivation" phenomenon also occurs in the more realistic setting of optical channels with attenuation and Gaussian noise. This paves the way for its experimental realization and application in real-world communications systems.
- We present a quasipolynomial-time algorithm for solving the weak membership problem for the convex set of separable, i.e. non-entangled, bipartite density matrices. The algorithm decides whether a density matrix is separable or whether it is eps-away from the set of the separable states in time exp(O(eps^-2 log |A| log |B|)), where |A| and |B| are the local dimensions, and the distance is measured with either the Euclidean norm, or with the so-called LOCC norm. The latter is an operationally motivated norm giving the optimal probability of distinguishing two bipartite quantum states, each shared by two parties, using any protocol formed by quantum local operations and classical communication (LOCC) between the parties. We also obtain improved algorithms for optimizing over the set of separable states and for computing the ground-state energy of mean-field Hamiltonians. The techniques we develop are also applied to quantum Merlin-Arthur games, where we show that multiple provers are not more powerful than a single prover when the verifier is restricted to LOCC protocols, or when the verification procedure is formed by a measurement of small Euclidean norm. This answers a question posed by Aaronson et al (Theory of Computing 5, 1, 2009) and provides two new characterizations of the complexity class QMA, a quantum analog of NP. Our algorithm uses semidefinite programming to search for a symmetric extension, as first proposed by Doherty, Parrilo and Spedialieri (Phys. Rev. A, 69, 022308, 2004). The bound on the runtime follows from an improved de Finetti-type bound quantifying the monogamy of quantum entanglement, proved in (arXiv:1010.1750). This result, in turn, follows from a new lower bound on the quantum conditional mutual information and the entanglement measure squashed entanglement.
- Oct 11 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1010.1750v5Squashed entanglement is a measure for the entanglement of bipartite quantum states. In this paper we present a lower bound for squashed entanglement in terms of a distance to the set of separable states. This implies that squashed entanglement is faithful, that is, strictly positive if and only if the state is entangled. We derive the bound on squashed entanglement from a bound on quantum conditional mutual information, which is used to define squashed entanglement and corresponds to the amount by which strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy fails to be saturated. Our result therefore sheds light on the structure of states that almost satisfy strong subadditivity with equality. The proof is based on two recent results from quantum information theory: the operational interpretation of the quantum mutual information as the optimal rate for state redistribution and the interpretation of the regularised relative entropy of entanglement as an error exponent in hypothesis testing. The distance to the set of separable states is measured by the one-way LOCC norm, an operationally-motivated norm giving the optimal probability of distinguishing two bipartite quantum states, each shared by two parties, using any protocol formed by local quantum operations and one-directional classical communication between the parties. A similar result for the Frobenius or Euclidean norm follows immediately. The result has two applications in complexity theory. The first is a quasipolynomial-time algorithm solving the weak membership problem for the set of separable states in one-way LOCC or Euclidean norm. The second concerns quantum Merlin-Arthur games. Here we show that multiple provers are not more powerful than a single prover when the verifier is restricted to one-way LOCC operations thereby providing a new characterisation of the complexity class QMA.
- Jul 31 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0807.4935v2Communication over a noisy quantum channel introduces errors in the transmission that must be corrected. A fundamental bound on quantum error correction is the quantum capacity, which quantifies the amount of quantum data that can be protected. We show theoretically that two quantum channels, each with a transmission capacity of zero, can have a nonzero capacity when used together. This unveils a rich structure in the theory of quantum communications, implying that the quantum capacity does not uniquely specify a channel's ability for transmitting quantum information.
- Jun 21 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0706.2907v1Consider many instances of an arbitrary quadripartite pure state of four quantum systems ACBR. Alice holds the AC part of each state, Bob holds B, while R represents all other parties correlated with ACB. Alice is required to redistribute the C systems to Bob while asymptotically retaining the purity of the global states. We prove that this is possible using Q qubits of communication and E ebits of shared entanglement between Alice and Bob provided that Q < I(R;C|B)/2 and Q + E < H(C|B). This matches the outer bound for this problem given in quant-ph/0611008. The optimal qubit rate provides the first known operational interpretation of quantum conditional mutual information. We also show how our protocol leads to a fully operational proof of strong subaddivity and uncover a general organizing principle, in analogy to thermodynamics, which underlies the optimal rates.
- We give a short proof that the coherent information is an achievable rate for the transmission of quantum information through a noisy quantum channel. Our method is to produce random codes by performing a unitarily covariant projective measurement on a typical subspace of a tensor power state. We show that, provided the rank of each measurement operator is sufficiently small, the transmitted data will with high probability be decoupled from the channel's environment. We also show that our construction leads to random codes whose average input is close to a product state and outline a modification yielding unitarily invariant ensembles of maximally entangled codes.
- Dec 18 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0612126v2We analyze a quantum mechanical gyroscope which is modeled as a large spin and used as a reference against which to measure the angular momenta of spin-1/2 particles. These measurements induce a back-action on the reference which is the central focus of our study. We begin by deriving explicit expressions for the quantum channel representing the back-action. Then, we analyze the dynamics incurred by the reference when it is used to sequentially measure particles drawn from a fixed ensemble. We prove that the reference thermalizes with the measured particles and find that generically, the thermal state is reached in time which scales linearly with the size of the reference. This contrasts a recent conclusion of Bartlett et al. that this takes a quadratic amount of time when the particles are completely unpolarized. We now understand their result in terms of a simple physical principle based on symmetries and conservation laws. Finally, we initiate the study of the non-equilibrium dynamics of the reference. Here we find that a reference in a coherent state will essentially remain in one when measuring polarized particles, while rotating itself to ultimately align with the polarization of the particles.
- Dec 08 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0612050v1With a statistical view towards information and noise, information theory derives ultimate limitations on information processing tasks. These limits are generally expressed in terms of entropic measures of information and correlations. Here we answer the quantum information-theoretic question: ``How correlated are two quantum systems from the perspective of a third?" by solving the following `quantum state redistribution' problem. Given an arbitrary quantum state of three systems, where Alice holds two and Bob holds one, what is the cost, in terms of quantum communication and entanglement, for Alice to give one of her parts to Bob? The communication cost gives the first operational interpretation to quantum conditional mutual information. The optimal procedure is self-dual under time reversal and is perfectly composable. This generalizes known protocols such as the state merging and fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocols, from which almost every known protocol in quantum Shannon theory can be derived.
- We consider quantum channels with one sender and two receivers, used in several different ways for the simultaneous transmission of independent messages. We begin by extending the technique of superposition coding to quantum channels with a classical input to give a general achievable region. We also give outer bounds to the capacity regions for various special cases from the classical literature and prove that superposition coding is optimal for a class of channels. We then consider extensions of superposition coding for channels with a quantum input, where some of the messages transmitted are quantum instead of classical, in the sense that the parties establish bipartite or tripartite GHZ entanglement. We conclude by using state merging to give achievable rates for establishing bipartite entanglement between different pairs of parties with the assistance of free classical communication.
- We analyze relationships between quantum computation and a family of generalizations of the Jones polynomial. Extending recent work by Aharonov et al., we give efficient quantum circuits for implementing the unitary Jones-Wenzl representations of the braid group. We use these to provide new quantum algorithms for approximately evaluating a family of specializations of the HOMFLYPT two-variable polynomial of trace closures of braids. We also give algorithms for approximating the Jones polynomial of a general class of closures of braids at roots of unity. Next we provide a self-contained proof of a result of Freedman et al. that any quantum computation can be replaced by an additive approximation of the Jones polynomial, evaluated at almost any primitive root of unity. Our proof encodes two-qubit unitaries into the rectangular representation of the eight-strand braid group. We then give QCMA-complete and PSPACE-complete problems which are based on braids. We conclude with direct proofs that evaluating the Jones polynomial of the plat closure at most primitive roots of unity is a #P-hard problem, while learning its most significant bit is PP-hard, circumventing the usual route through the Tutte polynomial and graph coloring.
- We consider quantum channels with two senders and one receiver. For an arbitrary such channel, we give multi-letter characterizations of two different two-dimensional capacity regions. The first region characterizes the rates at which it is possible for one sender to send classical information while the other sends quantum information. The second region gives the rates at which each sender can send quantum information. We give an example of a channel for which each region has a single-letter description, concluding with a characterization of the rates at which each user can simultaneously send classical and quantum information.
- Jun 07 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0506050v1The rates at which classical and quantum information can be simultaneously transmitted from two spatially separated senders to a single receiver over an arbitrary quantum channel are characterized. Two main results are proved in detail. The first describes the region of rates at which one sender can send classical information while the other sends quantum information. The second describes those rates at which both senders can send quantum information. For each of these situations, an example of a channel is given for which the associated region admits a single-letter description. This is the author's Ph.D. dissertation, submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University in March, 2005. It represents an expanded version of the paper quant-ph/0501045, containing a number of tutorial chapters which may be of independent interest for those learning about quantum Shannon theory.
- Jan 12 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0501045v3We consider quantum channels with two senders and one receiver. For an arbitrary such channel, we give multi-letter characterizations of two different two-dimensional capacity regions. The first region is comprised of the rates at which it is possible for one sender to send classical information, while the other sends quantum information. The second region consists of the rates at which each sender can send quantum information. For each region, we give an example of a channel for which the corresponding region has a single-letter description. One of our examples relies on a new result proved here, perhaps of independent interest, stating that the coherent information over any degradable channel is concave in the input density operator. We conclude with connections to other work and a discussion on generalizations where each user simultaneously sends classical and quantum information.