results for au:Yard_J in:math

- Let K be a real quadratic field. For certain K with sufficiently small discriminant we produce explicit unit generators for specific ray class fields of K using a numerical method that arose in the study of complete sets of equiangular lines in $\mathbb{C}^d$ (known in quantum information as symmetric informationally complete measurements or SICs). The construction in low dimensions suggests a general recipe for producing unit generators in infinite towers of ray class fields above arbitrary K and we summarise this in a conjecture. Such explicit generators are notoriously difficult to find, so this recipe may be of some interest. In a forthcoming paper we shall publish promising results of numerical comparisons between the logarithms of these canonical units and the values of L-functions associated to the extensions, following the programme laid out in the Stark Conjectures.
- As with classical information, error-correcting codes enable reliable transmission of quantum information through noisy or lossy channels. In contrast to the classical theory, imperfect quantum channels exhibit a strong kind of synergy: there exist pairs of discrete memoryless quantum channels, each of zero quantum capacity, which acquire positive quantum capacity when used together. Here we show that this "superactivation" phenomenon also occurs in the more realistic setting of optical channels with attenuation and Gaussian noise. This paves the way for its experimental realization and application in real-world communications systems.
- We give a short proof that the coherent information is an achievable rate for the transmission of quantum information through a noisy quantum channel. Our method is to produce random codes by performing a unitarily covariant projective measurement on a typical subspace of a tensor power state. We show that, provided the rank of each measurement operator is sufficiently small, the transmitted data will with high probability be decoupled from the channel's environment. We also show that our construction leads to random codes whose average input is close to a product state and outline a modification yielding unitarily invariant ensembles of maximally entangled codes.
- We consider quantum channels with one sender and two receivers, used in several different ways for the simultaneous transmission of independent messages. We begin by extending the technique of superposition coding to quantum channels with a classical input to give a general achievable region. We also give outer bounds to the capacity regions for various special cases from the classical literature and prove that superposition coding is optimal for a class of channels. We then consider extensions of superposition coding for channels with a quantum input, where some of the messages transmitted are quantum instead of classical, in the sense that the parties establish bipartite or tripartite GHZ entanglement. We conclude by using state merging to give achievable rates for establishing bipartite entanglement between different pairs of parties with the assistance of free classical communication.
- We analyze relationships between quantum computation and a family of generalizations of the Jones polynomial. Extending recent work by Aharonov et al., we give efficient quantum circuits for implementing the unitary Jones-Wenzl representations of the braid group. We use these to provide new quantum algorithms for approximately evaluating a family of specializations of the HOMFLYPT two-variable polynomial of trace closures of braids. We also give algorithms for approximating the Jones polynomial of a general class of closures of braids at roots of unity. Next we provide a self-contained proof of a result of Freedman et al. that any quantum computation can be replaced by an additive approximation of the Jones polynomial, evaluated at almost any primitive root of unity. Our proof encodes two-qubit unitaries into the rectangular representation of the eight-strand braid group. We then give QCMA-complete and PSPACE-complete problems which are based on braids. We conclude with direct proofs that evaluating the Jones polynomial of the plat closure at most primitive roots of unity is a #P-hard problem, while learning its most significant bit is PP-hard, circumventing the usual route through the Tutte polynomial and graph coloring.
- We consider quantum channels with two senders and one receiver. For an arbitrary such channel, we give multi-letter characterizations of two different two-dimensional capacity regions. The first region characterizes the rates at which it is possible for one sender to send classical information while the other sends quantum information. The second region gives the rates at which each sender can send quantum information. We give an example of a channel for which each region has a single-letter description, concluding with a characterization of the rates at which each user can simultaneously send classical and quantum information.