results for au:Yang_Y in:quant-ph

- We present a fabrication process for fully superconducting interconnects compatible with superconducting qubit technology. These interconnects allow for the 3D integration of quantum circuits without introducing lossy amorphous dielectrics. They are composed of indium bumps several microns tall separated from an aluminum base layer by titanium nitride which serves as a diffusion barrier. We measure the whole structure to be superconducting (transition temperature of 1.1$\,$K), limited by the aluminum. These interconnects have an average critical current of 26.8$\,$mA, and mechanical shear and thermal cycle testing indicate that these devices are mechanically robust. Our process provides a method that reliably yields superconducting interconnects suitable for use with superconducting qubits.
- Jul 25 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.07389v1Through introducing controlled alternative quantum walks, we present controlled alternate quantum walks (CAQW) based quantum hash function. CAQW based quantum hash function have excellent security, outstanding statistical performance and splendid expansibility. Furthermore, due to the structure of alternative quantum walks, implementing CAQW based quantum hash function significantly reduces the resources necessary for its feasible experimental realization than implementing other quantum hash functions. Besides, CAQW based quantum hash function has expansibility.
- Jul 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06062v4This study proposes a simple and efficient one-out-of-two quantum oblivious transfer (QOT) protocol based on nonorthogonal states. The nonorthogonal property grants quantum bit immunity to some operations in order to achieve the irreversible goal of discarding a message, resulting in a one-out-of-two selection effect. In addition, it can also prevent entangled cheating from an illegal agent. The resulting QOT protocol is therefore built directly on quantum resources, rather than on a two-level structure which must first create two classical keys using the quantum resources (all-or-nothing QOT), and then build the one-out-of-two protocol from there. Furthermore, the proposed protocol allows Alice to test Bob's loyalty by comparing the measurement results. Moreover, the relationship with the no-go theorem is discussed in detail; this relationship is often overlooked in other studies. The no-go theorem discussion and security analysis demonstrate that the proposed protocol does not belong to the no-go theorem constraint, and is secure against both external and internal attacks. In addition, the efficacy analysis shows that the proposed protocol is more efficient than other two-level structure protocols.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05631v3Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.
- Jun 14 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1706.03939v1We demonstrate an optically induced polarization detection (OIPD) technique for mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Our method employs a single spin in highly purified diamond as the magnetic quantum sensor, allowing us to detect the spectra of polarized electron spin magnetization of a pentacene crystal with the size of tens of micrometers. We detected the magnetic resonance spectra of polarized electron spins, measured its relaxation time and observed the electron spin polarization. This is the first application of NV-based magnetic resonance to sense polarized electron spins. Compared to thermal distribution, the polarization of these electron spins is improved a thousandfold by optical pumping. The method can be extended to sense polarized nuclear spin magnetization at mesoscale with ultrahigh polarization by employing dynamic nuclear polarization.
- May 04 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1705.01468v2Performing qubit gate operations as quickly as possible can be important to minimize the effects of decoherence. For resonant gates, this requires applying a strong ac drive. However, strong driving can present control challenges by causing leakage to levels that lie outside the qubit subspace. Strong driving can also present theoretical challenges because preferred tools such as the rotating wave approximation can break down, resulting in complex dynamics that are difficult to control. Here we analyze resonant $X$ rotations of a silicon quantum double dot hybrid qubit within a dressed-state formalism, obtaining results beyond the rotating wave approximation. We obtain analytic formulas for the optimum driving frequency and the Rabi frequency, which both are affected by strong driving. While the qubit states exhibit fast oscillations due to counter-rotating terms and leakage, we show that they can be suppressed to the point that gate fidelities above $99.99\%$ are possible, in the absence of decoherence. Hence decoherence mechanisms, rather than strong-driving effects, should represent the limiting factor for resonant-gate fidelities in quantum dot hybrid qubits.
- In recent papers, the theory of representations of finite groups has been proposed to analyzing the violation of Bell inequalities. In this paper, we apply this method to more complicated cases. For two partite system, Alice and Bob each make one of $d$ possible measurements, each measurement has $n$ outcomes. The Bell inequalities based on the choice of two orbits are derived. The classical bound is only dependent on the number of measurements $d$, but the quantum bound is dependent both on $n$ and $d$. Even so, when $d$ is large enough, the quantum bound is only dependent on $d$. The subset of probabilities for four parties based on the choice of six orbits under group action is derived and its violation is described. Restricting the six orbits to three parties by forgetting the last party, and guaranteeing the classical bound invariant, the Bell inequality based on the choice of four orbits is derived. Moreover, all the corresponding nonlocal games are analyzed.
- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.05876v3Quantum mechanics imposes a fundamental tradeoff between the accuracy of time measurements and the size of the systems used as clocks. When the measurements of different time intervals are combined, the errors due to the finite clock size accumulate, resulting in an overall inaccuracy that grows with the complexity of the setup. Here we introduce a method that eludes the accumulation of errors, by coherently transferring information from a quantum clock to a quantum memory of the smallest possible size. Our method can be used to measure the total duration of a sequence of events with enhanced accuracy, and to reduce the amount of quantum communication needed to stabilize clocks in a quantum network.
- Mar 08 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1703.02176v1We present a study of collective multi-photon blockade in coherently driven atoms in a single mode cavity. Considering two atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity, we show that the two-photon blockade with two-photon anti-bunching, and the three-photon blockade with three-photon anti-bunching can be observed simultaneously. The three-photon blockade probes both dressed states in the two photon and three photon spaces. The two photon and three photon blockades strongly depend on the location of two atoms in the strong coupling regime. The asymmetry in the atom-cavity coupling constants opens new pathways for multiphoton blockade which is also shown to be sensitive to the atomic decay and pumping strengths. The work presented here predicts many new quantum statistical features due to the collective behavior of atoms and can be useful to generate non-classical photon pairs.
- We investigate the quantum parameter estimation in circuit quantum electrodynamics via dispersive measurement. Based on the Metropolis Hastings (MH) algorithm and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) integration, a new algorithm is proposed to calculate the Fisher information by the stochastic master equation for unknown parameter estimation. Here, the Fisher information is expressed in the form of log-likehood functions and further approximated by the MCMC integration. Numerical results demonstrate that the single evolution of the Fisher information can probably approach the quantum Fisher information. The same phenomenon is observed in the ensemble evolution in the short time interval. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
- Jan 17 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1701.03973v1A general orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode selection principle is put forward involving the rotationally symmetric superposition of chiral states. This principle is not only capable of explaining the operation of spiral zone plate holograms and suggesting that naturally occurring rotationally symmetric patterns could be inadvertent sources of vortex beams, but more importantly, it enables the systematic and flexible generation of structured OAM waves in general. This is demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically in the context of electron vortex beams using rotationally symmetric binary amplitude chiral sieve masks.
- We study the compression of $n$ quantum systems, each prepared in the same state belonging to a given parametric family of quantum states. For a family of states with $f$ independent parameters, we devise an asymptotically faithful protocol that requires a hybrid memory of size $(f/2)\log n$, including both quantum and classical bits. Our construction uses a quantum version of local asymptotic normality and, as an intermediate step, solves the problem of compressing displaced thermal states of $n$ identically prepared modes. In both cases, we show that $(f/2)\log n$ is the minimum amount of memory needed to achieve asymptotic faithfulness. In addition, we analyze how much of the memory needs to be quantum. We find that the ratio between quantum and classical bits can be made arbitrarily small, but cannot reach zero: unless all the quantum states in the family commute, no protocol using only classical bits can be faithful, even if it uses an arbitrarily large number of classical bits.
- We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two uniformly accelerated atoms with the same acceleration perpendicular to their separation. The two-atom system is treated as an open system coupled with fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the Minkowski vacuum, and in the Born-Markov approximation the master equation that describes the completely positive time evolution of the two-atom system is derived. In particular, we investigate the phenomena of entanglement degradation, generation, revival and enhancement. As opposed to the scalar-field case, the entanglement dynamics is crucially dependent on the polarization directions of the atoms. For the two-atom system with certain acceleration and separation, the polarization directions of the atoms may determine whether entanglement generation, revival or enhancement happens, while for entanglement degradation, they affect the decay rate of entanglement. A comparison between the entanglement evolution of accelerated atoms and that of static ones immersed in a thermal bath at the Unruh temperature shows that they are the same only when the acceleration is extremely small.
- Sep 19 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.05100v1The Schmidt number is a fundamental parameter characterizing the properties of quantum states, and the local projections are a fundamental operation in quantum physics. We investigate the relation between the Schmidt numbers of bipartite states and their projected states. We show that there exist bipartite positive-partial-transpose (PPT) entangled states of any given Schmidt number. We further construct the notion of joint Schmidt number for multipartite states, and its relation with the Schmidt number of bipartite reduced density operators.
- Sep 09 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.02255v3The parity operator $\cal P$ and time reversal operator $\cal T$ are two important operators in the quantum theory, in particular, in the $\cal PT$-symmetric quantum theory. By using the concrete forms of $\cal P$ and $\cal T$, we discuss their geometry properties in two dimensional spaces, and show that if $\cal T$ is given, then all $\cal P$ links with the quadric surfaces; if $\cal P$ is given, then all $\cal T$ links with the quadric curves. Moreover, we give out the generalized unbroken $\cal PT$-symmetric condition of a operator $H$. The unbroken $\cal PT$-symmetry of a Hermitian operator is also showed in this way.
- Jul 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.07997v1Quantum coherence is the most fundamental feature of quantum mechanics. The usual understanding of it depends on the choice of the basis, that is, the coherence of the same quantum state is different within different reference framework. To reveal all the potential coherence, we present the total quantum coherence measures in terms of two different methods. One is optimizing maximal basis-dependent coherence with all potential bases considered and the other is quantifying the distance between the state and the incoherent state set. Interestingly, the coherence measures based on relative entropy and $l_2$ norm have the same form in the two different methods. In particular, we show that the measures based on the non-contractive $l_2$ norm is also a good measure different from the basis-dependent coherence. In addition, we show that all the measures are analytically calculable and have all the good properties. The experimental schemes for the detection of these coherence measures are also proposed by multiple copies of quantum states instead of reconstructing the full density matrix. By studying one type of quantum probing schemes, we find that both the normalized trace in the scheme of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit (DQC1) and the overlap of two states in quantum overlap measurement schemes (QOM) can be well described by the change of total coherence of the probing qubit. Hence the nontrivial probing always leads to the change of the total coherence.
- Simulating nonadiabatic effects with many-body wave function approaches is an open field with many challenges. Recent interest has been driven by new algorithmic developments and improved theoretical understanding of properties unique to electron-ion wave functions. Fixed-node diffusion Monte Caro is one technique that has shown promising results for simulating electron-ion systems. In particular, we focus on the CH molecule for which previous results suggested a relatively significant contribution to the energy from nonadiabatic effects. We propose a new wave function ansatz for diatomic systems which involves interpolating the determinant coefficients calculated from configuration interaction methods. We find this to be an improvement beyond previous wave function forms that have been considered. The calculated nonadiabatic contribution to the energy in the CH molecule is reduced compared to our previous results, but still remains the largest among the molecules under consideration.
- Jun 15 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1606.04407v1We present a silicon optical transmitter for polarization-encoded quantum key distribution (QKD). The chip was fabricated in a standard silicon photonic foundry process and integrated a pulse generator, intensity modulator, variable optical attenuator, and polarization modulator in a 1.3 mm $\times$ 3 mm die area. The devices in the photonic circuit meet the requirements for QKD. The transmitter was used in a proof-of-concept demonstration of the BB84 QKD protocol over a 5 km long fiber link.
- We establish the ultimate limits to the compression of sequences of identically prepared qubits. The limits are determined by Holevo's information quantity and are attained through use of the optimal universal cloning machine, which finds here a novel application to quantum Shannon theory.
- Following an idea of Choi, we obtain a decomposition theorem for k-positive linear maps from Mm to Mn, where 2<=k<minm,n. As a consequence, we give an affirmative answer to Kye's conjecture (also solved independently by Choi) that every 2-positive linear map from M3 to M3 is decomposable.
- Feb 03 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1602.00832v1Quantum Key Agreement (QKA) signifies that two or more participants together generate a key and QKA has to satisfy the following conditions: 1 Every participant can change the key and the key is not decided by any participant individually. 2 Only participants can know the key; nonparticipants cannot get the key through illegal means. Because of the condition 1 of participating together, it makes transport inefficient in the current mainstream protocols. They use unicast to exchange messages one by one, so it will considerably limit transmission efficiency and increase cost time spent. This study proposes a protocol based on Multiparty Quantum Secret Direct Communication (MQSDC) with multicast. In addition to satisfying the above conditions, it uses multicast to not only achieve the effect and purpose of QKA, but also to defend against internal and external attacks at the same time. In regard to resource consumption, this study involves linear growth and is more efficient than other mainstream protocols which employ exponential growth.
- Dec 22 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.06485v2Recently, Zhang et al [Phys. Rev. A 92, 012332 (2015)] presented $4d-4$ orthogonal product states that are locally indistinguishable and completable in a $d\otimes d$ quantum system. Later, Zhang et al. [arXiv: 1509.01814v2 (2015)] constructed $2n-1$ orthogonal product states that are locally indistinguishable in $m\otimes n$ ($3\leq m \leq n$). In this paper, we construct a locally indistinguishable and completable orthogonal product basis with $4p-4$ members in a general $m\otimes n$ ($3\leq m \leq n$) quantum system, where $p$ is an arbitrary integer from $3$ to $m$, and give a very simple but quite effective proof for its local indistinguishability. Specially, we get a completable orthogonal product basis with $8$ members that cannot be locally distinguished in $m\otimes n$ ($3\leq m \leq n$) when $p=3$. It is so far the smallest completable orthogonal product basis that cannot be locally distinguished in a $m\otimes n$ quantum system. On the other hand, we construct a small locally indistinguishable orthogonal product basis with $2p-1$ members, which is maybe uncompletable, in $m\otimes n$ ($3\leq m \leq n$ and $p$ is an arbitrary integer from $3$ to $m$). We also prove its local indistinguishability. As a corollary, we give an uncompletable orthogonal product basis with $5$ members that are locally indistinguishable in $m\otimes n$ ($3\leq m \leq n$). All the results can lead us to a better understanding of the structure of a locally indistinguishable product basis in $m \otimes n$.
- While the no-cloning theorem forbids the perfect replication of quantum information, it is sometimes possible to produce large numbers of replicas with vanishingly small error. This phenomenon, known as quantum superreplication, can take place both for quantum states and quantum gates. The aim of this paper is to review the central features of quantum superreplication, providing a unified view on the existing results. The paper also includes new results. In particular, we show that, when quantum superreplication can be achieved, it can be achieved through estimation, up to an error vanishing with a power law. Quantum strategies still offer an advantage for superreplication, in that they allow for an exponentially faster reduction of the error. Using the relation with estimation, we provide i) an alternative proof of the optimality of the Heisenberg scaling of quantum metrology, ii) a strategy to estimate arbitrary unitary gates with Heisenberg scaling, up to a logarithmic overhead, and iii) a protocol that generates M nearly perfect copies of a generic pure state with a number of queries to the corresponding unitary gate scaling as the square root of M. Finally, we point out that superreplication can be achieved using interactions among k systems, provided that k is large compared to square of the ratio between the numbers of input and output copies.
- Dec 15 2015 cond-mat.stat-mech quant-ph arXiv:1512.04350v1We propose a new quantity called modulus fidelity to measure the closeness of two quantum pure states. Especially, we use it to investigate the closeness of eigenstates of quantum many-body systems. When the system is integrable, the modulus fidelity of neighbor eigenstates displays a large fluctuation. But the modulus fidelity is close to a constant when system becomes non-integrable with fluctuation reduced drastically. Average modulus fidelity of neighbor eigenstates increases with the increase of parameters that destroy the integrability, which also indicates the integrable-chaos transition. In non-integrable case, it is found two eigenstates are closer to each other if their level spacing is small. We also show that the closeness of eigenstates in non-integrable domain is the underlying mechanism of \empheigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) which explains the thermalization in nonintegrable system we studied.
- An external, time-dependent perturbing potential acting upon a quantum system can lead to transitions between its eigenstates which oscillate in time. In this paper we present an approximate analytic solution for the temporal evolution of the system in response to an arbitrary perturbing Hamiltonian that has been decomposed into its Fourier modes. We impose no restriction upon the number of eigenstates of the system nor upon the structure of the perturbing Hamiltonian, the number of Fourier modes, their amplitude or their frequencies. New terms appear in our results indicating new avenues by which the frequencies and amplitudes of the modes may affect the transition probabilities. We consider two applications of the theory to neutrino flavor transformation through matter. The first is the effect of two sinusoidal density fluctuations upon a three flavor neutrino where we find the phenomenon of induced transparency. The second is the case of a mono-energetic, neutrino self-interaction Hamiltonian with constant coupling. In both applications we demonstrate how the analytic solutions are able to match the amplitude and wavenumber of the numerical results to within a few percent.
- With recent developments in simulating nonadiabatic systems to high accuracy, it has become possible to determine how much energy is attributed to nuclear quantum effects beyond zero-point energy. In this work we calculate the non-relativistic ground-state energies of atomic and molecular systems without the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For this purpose we utilize the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method, in which the nodes depend on both the electronic and ionic positions. We report ground-state energies for all systems studied, ionization energies for the first-row atoms and atomization energies for the first-row hydrides. We find the ionization energies of the atoms to be nearly independent of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, within the accuracy of our results. The atomization energies of molecular systems, however, show small effects of the nonadiabatic coupling between electrons and nuclei.
- We consider the density matrices derived from combinatorial laplacian matrix of graphs. Specifically, the star-relevant graph, which means adding certain edges on peripheral vertices of star graph, is the focus of this paper. Initially, we provide the spectrum of the density matrices corresponding to star-like graph(i.e., adding an edge on star graph) and present that the Von Neumann entropy will increase under the graph operation(adding an edge on star graph) and the graph operation cannot simulated by local operation and classical communication (LOCC). Subsequently, we illustrate the spectrum of density matrices corresponding to star-alike graph(i.e, adding one edge on star-like graph) and exhibit that the Von Neumann entropy will increase under the graph operation(adding an edge on star-like graph)and the graph operation cannot simulated by LOCC. Finally, the spectrum of density matrices corresponding to star-mlike graph(i.e.,adding $m$ nonadjacent edges on the peripheral vertices of star graph) is demonstrated and the relation between the graph operation and Von Neumann entropy, LOCC is revealed in this paper.
- Jun 12 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1506.03542v4We present one-shot compression protocols that optimally encode ensembles of $N$ identically prepared mixed states into $O(\log N)$ qubits. In contrast to the case of pure-state ensembles, we find that the number of encoding qubits drops down discontinuously as soon as a nonzero error is tolerated and the spectrum of the states is known with sufficient precision. For qubit ensembles, this feature leads to a 25% saving of memory space. Our compression protocols can be implemented efficiently on a quantum computer.
- May 01 2015 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1504.08048v1We examine a Kerr phase gate in a semiconductor quantum well structure based on the tunnelling interference effect. We show that there exist a specific signal field detuning, at which the absorption/amplification of the probe field will be eliminated with the increase of the tunnelling interference. Simultaneously, the probe field will acquire a -\pi phase shift at the exit of the medium. We demonstrate with numerical simulations that a complete 180^∘phase rotation for the probe field at the exit of the medium is achieved, which may result in many applications in information science and telecommunication.
- Mar 19 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.05421v1The determination of many special types of quantum states has been studied thoroughly, such as the generalized |GHZ> states, |W> states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication and Dicke states. In this paper, we are going to study another special entanglement states which is stabilizer states. The stabilizer states and their subset graph states play an important role in quantum error correcting codes, multipartite purification and so on. We show that all n- qubit stabilizer states are uniquely determined (among arbitrary states, pure or mixed) by their reduced density matrices for systems which are the supports of n independent generators of the corresponding stabilizer formalisms.
- Feb 03 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1502.00259v5Quantum technologies are developing powerful tools to generate and manipulate coherent superpositions of different energy levels. Envisaging a new generation of energy-efficient quantum devices, here we explore how coherence can be manipulated without exchanging energy with the surrounding environment. We start from the task of converting a coherent superposition of energy eigenstates into another. We identify the optimal energy-preserving operations, both in the deterministic and in the probabilistic scenario. We then design a recursive protocol, wherein a branching sequence of energy-preserving filters increases the probability of success while reaching maximum fidelity at each iteration. Building on the recursive protocol, we construct efficient approximations of the optimal fidelity-probability trade-off, by taking coherent superpositions of the different branches generated by probabilistic filtering. The benefits of this construction are illustrated in applications to quantum metrology, quantum cloning, coherent state amplification, and ancilla-driven computation. Finally, we extend our results to transitions where the input state is generally mixed and we apply our findings to the task of purifying quantum coherence.
- Dec 04 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1412.1349v3Quantum states obey an asymptotic no-cloning theorem, stating that no deterministic machine can reliably replicate generic sequences of identically prepared pure states. In stark contrast, we show that generic sequences of unitary gates can be replicated deterministically at nearly quadratic rates, with an error vanishing on most inputs except for an exponentially small fraction. The result is not in contradiction with the no-cloning theorem, since the impossibility of deterministically transforming pure states into unitary gates prevents the application of the gate replication protocol to states. In addition to gate replication, we show that $N$ parallel uses of a completely unknown unitary gate can be compressed into a single gate acting on $O(\log N)$ qubits, leading to an exponential reduction of the amount of quantum communication needed to implement the gate remotely.
- Nov 14 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1411.3439v1Quantum particles with spin are the most elementary gyroscopes existing in nature. Can two such gyroscopes help two distant observers find out their relative orientation in space? Here we show that a single pair of gyroscopes in an EPR state gives little clue about the relative orientation, but when two or more EPR pairs are used in parallel, suddenly a common reference frame emerges, with an error that drops quickly with the size of the system, beating than the best classical scaling already for small number of copies. This activation phenomenon indicates the presence of a latent resource hidden into EPR correlations, which can be unlocked and turned into advantage when multiple copies are available.
- The quantum entropy-typical subspace theory is specified. It is shown that any mixed state with von Neumann entropy less than h can be preserved approximately by the entropy-typical subspace with entropy= h. This result implies an universal compression scheme for the case that the von Neumann entropy of the source does not exceed h.
- Oct 21 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1410.5079v1Recently, Chou et al. [Electron Commer Res, DOI 10.1007/s10660-014-9143-6] presented a novel controlled quantum secure direct communication protocol which can be used for online shopping. The authors claimed that their protocol was immune to the attacks from both external eavesdropper and internal betrayer. However, we find that this protocol is vulnerable to the attack from internal betrayer. In this paper, we analyze the security of this protocol to show that the controller in this protocol is able to eavesdrop the secret information of the sender (i.e., the customer's shopping information), which indicates that it cannot be used for secure online shopping as the authors expected. Moreover, an improvement to resist the controller's attack is proposed.
- We study quantum coherence properties of a dilute gas at temperatures above, but not much above the transition temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). In such a gas, a small proportion of the atoms may possess coherence lengths longer than the mean neighboring-atomic distance, implying the existence of quantum coherence more than that expected for thermal atoms. Conjecturing that a part of this proportion of the atoms may lie in a BEC-type state, some unexplained experimental results [Phys. Rev. A, 71, 043615 (2005)] can be explained.
- A common tool in Casimir physics (and many other areas) is the asymptotic (high-frequency) expansion of eigenvalue densities, employed as either input or output of calculations of the asymptotic behavior of various Green functions. Here we clarify some fine points and potentially confusing aspects of the subject. In particular, we show how recent observations of Kolomeisky et al. [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 042519] fit into the established framework of the distributional asymptotics of spectral functions.
- Jul 17 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech math-ph math.MP physics.atom-ph physics.optics arXiv:1407.4133v3Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.
- Apr 09 2014 physics.chem-ph quant-ph arXiv:1404.2244v2We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to several prototypical molecular models of non-cyclic and cyclic tunneling, including ammonia inversion, Cope rearrangment of semibullvalene, torsions of molecular fragments, and rotational tunneling in strong laser fields. Typical maximum velocities and angular velocities are in the order of a few km/s and from 10 to 100 THz for our non-cyclic and cyclic systems, respectively, much faster than time-averaged velocities. Even for the more extreme case of an electron tunneling through a barrier of height of one Hartree, the velocity is only about one percent of the speed of light. Estimates of the corresponding time scales for passing through the narrow domain just below the potential barrier are in the domain from 2 to 40 fs, much shorter than the tunneling times.
- We pose the question whether the asymptotic equivalence between quantum cloning and quantum state estimation, valid at the single-clone level, still holds when all clones are examined globally. We conjecture that the answer is affirmative and present a large amount of evidence supporting our conjecture, developing techniques to derive optimal asymptotic cloners and proving their equivalence with estimation in virtually all scenarios considered in the literature. Our analysis covers the case of arbitrary finite sets of states, arbitrary families of coherent states, arbitrary phase- and multiphase-covariant sets of states, and two-qubit maximally entangled states. In all these examples we observe that the optimal asymptotic fidelity enjoys a universality property, as its scaling does not depend on the specific details of the set of input states, but only on the number of parameters needed to specify them.
- Aug 12 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.2008v1The protection of quantum states is challenging for non-orthogonal states especially in the presence of noises. The recent research breakthrough shows that this difficulty can be overcome by feedback control with weak measurements. However, the state-protection schemes proposed recently work optimally only for special quantum states. In this paper, by applying different weak measurements, we extend the idea of the state-protection scheme to protect general states. We calculate numerically the optimal parameters and discuss the performance of the scheme. Comparison between this extended scheme and the earlier scheme is also presented.
- Jun 28 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.6427v2We pose the question whether the asymptotic equivalence between quantum cloning and quantum state estimation, valid at single-copy level, still holds when all the copies are examined jointly. For an N-to-M cloner, we consider the overall fidelity between the state of the M output systems and the state of M ideal copies, and we ask whether the optimal fidelity is attained by a measure-and- prepare protocol in the limit of large M. In order to gain intuition into the general problem, we analyze two concrete examples: i) cloning qubit states on the equator of the Bloch sphere and ii) cloning two-qubit maximally entangled states. In the first case, we show that the optimal measure-and- prepare fidelity converges to the fidelity of the optimal cloner in the limit of large M. In the second case, we restrict our attention to economical covariant cloners, and again, we exhibit a measure- and-prepare protocol that achieves asymptotically the optimal fidelity. Quite counterintuitively, in both cases the optimal states that have to be prepared in order to maximize the overall fidelity are not product states corresponding to M identical copies, but instead suitable M-partite entangled states: the simple protocol where one estimates the input state and re-prepares M identical copies of the estimated state is strictly suboptimal, even in the asymptotic limit.
- Apr 23 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1304.5820v1We investigate the squeezing for a movable mirror in the dissipative optomechanics in which the oscillating mirror modulates both the resonance frequency and the linewidth of the cavity mode. Via feeding a much weaker broadband squeezed vacuum light accompanying the coherent driving laser field into the cavity, the master equation for the cavity-mirror system is derived by following the general reservoir theory based on the density operator in which the reservoir variables are adiabatically eliminated by using the reduced density operator for the system in the interaction picture. When the mirror is weakly coupled to the cavity mode, we find that under the conditions of laser cooling to the ground state, the driven cavity field can effectively perform as a squeezed vacuum reservoir for the movable mirror via utilizing the completely destructive interference of quantum noise, and thus the efficient transfer of squeezing from the light to the movable mirror occurs, which is irrespective of the ratio between the cavity damping rate and the mechanical frequency. When the mirror is moderately coupled to the cavity mode, the photonic excitation can preclude the completely destructive interference of quantum noise, and as a consequence, the mirror deviates from the ideal squeezed state.
- Apr 11 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1304.2910v3No process in nature can perfectly clone an arbitrary quantum state. But is it possible to engineer processes that replicate quantum information with vanishingly small error? Here we demonstrate the possibility of probabilistic super-replication phenomena where N equally prepared quantum clocks are transformed into a much larger number of M nearly perfect replicas, with an error that rapidly vanishes whenever M is small compared to the square of N. The quadratic replication rate is the ultimate limit imposed by Quantum Mechanics to the proliferation of information and is fundamentally linked with the Heisenberg limit of quantum metrology.
- For a set of quantum states generated by the action of a group, we consider the graph obtained by considering two group elements adjacent whenever the corresponding states are non-orthogonal. We analyze the structure of the connected components of the graph and show two applications to the optimal estimation of an unknown group action and to the search for decoherence free subspaces of quantum channels with symmetry.
- Jun 12 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1206.1954v2We study the precise phase estimation using squeezed states with photon losses present. Our exact quantum Fisher information calculation shows significant quantum enhancement and thus reveals the benchmark for practical quantum metrology in this noisy scenario. However, we find that the existing parity measurement scheme [P.M. Anisimov et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103602 (2010)] behaves worse than even classical cases given very small losses, unless we take an appropriate loss dependent phase shift. Using our formulae, the two optimized aspects including the pre-detection phase shift and the consequent light intensity of a tradeoff strategy for photon resource arrangement can be both calculated. Therefore our result makes it possible to experimentally realize quantum metrology of phase estimation with squeezed states.
- Mar 21 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1203.4321v1We propose a wavelength-saving topology of quantum key distribution(QKD) network based on passive optical elements, and report the field test of this network on the commercial telecom optical fiber. In this network, 5 nodes are supported with 2 wavelengths, and every two nodes can share secure keys directly at the same time. All QKD links in the network operate at the frequency of 20 MHz. We also characterized the insertion loss and crosstalk effects on the point-to-point QKD system after introducing this QKD network.
- We study the magnitude of zero-point vibration in one-component crystals. For the crystals whose constituent atoms share the same bonding geometry, we prove the existence of a characteristic temperature, T0, at which the magnitude of zero-point vibrations equals to that of the excited vibrations. Within the Debye model T0 is found to be ~1/3 of the Debye temperature. The results are demonstrated in realistic systems.
- Nov 15 2011 physics.chem-ph quant-ph arXiv:1111.3007v1We present a new method for the numerical calculation of canonical reaction rate constants in complex molecular systems, which is based on a path integral formulation of the flux-flux correlation function. Central is the partitioning of the total system into a relevant part coupled to a dual bath. The latter consists of two parts: First, a set of strongly coupled harmonic modes, describing, for example, intramolecular degrees of freedom. They are treated on the basis of a reaction surface Hamiltonian approach. Second, a set of bath modes mimicking an unspecific environment modeled by means of a continuous spectral density. After deriving a set of general equations expressing the canonical rate constant in terms of appropriate influence functionals, several approximations are introduced to provide an efficient numerical implementation. Results for an initial application to the H-transfer in 6-Aminofulvene-1-aldimine are discussed.
- Oct 18 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1110.3456v1By numerically calculating the time-evolved Wigner functions, we investigate the dynamics of a few-photon superposed (e.g., up to two ones) state in a dissipating cavity. It is shown that, the negativity of the Wigner function of the photonic state unquestionably vanishes with the cavity's dissipation. As a consequence, the nonclassical effects related to the negativity of the Wigner function should be weakened gradually. However, it is found that the value of the second-order correlation function $g^{(2)}(0)$ (which serves usually as the standard criterion of a typical nonclassical effect, i.e., $g^{(2)}(0)<1$ implies that the photon is anti-bunching) is a dynamical invariant during the dissipative process of the cavity. This feature is also proven analytically and suggests that $g^{(2)}(0)$ might not be a good physical parameter to describe the photonic decays. Alternatively, we find that the anti-normal-order correlation function $g^{(2A)}(0)$ changes with the cavity's dissipation and thus is more suitable to describe the dissipative-dependent cavity. Finally, we propose an experimental approach to test the above arguments with a practically-existing cavity QED system.
- We obtain all the exact eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of $N$-body Bose and Fermi systems with Quadratic Pair Potentials in one dimension. The originally existed first excited state level is missing in one dimension, which results from the operation of symmetry or antisymmetry of identical particles. In two and higher dimensions, we give all the eigenvalues and the analytical ground state wave functions and the number of degeneracy. Through the comparison with Avinash Khare's results, we have perfected his results.
- Jun 23 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1106.4512v1We report the experimental demonstration of optomechanical light storage in a silica resonator. We use writing and readout laser pulses tuned to one mechanical frequency below an optical cavity resonance to control the coupling between the mechanical displacement and the optical field at the cavity resonance. The writing pulse maps a signal pulse at the cavity resonance to a mechanical excitation. The readout pulse later converts the mechanical excitation back to an optical pulse. The light storage lifetime is determined by the relatively long damping time of the mechanical excitation.
- Oct 25 2010 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1010.4723v2We report on the observation of Coulomb oscillations from localized quantum dots superimposed on the normal hopping current in ZnO nanowire transistors. The Coulomb oscillations can be resolved up to 20 K. Positive anisotropic magnetoresistance has been observed due to the Lorentz force on the carrier motion. Magnetic field-induced tunneling barrier transparency results in an increase of oscillation amplitude with increasing magnetic field. The energy shift as a function of magnetic field indicates electron wavefunction modification in the quantum dots.
- Aug 19 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1008.3080v1Entanglement evolution of two independent Jaynes-Cummings atoms without rotating-wave approximation (RWA) is studied by an numerically exact approach. The previous results in the RWA are essentially modified in the strong coupling regime ($g\ge 0.1$), which has been reached in the recent experiments on the flux qubit coupled to the LC resonator. For the initial Bell state with anti-correlated spins, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is absent in the RWA, but does appear in the present numerical calculation without RWA. Aperiodic entanglement evolution in the strong coupling regime is observed. The strong atom-cavity coupling facilitates the ESD. The sign of detuning play a essential role in the entanglement evolution for strong coupling, which is irrelevant in the RWA. An analytical results based on an unitary transformation are also given, which could not modify the RWA picture essentially. It is suggested that the activation of the photons may be the origin of the ESD. The present theoretical results could be applied to artificial atoms realized in recent experiments.
- Feb 27 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0902.4498v1Original quantum repeater protocols based on single-photon interference suffer from phase noise of the channel, which makes the long-distance quantum communication infeasible. Fortunately, two-photon interference type quantum repeaters can be immune to phase noise of the channel. However, this type quantum repeaters may still suffer from polarization disturbance of the channel. Here we propose a quantum repeaters protocol which is free of polarization disturbance of the channel based on the invariance of the anti-symmetric Bell state $|\psi^->=(|H>|V>-|V>|H>)/\sqrt{2}$ under collective noise. Our protocol is also immune to phase noise with the Sagnac interferometer configuration. Through single-atom cavity-QED technology and linear optics, this scheme can be implemented easily.
- Mar 25 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0803.3382v1We investigate repulsive Casimir force between slabs containing left-handed materials with controllable electromagnetic properties. The sign of Casimir force is determined by the electric and magnetic properties of the materials, and it is shown that the formation of the repulsive force is related to the wave impedances of two slabs. The sign change of the Casimir force as a function of the distance is studied. Special emphasis is put on the restoring Casimir force which may be found to exist between perfectly conducting material and metamaterial slabs. This restoring force is a natural power for the system oscillation in vacuum and also can be used for system stabilization.
- Mar 10 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0803.1032v1We extend the former matrix rearrangement approach of the entangling power to the general cases, without the requirement of the same dimensions of the subsystems. The entangling power of a unitary operator is completely determined by its realignment and partial transposition. As applications, we calculate the entangling power for the Ising interaction and the isotropic Heisenberg interaction in the mixed qudit system.
- Aug 06 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0408033v1We propose a scheme to realize quantum controlled phase flip (CPF) between two rare earth ions embedded in respective microsphere cavity via interacting with a single-photon pulse in sequence. The numerical simulations illuminate that the CPF gate between ions is robust and scalable with extremely high fidelity and low error rate. Our scheme is more applicable than other schemes presented before based on current laboratory cavity-QED technology, and it is possible to be used as an applied unit gate in future quantum computation and quantum communication.