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• We present a quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of Hamiltonians that are not necessarily sparse. Our algorithm is based on the assumption that the entries of the Hamiltonian are stored in a data structure that allows for the efficient preparation of states that encode the rows of the Hamiltonian. We use a linear combination of quantum walks to achieve a poly-logarithmic dependence on the precision. The time complexity measured in terms of circuit depth of our algorithm is $O(t\sqrt{N}\lVert H \rVert \text{polylog}(N, t\lVert H \rVert, 1/\epsilon))$, where $t$ is the evolution time, $N$ is the dimension of the system, and $\epsilon$ is the error in the final state, which we call precision. Our algorithm can directly be applied as a subroutine for unitary Hamiltonians and solving linear systems, achieving a $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{N})$ dependence for both applications.
• Solving linear systems of equations is a frequently encountered problem in machine learning and optimisation. Given a matrix $A$ and a vector $\mathbf b$ the task is to find the vector $\mathbf x$ such that $A \mathbf x = \mathbf b$. We describe a quantum algorithm that achieves a sparsity-independent runtime scaling of $\mathcal{O}(\kappa^2 \|A\|_F \text{polylog}(n)/\epsilon)$, where $n\times n$ is the dimensionality of $A$ with Frobenius norm $\|A\|_F$, $\kappa$ denotes the condition number of $A$, and $\epsilon$ is the desired precision parameter. When applied to a dense matrix with spectral norm bounded by a constant, the runtime of the proposed algorithm is bounded by $\mathcal{O}(\kappa^2\sqrt{n} \text{polylog}(n)/\epsilon)$, which is a quadratic improvement over known quantum linear system algorithms. Our algorithm is built upon a singular value estimation subroutine, which makes use of a memory architecture that allows for efficient preparation of quantum states that correspond to the rows and row Frobenius norms of $A$.