results for au:Weitenberg_C in:cond-mat

- Apr 11 2018 cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1804.03200v1We analyze strong correlation effects and topological properties of interacting fermions with a Falicov-Kimball type interaction in circularly shaken hexagonal optical lattices, which can be effectively described by the Haldane-Falicov-Kimball model, using the real-space Floquet dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). The Haldane model, a paradigmatic model of the Chern insulator, is experimentally relevant, because it has been realized using circularly shaken hexagonal optical lattices. We show that in the presence of staggering a charge density wave emerges, which is affected by interactions and resonant tunneling. We demonstrate that interactions smear out the edge states by introducing a finite life time of quasiparticles. Even though a general method for calculating the topological invariant of a nonequilibrium steady state is lacking, we extract the topological invariant using a Laughlin charge pump set-up. We find and attribute to the dissipations into the bath connected to every lattice site, which is intrinsic to real-space Floquet DMFT methods, that the pumped charge is not an integer even for the non-interacting case at very low reservoir temperatures. Furthermore, using the rate equation based on the Floquet-Born-Markov approximation, we calculate the charge pump from the rate equations for the non-interacting case to identify the role of the spectral properties of the bath. Starting from this approach we propose an experimental protocol for measuring quantized charge pumping.
- Spectroscopic tools are fundamental for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Here we demonstrate high-precision multi-band spectroscopy in a graphene-like lattice using ultracold fermionic atoms. From the measured band structure, we characterize the underlying lattice potential with a relative error of 1.2 10^(-3). Such a precise characterization of complex lattice potentials is an important step towards precision measurements of quantum many-body systems. Furthermore, we explain the excitation strengths into the different bands with a model and experimentally study their dependency on the symmetry of the perturbation operator. This insight suggests the excitation strengths as a suitable observable for interaction effects on the eigenstates.
- Topology plays an important role in modern solid state physics describing intriguing quantum states such as topological insulators. It is an intrinsically non-local property and therefore challenging to access, often studied only via the resulting edge states. Here, we measure the topological index directly from the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of the bulk. We use the mapping of the Chern number to the linking number of dynamical vortex trajectories appearing after a quench to the Hamiltonian of interest. We thereby map out the topological phase diagram of quantum gases in optical lattices via a purely dynamical response. Such relations between two topological indices in static and dynamical properties could be also an important approach for exploring topology in the case of interactions.
- Jul 13 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1707.03758v2We investigate a few-body mixture of two bosonic components, each consisting of two particles confined in a quasi one-dimensional harmonic trap. By means of exact diagonalization with a correlated basis approach we obtain the low-energy spectrum and eigenstates for the whole range of repulsive intra- and inter-component interaction strengths. We analyse the eigenvalues as a function of the inter-component coupling, covering hereby all the limiting regimes, and characterize the behaviour in-between these regimes by exploiting the symmetries of the Hamiltonian. Provided with this knowledge we study the breathing dynamics in the linear-response regime by slightly quenching the trap frequency symmetrically for both components. Depending on the choice of interactions strengths, we identify 1 to 3 monopole modes besides the breathing mode of the center of mass coordinate. For the uncoupled mixture each monopole mode corresponds to the breathing oscillation of a specific relative coordinate. Increasing the inter-component coupling first leads to multi-mode oscillations in each relative coordinate, which turn into single-mode oscillations of the same frequency in the composite-fermionization regime.
- Apr 04 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1704.00306v1Periodically driven systems play a prominent role in optical lattices. In these ultracold atomic systems, driving is used to create a variety of interesting behaviours, of which an important example is provided by topological states of matter. Such Floquet topological phases have a richer classification that their equilibrium counterparts. Although analogues of the equilibrium topological phases exist, which are characterised by a Chern number, the corresponding Hall conductivity, and protected edge states, there is an additional possibility. This is a phase that has vanishing Chern number and no Hall conductivity, but nevertheless hosts anomalous topological edge states. Due to experimental difficulties associated with the observation of such a phase, it has not been experimentally realised so far. In this paper, we show that optical lattices prove to be a good candidate for both its realisation and subsequent observation, because they can be driven in a controlled manner. Specifically, we present a simple shaking protocol that serves to realise this special Floquet phase, discuss the specific properties that it has, and propose a method to experimentally detect this fascinating topological phase that has no counterpart in equilibrium systems.
- Mar 09 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1703.02863v1Supersymmetric systems derive their properties from conserved supercharges which form a supersymmetric algebra. These systems naturally factorize into two subsystems, which, when considered as individual systems, have essentially the same eigenenergies, and their eigenstates can be mapped onto each other. We first propose a one-dimensional ultracold atom setup to realize such a pair of supersymmetric systems. We propose a Mach-Zehnder interference experiment which we demonstrate for this system, and which can be realized with current technology. In this interferometer, a single atom wave packet that evolves in a superposition of the subsystems, gives an interference contrast that is sharply peaked if the subsystems form a supersymmetric pair. Secondly, we propose a two-dimensional setup that implements supersymmetric dynamics in a synthetic gauge field.
- Topological defects in Bloch bands, such as Dirac points in graphene, and their resulting Berry phases play an important role for the electronic dynamics in solid state crystals. Such defects can arise in systems with a two-atomic basis due to the momentum-dependent coupling of the two sublattice states, which gives rise to a pseudo-spin texture. The topological defects appear as vortices in the azimuthal phase of this pseudo-spin texture. Here, we demonstrate a complete measurement of the azimuthal phase in a hexagonal optical lattice employing a versatile method based on time-of-flight imaging after off-resonant lattice modulation. Furthermore we map out the merging transition of the two Dirac points induced by beam imbalance. Our work paves the way to accessing geometric properties in optical lattices also with spin-orbit coupling and interactions.
- Mar 07 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1703.02024v1We investigate the superfluid behavior of a two-dimensional (2D) Bose gas of $^{87}$Rb atoms using classical field dynamics. In the experiment by R. Desbuquois \textitet al., Nat. Phys. \textbf8, 645 (2012), a 2D quasicondensate in a trap is stirred by a blue-detuned laser beam along a circular path around the trap center. Here, we study this experiment from a theoretical perspective. The heating induced by stirring increases rapidly above a velocity $v_c$, which we define as the critical velocity. We identify the superfluid, the crossover, and the thermal regime by a finite, a sharply decreasing, and a vanishing critical velocity, respectively. We demonstrate that the onset of heating occurs due to the creation of vortex-antivortex pairs. A direct comparison of our numerical results to the experimental ones shows good agreement, if a systematic shift of the critical phase-space density is included. We relate this shift to the absence of thermal equilibrium between the condensate and the thermal wings, which were used in the experiment to extract the temperature. We expand on this observation by studying the full relaxation dynamics between the condensate and the thermal cloud.
- Phase transitions are a fundamental concept in science describing diverse phenomena ranging from, e.g., the freezing of water to Bose-Einstein condensation. While the concept is well-established in equilibrium, similarly fundamental concepts for systems far from equilibrium are just being explored, such as the recently introduced dynamical phase transition (DPT). Here we report on the first observation of a DPT in the dynamics of a fermionic many-body state after a quench between two lattice Hamiltonians. With time-resolved state tomography in a system of ultracold atoms in optical lattices, we obtain full access to the evolution of the wave function. We observe the appearance, movement, and annihilation of vortices in reciprocal space. We identify their number as a dynamical topological order parameter, which suddenly changes its value at the critical times of the DPT. Our observation of a DPT is an important step towards a more comprehensive understanding of non-equilibrium dynamics in general.
- Sep 21 2015 cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1509.05763v2Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Employing fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we generate topological bands using resonant driving and show a full momentum-resolved measurement of the ensuing Berry curvature. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.
- Mar 24 2015 cond-mat.quant-gas physics.atom-ph arXiv:1503.06228v2In recent years, ultracold atoms in optical lattices have proven their great value as quantum simulators for studying strongly correlated phases and complex phenomena in solid-state systems. Here we reveal their potential as quantum simulators for molecular physics and propose a technique to image the three-dimensional molecular orbitals with high resolution. The outstanding tunability of ultracold atoms in terms of potential and interaction offer fully adjustable model systems for gaining deep insight into the electronic structure of molecules. We study the orbitals of an artificial benzene molecule and discuss the effect of tunable interactions in its conjugated pi electron system with special regard to localization and spin order. The dynamical time scales of ultracold atom simulators are on the order of milliseconds, which allows for the time-resolved monitoring of a broad range of dynamical processes. As an example, we compute the hole dynamics in the conjugated pi system of the artificial benzene molecule.
- Phase transitions are ubiquitous in our three-dimensional world. By contrast most conventional transitions do not occur in infinite uniform two-dimensional systems because of the increased role of thermal fluctuations. Here we explore the dimensional crossover of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) for a weakly interacting atomic gas confined in a novel quasi-two-dimensional geometry, with a flat in-plane trap bottom. We detect the onset of an extended phase coherence, using velocity distribution measurements and matter-wave interferometry. We relate this coherence to the transverse condensation phenomenon, in which a significant fraction of atoms accumulate in the ground state of the motion perpendicular to the atom plane. We also investigate the dynamical aspects of the transition through the detection of topological defects that are nucleated in a quench cooling of the gas, and we compare our results to the predictions of the Kibble-Zurek theory for the conventional BEC second-order phase transition.
- Jun 17 2014 cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1406.4073v2We create supercurrents in annular two-dimensional Bose gases through a temperature quench of the normal-to-superfluid phase transition. We detect the amplitude and the chirality of these supercurrents by measuring spiral patterns resulting from the interference of the cloud with a central reference disk. These measurements demonstrate the stochastic nature of the supercurrents. We further measure their distribution for different quench times and compare it with the predictions based on the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.
- Mar 18 2014 cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1403.4030v2We present a general "fit-free" method for measuring the equation of state (EoS) of a scale-invariant gas. This method, which is inspired from the procedure introduced by Ku et al. [Science 335, 563 (2012)] for the unitary three-dimensional Fermi gas, provides a general formalism which can be readily applied to any quantum gas in a known trapping potential, in the frame of the local density approximation. We implement this method on a weakly-interacting two-dimensional Bose gas in the vicinity of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, and determine its EoS with unprecedented accuracy in the critical region. Our measurements provide an important experimental benchmark for classical field approaches which are believed to accurately describe quantum systems in the weakly interacting but non-perturbative regime.
- Mar 25 2013 cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1303.5652v1Correlation functions play an important role for the theoretical and experimental characterization of many-body systems. In solid-state systems, they are usually determined through scattering experiments whereas in cold-gases systems, time-of-flight and in-situ absorption imaging are the standard observation techniques. However, none of these methods allow the in-situ detection of spatially resolved correlation functions at the single-particle level. Here we give a more detailed account of recent advances in the detection of correlation functions using in-situ fluorescence imaging of ultracold bosonic atoms in an optical lattice. This method yields single-site and single-atom-resolved images of the lattice gas in a single experimental run, thus gaining direct access to fluctuations in the many-body system. As a consequence, the detection of correlation functions between an arbitrary set of lattice sites is possible. This enables not only the detection of two-site correlation functions but also the evaluation of non-local correlations, which originate from an extended region of the system and are used for the characterization of quantum phases that do not possess (quasi-)long-range order in the traditional sense.
- May 22 2012 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1205.4536v1Two-dimensional (2D) systems play a special role in many-body physics. Because of thermal fluctuations, they cannot undergo a conventional phase transition associated to the breaking of a continuous symmetry. Nevertheless they may exhibit a phase transition to a state with quasi-long range order via the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) mechanism. A paradigm example is the 2D Bose fluid, such as a liquid helium film, which cannot Bose-condense at non-zero temperature although it becomes superfluid above a critical phase space density. Ultracold atomic gases constitute versatile systems in which the 2D quasi-long range coherence and the microscopic nature of the BKT transition were recently explored. However, a direct observation of superfluidity in terms of frictionless flow is still missing for these systems. Here we probe the superfluidity of a 2D trapped Bose gas with a moving obstacle formed by a micron-sized laser beam. We find a dramatic variation of the response of the fluid, depending on its degree of degeneracy at the obstacle location. In particular we do not observe any significant heating in the central, highly degenerate region if the velocity of the obstacle is below a critical value.
- Aug 17 2011 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1108.3317v1Quantum phases of matter are characterized by the underlying correlations of the many-body system. Although this is typically captured by a local order parameter, it has been shown that a broad class of many-body systems possesses a hidden non-local order. In the case of bosonic Mott insulators, the ground state properties are governed by quantum fluctuations in the form of correlated particle-hole pairs that lead to the emergence of a non-local string order in one dimension. Using high-resolution imaging of low-dimensional quantum gases in an optical lattice, we directly detect these pairs with single-site and single-particle sensitivity and observe string order in the one-dimensional case.
- Jul 14 2011 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1107.2632v1We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the non-adiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 us, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10^3. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.
- Feb 21 2011 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1102.3859v1We experimentally demonstrate coherent light scattering from an atomic Mott insulator in a two-dimensional lattice. The far-field diffraction pattern of small clouds of a few hundred atoms was imaged while simultaneously laser cooling the atoms with the probe beams. We describe the position of the diffraction peaks and the scaling of the peak parameters by a simple analytic model. In contrast to Bragg scattering, scattering from a single plane yields diffraction peaks for any incidence angle. We demonstrate the feasibility of detecting spin correlations via light scattering by artificially creating a one-dimensional antiferromagnetic order as a density wave and observing the appearance of additional diffraction peaks.
- Jan 12 2011 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1101.2076v1Ultracold atoms in optical lattices are a versatile tool to investigate fundamental properties of quantum many body systems. In particular, the high degree of control of experimental parameters has allowed the study of many interesting phenomena such as quantum phase transitions and quantum spin dynamics. Here we demonstrate how such control can be extended down to the most fundamental level of a single spin at a specific site of an optical lattice. Using a tightly focussed laser beam together with a microwave field, we were able to flip the spin of individual atoms in a Mott insulator with sub-diffraction-limited resolution, well below the lattice spacing. The Mott insulator provided us with a large two-dimensional array of perfectly arranged atoms, in which we created arbitrary spin patterns by sequentially addressing selected lattice sites after freezing out the atom distribution. We directly monitored the tunnelling quantum dynamics of single atoms in the lattice prepared along a single line and observed that our addressing scheme leaves the atoms in the motional ground state. Our results open the path to a wide range of novel applications from quantum dynamics of spin impurities, entropy transport, implementation of novel cooling schemes, and engineering of quantum many-body phases to quantum information processing.
- Jun 21 2010 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1006.3799v2The reliable detection of single quantum particles has revolutionized the field of quantum optics and quantum information processing. For several years, researchers have aspired to extend such detection possibilities to larger scale strongly correlated quantum systems, in order to record in-situ images of a quantum fluid in which each underlying quantum particle is detected. Here we report on fluorescence imaging of strongly interacting bosonic Mott insulators in an optical lattice with single-atom and single-site resolution. From our images, we fully reconstruct the atom distribution on the lattice and identify individual excitations with high fidelity. A comparison of the radial density and variance distributions with theory provides a precise in-situ temperature and entropy measurement from single images. We observe Mott-insulating plateaus with near zero entropy and clearly resolve the high entropy rings separating them although their width is of the order of only a single lattice site. Furthermore, we show how a Mott insulator melts for increasing temperatures due to a proliferation of local defects. Our experiments open a new avenue for the manipulation and analysis of strongly interacting quantum gases on a lattice, as well as for quantum information processing with ultracold atoms. Using the high spatial resolution, it is now possible to directly address individual lattice sites. One could, e.g., introduce local perturbations or access regions of high entropy, a crucial requirement for the implementation of novel cooling schemes for atoms on a lattice.