Feb 13 2018 cs.LG
Our first contribution in this paper is a theoretical investigation of curriculum learning in the context of stochastic gradient descent when optimizing the least squares loss function. We prove that the rate of convergence of an ideal curriculum learning method is monotonically increasing with the difficulty of the examples, and that this increase in convergence rate is monotonically decreasing as training proceeds. In our second contribution we analyze curriculum learning in the context of training a CNN for image classification. Here one crucial problem is the means to achieve a curriculum. We describe a method which infers the curriculum by way of transfer learning from another network, pre-trained on a different task. While this approach can only approximate the ideal curriculum, we observe empirically similar behavior to the one predicted by the theory, namely, a significant boost in convergence speed at the beginning of training. When the task is made more difficult, improvement in generalization performance is observed. Finally, curriculum learning exhibits robustness against unfavorable conditions such as excessive regularization.
The reliable measurement of confidence in classifiers' predictions is very important for many applications and is, therefore, an important part of classifier design. Yet, although deep learning has received tremendous attention in recent years, not much progress has been made in quantifying the prediction confidence of neural network classifiers. Bayesian models offer a mathematically grounded framework to reason about model uncertainty, but usually come with prohibitive computational costs. In this paper we propose a simple, scalable method to achieve a reliable confidence score, based on the data embedding derived from the penultimate layer of the network. We investigate two ways to achieve desirable embeddings, by using either a distance-based loss or Adversarial Training. We then test the benefits of our method when used for classification error prediction, weighting an ensemble of classifiers, and novelty detection. In all tasks we show significant improvement over traditional, commonly used confidence scores.
Deep learning has become the method of choice in many application domains of machine learning in recent years, especially for multi-class classification tasks. The most common loss function used in this context is the cross-entropy loss, which reduces to the log loss in the typical case when there is a single correct response label. While this loss is insensitive to the identity of the assigned class in the case of misclassification, in practice it is often the case that some errors may be more detrimental than others. Here we present the bilinear-loss (and related log-bilinear-loss) which differentially penalizes the different wrong assignments of the model. We thoroughly test this method using standard models and benchmark image datasets. As one application, we show the ability of this method to better contain error within the correct super-class, in the hierarchically labeled CIFAR100 dataset, without affecting the overall performance of the classifier.
Apr 22 2016 cs.CV
We address the problem of novelty detection in multiclass scenarios where some class labels are missing from the training set. Our method is based on the initial assignment of confidence values, which measure the affinity between a new test point and each known class. We first compare the values of the two top elements in this vector of confidence values. In the heart of our method lies the training of an ensemble of classifiers, each trained to discriminate known from novel classes based on some partition of the training data into presumed-known and presumednovel classes. Our final novelty score is derived from the output of this ensemble of classifiers. We evaluated our method on two datasets of images containing a relatively large number of classes - the Caltech-256 and Cifar-100 datasets. We compared our method to 3 alternative methods which represent commonly used approaches, including the one-class SVM, novelty based on k-NN, novelty based on maximal confidence, and the recent KNFST method. The results show a very clear and marked advantage for our method over all alternative methods, in an experimental setup where class labels are missing during training.
Nov 17 2015 cs.LG
The field of Movement Ecology, like so many other fields, is experiencing a period of rapid growth in availability of data. As the volume rises, traditional methods are giving way to machine learning and data science, which are playing an increasingly large part it turning this data into science-driving insights. One rich and interesting source is the bio-logger. These small electronic wearable devices are attached to animals free to roam in their natural habitats, and report back readings from multiple sensors, including GPS and accelerometer bursts. A common use of accelerometer data is for supervised learning of behavioral modes. However, we need unsupervised analysis tools as well, in order to overcome the inherent difficulties of obtaining a labeled dataset, which in some cases is either infeasible or does not successfully encompass the full repertoire of behavioral modes of interest. Here we present a matrix factorization based topic-model method for accelerometer bursts, derived using a linear mixture property of patch features. Our method is validated via comparison to a labeled dataset, and is further compared to standard clustering algorithms.
Jan 28 2015 cs.CV
The reliable detection of speed of moving vehicles is considered key to traffic law enforcement in most countries, and is seen by many as an important tool to reduce the number of traffic accidents and fatalities. Many automatic systems and different methods are employed in different countries, but as a rule they tend to be expensive and/or labor intensive, often employing outdated technology due to the long development time. Here we describe a speed detection system that relies on simple everyday equipment - a laptop and a consumer web camera. Our method is based on tracking the license plates of cars, which gives the relative movement of the cars in the image. This image displacement is translated to actual motion by using the method of projection to a reference plane, where the reference plane is the road itself. However, since license plates do not touch the road, we must compensate for the entailed distortion in speed measurement. We show how to compute the compensation factor using knowledge of the license plate standard dimensions. Consequently our system computes the true speed of moving vehicles fast and accurately. We show promising results on videos obtained in a number of scenes and with different car models.