results for au:Wang_X in:quant-ph

- Mar 20 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.06513v1We discuss level splitting and sideband transitions induced by a modulated coupling between a superconducting quantum circuit and a nanomechanical resonator. First, we show how to achieve an unconventional time-dependent longitudinal coupling between a flux (transmon) qubit and the resonator. Considering a sinusoidal modulation of the coupling strength, we find that a first-order sideband transition can be split into two. Moreover, under the driving of a red-detuned field, we discuss the optical response of the qubit for a resonant probe field. We show that level splitting induced by modulating this longitudinal coupling can enable two-color electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), in addition to single-color EIT. In contrast to standard predictions of two-color EIT in atomic systems, we apply here only a single drive (control) field. The monochromatic modulation of the coupling strength is equivalent to employing two eigenfrequency-tunable mechanical resonators. Both drive-probe detuning for single-color EIT and the distance between transparent windows for two-color EIT, can be adjusted by tuning the modulation frequency of the coupling.
- Mar 14 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1803.04696v1Interference of multiple photons via a linear-optical network has profound applications for quantum foundation, quantum metrology and quantum computation. Particularly, a boson sampling experiment with a moderate number of photons becomes intractable even for the most powerful classical computers, and will lead to "quantum supremacy". Scaling up from small-scale experiments requires highly indistinguishable single photons, which may be prohibited for many physical systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate a time-resolved version of boson sampling by using photons not overlapping in their frequency spectra from three atomic-ensemble quantum memories. Time-resolved measurement enables us to observe nonclassical multiphoton correlation landscapes. An average fidelity over several interferometer configurations is measured to be 0.936(13), which is mainly limited by high-order events. Symmetries in the landscapes are identified to reflect symmetries of the optical network. Our work thus provides a route towards quantum supremacy with distinguishable photons.
- One of the ambitious goals of artificial intelligence is to build a machine that outperforms human, even if limited knowledge and data are provided. Reinforcement Learning (RL) provides one such possibility to reach this goal. In this work, we consider a specific task from quantum physics, i.e. quantum state transfer in a one-dimensional spin chain. The mission for the machine is to find transfer schemes with fastest speeds while maintaining high transfer fidelities. The first scenario we consider is when the Hamiltonian is time-independent. We update the coupling strength by minimizing a loss function dependent on both the fidelity and the speed. Compared with a scheme proven to be at the quantum speed limit for the perfect state transfer, the scheme provided by RL is faster while maintaining the infidelity below $5\times 10^{-4}$. In the second scenario that a time-dependent external field is introduced, we convert the state transfer process into a Markov decision process that can be understood by the machine. We solve it with the deep Q-learning algorithm. After training, the machine successfully finds transfer schemes with high fidelities and speeds, which are faster than previously known ones. These results show that Reinforcement Learning can be a powerful tool for quantum control problems.
- Feb 13 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.03540v1Quantum coherence and nonlocality are two intriguing features of quantum mechanics. We relate the nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence (NAQC) to Bell nonlocality, and show geometrically that the NAQC created by the local von Neumann measurements on one subsystem of a two-qubit state exhibits quantum correlation which is stronger than Bell nonlocality. This complements the hierarchy of various quantum correlation measures. As a direct application, we also show that the NAQC can be used for witnessing entanglement and distinguishing quantum channels for nonclassical teleportation.
- There is a belief that the Ehrenfest theorem holds true universally. We demonstrate that for a classically nonrelativistic particle constrained on an $N-1$ ($N\geq 2$) curved hypersurface embedded in $N$ flat space, the theorem breaks down.
- Jan 30 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1801.09017v1Magnetic domain walls (DWs) are widely regarded as classical objects in physics community, even though the concepts of electron spins and spin-spin exchange interaction are quantum mechanical in nature. One intriguing question is whether DWs can survive at the quantum level and acquire the quantum properties such as entanglement. Here we show that spins within a DW are highly entangled in their quantum description. The total magnetization of a magnetic DW is nonzero, which is a manifestation of the global entanglement of the collective spin state. These results significantly deepen our understanding of magnetic DWs and enable the application of DWs in quantum information science. The essential physics can be generalized to skyrmions so that they can also play a role in quantum information processing.
- Jan 24 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.07369v1When applying Grover's algorithm to an unordered database, the probability of obtaining correct results usually decreases as the quantity of target increases. To amend the limitation, numbers of improved schemes are proposed. In this paper, we focus on four improved schemes from phases, and find that they are just differed by a global phase. Based on this conclusion, the extensive researches on one scheme can be easily generated to other three schemes, and some examples are presented to indicate the correctness.
- Jan 23 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1801.06582v1Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) guarantees the security of communication with quantum physics. Most of widely adopted QKD protocols currently encode the key information with binary signal format---qubit, such as the polarization states. Therefore the transmitted information efficiency of the quantum key is intrinsically upper bounded by 1 bit per photon. High dimensional quantum system is a potential candidate for increasing the capacity of single photon. However, due to the difficulty in manipulating and measuring high dimensional quantum systems, the experimental high dimensional QKD is still at its infancy. Here we propose a sort of practical high-speed high dimensional QKD using partial mutual unbiased basis (PMUB) of photon's orbital angular momentum (OAM). Different from the previous OAM encoding, the high dimensional Hilbert space we used is expanded by the OAM states with same mode order, which can be extended to considerably high dimensions and implemented under current state of the art. Because all the OAM states are in the same mode order, the coherence will be well kept after long-distance propagation, and the detection can be achieved by using passive linear optical elements with very high speed. We show that our protocol has high key generation rate and analyze the anti-noise ability under atmospheric turbulence. Furthermore, the security of our protocol based on PMUB is rigorously proved. Our protocol paves a brand new way for the application of photon's OAM in high dimensional QKD field, which can be a breakthrough for high efficiency quantum communications.
- Topological data analysis offers a robust way to extract useful information from noisy, unstructured data by identifying its underlying structure. Recently, an efficient quantum algorithm was proposed [Lloyd, Garnerone, Zanardi, Nat. Commun. 7, 10138 (2016)] for calculating Betti numbers of data points -- topological features that count the number of topological holes of various dimensions in a scatterplot. Here, we implement a proof-of-principle demonstration of this quantum algorithm by employing a six-photon quantum processor to successfully analyze the topological features of Betti numbers of a network including three data points, providing new insights into data analysis in the era of quantum computing.
- Jan 18 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.05450v1We develop a general framework characterizing the structure and properties of quantum resource theories for continuous-variable Gaussian states and Gaussian operations, establishing methods for their description and quantification. We show in particular that, under a few intuitive and physically-motivated assumptions on the set of free states, no Gaussian quantum resource can be distilled with Gaussian free operations, even when an unlimited supply of the resource state is available. This places fundamental constraints on state transformations in all such Gaussian resource theories. Our methods rely on the definition of a general Gaussian resource quantifier whose value does not change when multiple copies are considered. We discuss in particular the applications to quantum entanglement, where we extend previously known results by showing that Gaussian entanglement cannot be distilled even with Gaussian operations preserving the positivity of the partial transpose, as well as to other Gaussian resources such as steering and optical nonclassicality. A unified semidefinite programming representation of all these resources is provided.
- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Jan 15 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04043v1A central theme in quantum information science is to coherently control an increasing number of quantum particles as well as their internal and external degrees of freedom (DoFs), meanwhile maintaining a high level of coherence. The ability to create and verify multiparticle entanglement with individual control and measurement of each qubit serves as an important benchmark for quantum technologies. To this end, genuine multipartite entanglement have been reported up to 14 trapped ions, 10 photons, and 10 superconducting qubits. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an 18-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement by simultaneous exploiting three different DoFs of six photons, including their paths, polarization, and orbital angular momentum (OAM). We develop high-stability interferometers for reversible quantum logic operations between the photon's different DoFs with precision and efficiencies close to unity, enabling simultaneous readout of 262,144 outcome combinations of the 18-qubit state. A state fidelity of 0.708(16) is measured, confirming the genuine entanglement of all the 18 qubits.
- Jan 10 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.02729v1Quantum entanglement, the essential resource for quantum information processing, has rich dynamics under different environments. Probing different entanglement dynamics typically requires exquisite control of complicated system-environment coupling in real experimental systems. Here, by a simple control of the effective solid-state spin bath in a diamond sample, we observe rich entanglement dynamics, including the conventional asymptotic decay as well as the entanglement sudden death, a term coined for the phenomenon of complete disappearance of entanglement after a short finite time interval. Furthermore, we observe counter-intuitive entanglement rebirth after its sudden death in the same diamond sample by tuning an experimental parameter, demonstrating that we can conveniently control the non-Markovianity of the system-environment coupling through a natural experimental knob. Further tuning of this experimental knob can make the entanglement dynamics completely coherent under the same environmental coupling. Probing of entanglement dynamics, apart from its fundamental interest, may find applications in quantum information processing through control of the environmental coupling.
- Jan 04 2018 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1801.00902v1We consider two typical approximations that are used in the microscopic calculations of double-quantum dot spin qubits, namely, the Heitler-London (HL) and the Hund-Mulliken (HM) approximations, which use linear combinations of Fock-Darwin states to approximate the two-electron states under the double-well confinement potential. We compared these results to a case in which the solution to a one-dimensional Schrödinger equation was exactly known and found that typical microscopic calculations based on Fock-Darwin states substantially underestimate the value of the exchange interaction, which is the key parameter that controls the quantum dot spin qubits. This underestimation originates from the lack of tunneling of Fock-Darwin states, which is accurate only in the case with a single potential well. Our results suggest that the accuracies of the current two-dimensional molecular-orbit-theoretical calculations based on Fock-Darwin states should be revisited since underestimation could only deteriorate in dimensions that are higher than one.
- Dec 18 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.05637v1We explore the classical communication over quantum channels with one sender and two receivers, or with two senders and one receiver, First, for the quantum broadcast channel (QBC) and the quantum multi-access channel (QMAC), we study the classical communication assisted by non-signalling and positive-partial-transpose-preserving codes, and obtain efficiently computable one-shot bounds to assess the performance of classical communication. Second, we consider the asymptotic communication capability of communication over the QBC and QMAC. We derive an efficiently computable strong converse bound for the capacity region, which behaves better than the previous semidefinite programming strong converse bound for point-to-point channels. Third, we obtain a converse bound on the one-shot capacity region based on the hypothesis testing divergence between the given channel and a certain class of subchannels. As applications, we analyze the communication performance for some basic network channels, including the classical broadcast channels and a specific class of quantum broadcast channels.
- Nov 30 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.10512v2We characterize the distillation of quantum coherence in the one-shot setting, that is, the conversion of general quantum states into maximally coherent states under different classes of quantum operations. We show that the maximally incoherent operations (MIO) and the dephasing-covariant incoherent operations (DIO) have the same power in the task of one-shot coherence distillation. We establish that the one-shot distillable coherence under MIO and DIO is efficiently computable with a semidefinite program, which we show to correspond to a quantum hypothesis testing problem. Further, we introduce a family of coherence monotones generalizing the robustness of coherence as well as the modified trace distance of coherence, and show that they admit an operational interpretation in characterizing the fidelity of distillation under different classes of operations. By providing an explicit formula for these quantities for pure states, we show that the one-shot distillable coherence under MIO, DIO, strictly incoherent operations (SIO), and incoherent operations (IO) is equal for all pure states.
- Many unconventional quantum matters, such as fractional quantum Hall effect and $d$-wave high-Tc superconductor, are discovered in strongly interacting systems. Understanding quantum many-body systems with strong interaction and the unconventional phases therein is one of the most challenging problems in physics nowadays. Cold atom systems possess a natural way to create strong interaction by bringing the system to the vicinity of a scattering resonance. Although this has been a focused topic in cold atom physics for more than a decade, these studies have so far mostly been limited for $s$-wave resonance. Here we report the experimental observation of a broad $d$-wave shape resonance in degenerate ${}^{41}$K gas. We further measure the molecular binding energy that splits into three branches as a hallmark of $d$-wave molecules, and find that the lifetime of this many-body system is reasonably long at strongly interacting regime. From analyzing the breathing mode excited by ramping through this resonance, it suggests that a quite stable low-temperature atom and molecule mixture is produced. Putting all the evidence together, our system offers great promise to reach a $d$-wave molecular superfluid.
- Nov 20 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1711.06418v1A triple-quantum-dot system can be operated as either an exchange-only qubit or a resonant-exchange qubit. While it is generally believed that the decisive advantage of the resonant-exchange qubit is the suppression of charge noise because it is operated at a sweet spot, we show that the leakage is also an important factor. Through molecular-orbital-theoretic calculations, we show that when the system is operated in the exchange-only scheme, the leakage to states with double electron occupancy in quantum dots is severe when rotations around the axis 120$^\circ$ from $\hat{z}$ is performed. While this leakage can be reduced by either shrinking the dots or separating them further, the exchange interactions are also suppressed at the same time, making the gate operations unfavorably slow. When the system is operated as a resonant-exchange qubit, the leakage is 3-5 orders of magnitude smaller. We have also calculated the optimal detuning point which minimizes the leakage for the resonant-exchange qubit, and have found that although it does not coincide with the double-sweet-spot for the charge noise, they are rather close. Our results suggest that the resonant-exchange qubit has another advantage that leakage can be greatly suppressed compared to the exchange-only qubit, and operating at the double-sweet-spot point should be optimal both for reducing charge noise and suppressing leakage.
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01783v1Error correction is a significant step in postprocessing of continuous-variable quantum key distribution system, which is used to make two distant legitimate parties share identical corrected keys. We propose an experiment demonstration of high speed error correction with multi-edge type low-density parity check (MET-LDPC) codes based on graphic processing unit (GPU). GPU supports to calculate the messages of MET-LDPC codes simultaneously and decode multiple codewords in parallel. We optimize the memory structure of parity check matrix and the belief propagation decoding algorithm to reduce computational complexity. Our results show that GPU-based decoding algorithm greatly improves the error correction speed. For the three typical code rate, i.e., 0.1, 0.05 and 0.02, when the block length is $10^6$ and the iteration number are 100, 150 and 200, the average error correction speed can be respectively achieved to 30.39Mbits/s (over three times faster than previous demonstrations), 21.23Mbits/s and 16.41Mbits/s with 64 codewords decoding in parallel, which supports high-speed real-time continuous-variable quantum key distribution system.
- This paper describes a quantum programming environment, named $Q|SI\rangle$. It is a platform embedded in the .Net language that supports quantum programming using a quantum extension of the $\mathbf{while}$-language. The framework of the platform includes a compiler of the quantum $\mathbf{while}$-language and a suite of tools for simulating quantum computation, optimizing quantum circuits, and analyzing and verifying quantum programs. Throughout the paper, using $Q|SI\rangle$ to simulate quantum behaviors on classical platforms with a combination of components is demonstrated. The scalable framework allows the user to program customized functions on the platform. The compiler works as the core of $Q|SI\rangle$ bridging the gap from quantum hardware to quantum software. The built-in decomposition algorithms enable the universal quantum computation on the present quantum hardware.
- Oct 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.08211v1We show how to calculate the secure final key rate in the four-intensity decoy-state MDI-QKD protocol with both source errors and statistical fluctuations with a certain failure probability. Our results rely only on the range of only a few parameters in the source state. All imperfections in this protocol have been taken into consideration without any unverifiable error patterns.
- Oct 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.08216v1The existing decoy-state MDI-QKD theory assumes the perfect control of the source states which is a an impossible task for any real setup. In this paper, we study the decoy-state MDI-QKD method with source errors without any presumed conditions and we get the final security key rate only with the range of a few parameters in the source state.
- Oct 23 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.07440v1We study how the decoherence of macroscopic objects is induced intrisinically by relativistic effect. With the degree of freedom of center of mass (CM) characterizing the collective quantum state of a macroscopic object (MO), it is found that a MO consisting of N particles can decohere with time scale no more than sqrt(N). Here, the special relativity can induce the coupling of the collective motion mode and the relative motion modes in an order of 1/c2, which intrinsically results in the above minimum decoherence.
- Oct 04 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1710.01001v3We report measurements of time-frequency entangled photon pairs and heralded single photons at 1550~nm wavelengths generated using a microring resonator pumped optically by a diode laser. Along with a high spectral brightness of pair generation, the conventional metrics used to describe performance, such as Coincidences-to-Accidentals Ratio (CAR), conditional self-correlation [$g^{(2)}(0)$], two-photon energy-time Franson interferometric visibility etc. are shown to reach a high-performance regime not yet achieved by silicon photonics, and attained previously only by crystal, glass and fiber-based pair-generation devices.
- We explore several new converse bounds for classical communication over quantum channels in both the one-shot and asymptotic regime. First, we show that the Matthews-Wehner meta-converse bound for entanglement-assisted classical communication can be achieved by activated, no-signalling assisted codes, suitably generalizing a result for classical channels. Second, we derive a new efficiently computable meta-converse on the amount of information unassisted codes can transmit over a single use of a quantum channel. As applications, we provide a finite resource analysis of classical communication over quantum erasure channels, including the second-order and moderate deviation asymptotics. Third, we explore the asymptotic analogue of our new meta-converse, the $\Upsilon$-information of the channel. We show that its regularization is an upper bound on the capacity that is generally tighter than the entanglement-assisted capacity and other known efficiently computable strong converse bounds. For covariant channels, we show that the $\Upsilon$-information is a strong converse bound.
- Sep 18 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.05199v2The coherent process that a single photon simultaneously excites two qubits has recently been theoretically predicted by [https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601 Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016)]. We propose a different approach to observe a similar dynamical process based on a superconducting quantum circuit, where two coupled flux qubits longitudinally interact with the same resonator. We show that this simultaneous excitation of two qubits (assuming that the sum of their transition frequencies is close to the cavity frequency) is related to the counter-rotating terms in the dipole-dipole coupling between two qubits, and the standard rotating-wave approximation is not valid here. By numerically simulating the adiabatic Landau-Zener transition and Rabi-oscillation effects, we clearly verify that the energy of a single photon can excite two qubits via higher-order transitions induced by the longitudinal couplings and the counter-rotating terms. Compared with previous studies, the coherent dynamics in our system only involves one intermediate state and, thus, exhibits a much faster rate. We also find transition paths which can interfere. Finally, by discussing how to control the two longitudinal-coupling strengths, we find a method to observe both constructive and destructive interference phenomena in our system.
- Sep 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.04618v1The continuous-variable version of quantum key distribution (QKD) offers the advantages (over discrete-variable systems) of higher secret key rates in metropolitan areas as well as the use of standard telecom components that can operate at room temperature. An important step in the real-world adoption of continuous-variable QKD is the deployment of field tests over commercial fibers. Here we report two different field tests of a continuous-variable QKD system through commercial fiber networks in Xi'an and Guangzhou over distances of 30.02 km (12.48 dB) and 49.85 km (11.62 dB), respectively. We achieve secure key rates two orders-of-magnitude higher than previous field test demonstrations. This is achieved by developing a fully automatic control system to create stable excess noise and by applying a rate-adaptive reconciliation protocol to achieve a high reconciliation efficiency with high success probability. Our results pave the way to achieving continuous-variable QKD in a metropolitan setting.
- Sep 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.00200v2We study the one-shot and asymptotic quantum communication assisted with the positive-partial-transpose-preserving (PPT) and no-signalling (NS) codes. We first show improved general semidefinite programming (SDP) finite blocklength converse bounds for quantum communication with a given infidelity tolerance and utilize them to study the depolarizing channel and amplitude damping channel in a small blocklength. Based on the one-shot bounds, we then derive a general SDP strong converse bound for the quantum capacity of an arbitrary quantum channel. In particular, we prove that the SDP strong converse bound is always smaller than or equal to the partial transposition bound introduced by Holevo and Werner, and the inequality could be strict. Furthermore, we show that the SDP strong converse bound can be refined as the max-Rains information, which is an analog to the Rains information introduced in [Tomamichel/Wilde/Winter, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 63:715, 2017]. This also implies that it is always no smaller than the Rains information. Finally, we establish an inequality relationship among some of these known strong converse bounds on quantum capacity.
- Multiphoton interference in quantum Fourier transform circuits and applications to quantum metrologyAug 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.00296v1Quantum Fourier transforms (QFT) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observed the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploited number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrated optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.
- Aug 02 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1708.00238v1In the near future, more and more laborious tasks will be replaced by machines. In the context of quantum control, the question is, can machines replace human beings to design reliable quantum control methods? Here we investigate the performance of machine learning in composing composite pulse sequences which are indispensable for a universal control of singlet-triplet spin qubits. Subject to the control constraints, one can in principle construct a sequence of composite pulses to achieve an arbitrary rotation of a singlet-triplet spin qubits. In absence of noise, they are required to perform arbitrary single-qubit operations due to the special control constraint of a singlet-triplet qubit; Furthermore, even in a noisy environment, it is possible to develop sophisticated pulse sequences to dynamically compensate the errors. However, tailoring these sequences is in general a resource-consuming process, where a numerical search for the solution of certain non-linear equations is required. Here we demonstrate that these composite-pulse sequences can be efficiently generated by a well-trained, double-layer neural network. For sequences designed for the noise-free case, the trained neural network is capable of producing almost exactly the same pulses developed in the literature. For more complicated noise-correcting sequences, the neural network produced pulses with a slightly different line-shape, but the robustness against noises remains about the same. These results indicate that the neural network can be a judicious and powerful alternative to existing techniques, in developing pulse sequences for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation.
- Jul 28 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.08790v2Quantum metrology overcomes standard precision limits and plays a central role in science and technology. Practically it is vulnerable to imperfections such as decoherence. Here, we demonstrate quantum metrology for noisy channels such that entanglement with ancillary qubits enhances the quantum Fisher information for phase estimation but not otherwise. Our photonic experiment covers a range of noise for various types of channels, including for two randomly alternating channels such that assisted entanglement fails for each noisy channel individually. We have simulated noisy channels by implementing space-multiplexed dual interferometers with quantum photonic inputs. We have demonstrated the advantage of entanglement-assisted protocols in phase estimation experiment run with either single-probe or multi-probe approach. These results establish that entanglement with ancillae is a valuable approach for delivering quantum-enhanced metrology. Our new approach to entanglement-assisted quantum metrology via a simple linear-optical interferometric network with easy-to-prepare photonic inputs provides a path towards practical quantum metrology.
- Jul 26 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1707.07929v2We show that the exchange interaction of a singlet-triplet spin qubit confined in double quantum dots, when being controlled by the barrier method, is insensitive to a charged impurity lying along certain directions away from the center of the double-dot system. These directions differ from the polar axis of the double dots by the magic angle, equaling $\arccos\left(1/\sqrt{3}\right)\approx 54.7^\circ$, a value previously found in atomic physics and nuclear magnetic resonance. This phenomenon can be understood from an expansion of the additional Coulomb interaction created by the impurity, but also relies on the fact that the exchange interaction solely depends on the tunnel coupling in the barrier-control scheme. Our results suggest that for a scaled-up qubit array, when all pairs of double dots rotate their respective polar axes from the same reference line by the magic angle, cross-talks between qubits can be eliminated, allowing clean single-qubit operations. While our model is a rather simplified version of actual experiments, our results suggest that it is possible to minimize unwanted couplings by judiciously designing the layout of the qubits.
- Jul 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05931v2We study the impact of the finite-size effect on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, mainly considering the finite-size effect on the parameter estimation procedure. The central-limit theorem and maximum likelihood estimation theorem are used to estimate the parameters. We also analyze the relationship between the number of exchanged signals and the optimal modulation variance in the protocol. It is proved that when Charlie's position is close to Bob, the CV-MDI QKD protocol has the farthest transmission distance in the finite-size scenario. Finally, we discuss the impact of finite-size effects related to the practical detection in the CV-MDI QKD protocol. The overall results indicate that the finite-size effect has a great influence on the secret key rate of the CV-MDI QKD protocol and should not be ignored.
- Jul 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.00400v1To date, blind quantum computing demonstrations require clients to have weak quantum devices. Here we implement a proof-of-principle experiment for completely classical clients. Via classically interacting with two quantum servers that share entanglement, the client accomplishes the task of having the number 15 factorized by servers who are denied information about the computation itself. This concealment is accompanied by a verification protocol that tests servers' honesty and correctness. Our demonstration shows the feasibility of completely classical clients and thus is a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.
- Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
- Jun 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.06221v2Non-asymptotic entanglement distillation studies the trade-off between three parameters: the distillation rate, the number of independent and identically distributed prepared states, and the fidelity of the distillation. We first study the one-shot \epsilon-infidelity distillable entanglement under quantum operations that completely preserve positivity of the partial transpose (PPT) and characterize it as a semidefinite program (SDP). For isotropic states, it can be further simplified to a linear program. The one-shot \epsilon-infidelity PPT- assisted distillable entanglement can be transformed to a quantum hypothesis testing problem. Moreover, we show efficiently computable second-order upper and lower bounds for the non-asymptotic distillable entanglement with a given infidelity tolerance. Utilizing these bounds, we obtain the second order asymptotic expansions of the optimal distillation rates for pure states and some classes of mixed states. In particular, this result recovers the second-order expansion of LOCC distillable entanglement for pure states in [Datta/Leditzky, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 61:582, 2015]. Furthermore, we provide an algorithm for calculating the Rains bound and present direct numerical evidence (not involving any other entanglement measures, as in [Wang/Duan, Phys. Rev. A 95:062322, 2017]), showing that the Rains bound is not additive under tensor products.
- Jun 06 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.00899v3Cooling mechanical resonators is of great importance for both fundamental study and applied science. We investigate the hybrid optomechanical cooling with a three-level atomic ensemble fixed in a strong excited optical cavity. By using the quantum noise approach, we find the upper bound of the noise spectrum and further present three optimal parameter conditions, which can yield a small heating coefficient, a large cooling coefficient, and thus a small final phonon number. Moreover, through the covariance matrix approach, results of numerical simulation are obtained, which are consistent with the theoretical expectations. It is demonstrated that our scheme can achieve ground state cooling in the highly unresolved sideband regime, within the current experimental technologies. Compared with the previous cooling methods, in our scheme, there are fewer constraints on the drive strength of atomic ensemble and number of atoms in the ensemble. In addition, the tolerable ranges of parameters for ground state cooling are extended. As a result, our scheme is very suitable for experiments and can be a guideline for the research of hybrid optomechanical cooling.
- May 18 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.06071v2Broadcasting quantum and classical information is a basic task in quantum information processing, and is also a useful model in the study of quantum correlations including quantum discord. We establish a full operational characterization of two-sided quantum discord in terms of bilocal broadcasting of quantum correlations. Moreover, we show that both the optimal fidelity of unilocal broadcasting of the correlations in an arbitrary bipartite quantum state and that of broadcasting an arbitrary set of quantum states can be formulized as semidefinite programs (SDPs), which are efficiently computable. We also analyze some properties of these SDPs and evaluate the broadcasting fidelities for some cases of interest.
- May 03 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1705.00781v1Hopf insulators are intriguing three-dimensional topological insulators characterized by an integer topological invariant. They originate from the mathematical theory of Hopf fibration and epitomize the deep connection between knot theory and topological phases of matter, which distinguishes them from other classes of topological insulators. Here, we implement a model Hamiltonian for Hopf insulators in a solid-state quantum simulator and report the first experimental observation of their topological properties, including fascinating topological links associated with the Hopf fibration and the integer-valued topological invariant obtained from a direct tomographic measurement. Our observation of topological links and Hopf fibration in a quantum simulator opens the door to probe rich topological properties of Hopf insulators in experiments. The quantum simulation and probing methods are also applicable to the study of other intricate three-dimensional topological model Hamiltonians.
- May 03 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.00785v2We investigate the single qubit transformations under several typical coherence-free operations, such as, incoherent operation (IO), strictly incoherent operation (SIO), physically incoherent operation (PIO), and coherence preserving operation (CPO). Quantitative connection has been built between IO and SIO in single qubit systems. Moreover, these coherence-free operations have a clear hierarchical relationship in single qubit systems: CPO $\subset$ PIO $\subset$ SIO=IO. A new and explicit proof for the necessary and sufficient condition of single qubit transformation via IO or SIO has been provided, which indicates that SIO with only two Kraus operators are enough to realize this transformation. The transformation regions of single qubits via CPO and PIO are also given. Our method provides a geometric illustration to analyze single qubit coherence transformations by introducing the Bloch sphere depiction of the transformation regions, and tells us how to construct the corresponding coherence-free operations.
- Apr 27 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1704.07975v2It has been recently demonstrated that a singlet-triplet spin qubit in semiconductor double quantum dots can be controlled by changing the height of the potential barrier between the two dots ("barrier control"), which has led to a considerable reduction of charge noises as compared to the traditional tilt control method. In this paper we show, through a molecular-orbital-theoretic calculation of double quantum dots influenced by a charged impurity, that the relative charge noise for a system under the barrier control not only is smaller than that for the tilt control, but actually decreases as a function of an increasing exchange interaction. This is understood as a combined consequence of the greatly suppressed detuning noise when the two dots are symmetrically operated, as well as an enhancement of the inter-dot hopping energy of an electron when the barrier is lowered which in turn reduces the relative charge noise at large exchange interaction values. We have also studied the response of the qubit to charged impurities at different locations, and found that the improvement of barrier control is least for impurities equidistant from the two dots due to the small detuning noise they cause, but is otherwise significant along other directions.
- Apr 18 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.04891v2The total correlations in a bipartite quantum system are measured by the quantum mutual information $\mathcal{I}$, which consists of quantum discord and classical correlation. However, recent results in quantum information shows that coherence, which is a part of total correlation, is more general and more fundamental than discord. The role of coherence in quantum resource theories is worthwhile to investigate. We first study the relation between quantum discord and coherence by reducing the difference between them. And then, we consider the dynamics of quantum discord, classical correlations and quantum coherence under incoherent quantum channels. We discover that coherence indicate the behavior of quantum discord (classical correlation) for times $t<\bar t$, and indicate the decoherence of classical correlation (quantum discord) for times $t>\bar t$. What is more, the coherence frozen and decay indicate the quantum discord and classical correlation frozen and decay respectively.
- Apr 18 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.04974v3We investigate the behavior of coherence in scattering quantum walk search on complete graph under the condition that the total number of vertices of the graph is greatly larger than the marked number of vertices we are searching, $N \gg v$. We find that the consumption of coherence represents the increase of the success probability for the searching,also the consumption of coherence is related to the efficiency of the algorithm represented by oracle queries.If no coherence is consumed, the efficiency of the algorithm will be the same as the classical blind search, implying that coherence is responsible for the speed up in this quantum algorithm over its classical counterpart. In case the initial state is incoherent, still $N \gg v$ is assumed,the probability of success for searching will not change with time, indicating that this quantum search algorithm loses its power.We then conclude that the coherence plays an essential role and is responsible for the speed up in this quantum algorithm.
- Apr 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.02180v3Two-qubit Bell-diagonal states can be depicted as a tetrahedron in three dimensions. We investigate the structure of quantum resources, including coherence and quantum discord, in the tetrahedron. The ordering of different resources measures is a common problem in resource theories, and which measure should be chosen to investigate the structure of resources is still an open question. We consider the structure of quantum resources which is not affected by the choice of measure. Our work provides a complete structure of coherence and quantum discord for Bell-diagonal states. The pictorial approach also indicates how to explore the structure of resources even when we don't have consistent measure of a concrete quantum resource.
- Mar 29 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.09576v1In the task of assisted coherence distillation via the set of operations X, where X is either local incoherent operations and classical communication (LICC), local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication (LQICC), separable incoherent operations (SI), or separable quantum incoherent operations (SQI), two parties, namely Alice and Bob, share many copies of a bipartite joint state. The aim of the process is to generate the maximal possible coherence on the subsystem of Bob. In this paper, we investigate the assisted coherence distillation of some special mixed states, the states with vanished basis-dependent discord and Werner states. We show that all the four sets of operations are equivalent for assisted coherence distillation, whenever Alice and Bob share one of those mixed quantum states. Moreover, we prove that the assisted coherence distillation of the former can reach the upper bound, namely QI relative entropy, while that of the latter can not. Meanwhile, we also present a sufficient condition such that the assistance of Alice via the set of operations X can not help Bob improve his distillable coherence, and this condition is that the state shared by Alice and Bob has vanished basis-dependent discord.
- Mar 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.04916v1Information reconciliation protocol has a significant effect on the secret key rate and maximal transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) systems. We propose an efficient rate-adaptive reconciliation protocol suitable for practical CV-QKD systems with time-varying quantum channel. This protocol changes the code rate of multi-edge type low density parity check codes, by puncturing (increasing the code rate) and shortening (decreasing the code rate) techniques, to enlarge the correctable signal-to-noise ratios regime, thus improves the overall reconciliation efficiency comparing to the original fixed rate reconciliation protocol. We verify our rate-adaptive reconciliation protocol with three typical code rate, i.e., 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1, the reconciliation efficiency keep around 96.4%, 95.4% and 93.5% for different signal-to-noise ratios, which shows the potential of implementing high-performance CV-QKD systems using single code rate matrix.
- PT-symmetric quantum mechanics, the extension of conventional quantum mechanics to the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian invariant under the combined parity (P) and time reversal (T) symmetry, has been successfully applied to a variety of fields such as solid state physics, mathematical physics, optics, quantum field theory. Recently, the extension of PT-symmetrical theory to entangled quantum systems was challenged in that PT formulation within the conventional Hilbert space violates the no-signaling principle. Here, we revisit the derivation of non-signaling principle in the framework of PT inner product prescription. Our results preserve the no-signaling principle for a two-qubit system, reaffirm the invariance of the entanglement, and reproduce the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. We conclude that PT-symmetric quantum mechanics satisfies the requirements for a fundamental theory and provides a consistent description of quantum systems.
- Mar 03 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.00648v1Quantum coherence as an important quantum resource plays a key role in quantum theory. In this paper, using entropy-based measures, we investigate the relations between quantum correlated coherence, which is the coherence between subsystems [K. C. Tan, H. Kwon, C. Y. Park, and H. Jeong, Phys. Rev. A 94, 022329 (2016)], and two main kinds of quantum correlations as defined by quantum discord as well as quantum entanglement. In particular, we show that quantum discord and quantum entanglement can be well characterized by quantum correlated coherence. Moreover, we prove that the entanglement measure formulated by quantum correlated coherence is lower and upper bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement and the entanglement of formation, respectively, and equal to the relative entropy of entanglement for maximally correlated states.
- We examine the dynamics of entanglement entropy of all parts in an open system consisting of a two-level dimer interacting with an environment of oscillators. The dimer-environment interaction is almost energy conserving. We find the precise link between decoherence and production of entanglement entropy. We show that not all environment oscillators carry significant entanglement entropy and we identify the oscillator frequency regions which contribute to the production of entanglement entropy. Our results hold for arbitrary strengths of the dimer-environment interaction, and they are mathematically rigorous.
- Feb 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.00231v2A bipartite subspace $S$ is called strongly positive-partial-transpose-unextendible (PPT-unextendible) if for every positive integer $k$, there is no PPT operator supporting on the orthogonal complement of $S^{\otimes k}$. We show that a subspace is strongly PPT-unextendible if it contains a PPT-definite operator (a positive semidefinite operator whose partial transpose is positive definite). Based on these, we are able to propose a simple criterion for verifying whether a set of bipartite orthogonal quantum states is indistinguishable by PPT operations in the many copy scenario. Utilizing this criterion, we further point out that any entangled pure state and its orthogonal complement cannot be distinguished by PPT operations in the many copy scenario. On the other hand, we investigate that the minimum dimension of strongly PPT-unextendible subspaces in an $m\otimes n$ system is $m+n-1$, which involves a generalization of the result that non-positive-partial-transpose (NPT) subspaces can be as large as any entangled subspace [N. Johnston, Phys. Rev. A 87: 064302 (2013)].
- Jan 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.05995v1We propose to realize microwave quantum illumination in weak coupling regime based on multimode optomechanical systems. In our proposal the multimode together with a frequency-mismatch process could reduce mechanical thermal noise. Therefore, we achieve a significant reduction of error probability than conventional detector in weak coupling regime. Moreover, we optimize the signal-to-noise ratio for limited bandwidth by tuning the delay time of entangled wave-packets.
- The linear superposition principle in quantum mechanics is essential for several no-go theorems such as the no-cloning theorem, the no-deleting theorem and the no-superposing theorem. It remains an open problem of finding general forbidden principles to unify these results. In this paper, we investigate general quantum transformations forbidden or permitted by the superposition principle for various goals. First, we prove a no-encoding theorem that forbids linearly superposing of an unknown pure state and a fixed state in Hilbert space of finite dimension. Two general forms include the no-cloning theorem, the no-deleting theorem, and the no-superposing theorem as special cases. Second, we provide a unified scheme for presenting perfect and imperfect quantum tasks (cloning and deleting) in a one-shot manner. This scheme may yield to fruitful results that are completely characterized with the linear independence of the input pure states. The generalized upper bounds for the success probability will be proved. Third, we generalize a recent superposing of unknown states with fixed overlaps when multiple copies of the input states are available.
- Dec 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.09119v2We study ultrastrong-coupling quantum-phase-transition phenomena in a few-qubit system. In the one-qubit case, three second-order transitions occur and the Goldstone mode emerges under the condition of ultrastrong-coupling strength. Moreover, a first-order phase transition occurs between two different superradiant phases. In the two-qubit case, a two-qubit Hamiltonian with qubit-qubit interactions is analyzed fully quantum mechanically. We show that the quantum phase transition is inhibited even in the ultrastrong-coupling regime in this model. In addition, in the three-qubit model, the superradiant quantum phase transition is retrieved in the ultrastrong-coupling regime. Furthermore, the N-qubit model with U(1) symmetry is studied and we find that the superradiant phase transition is inhibited or restored with the qubit-number parity.
- Dec 28 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1612.08180v2We report optical positioning single quantum dots (QDs) in planar cavity with an average position uncertainty $<$20 nm using an optimized two-color photoluminescence imaging technique. We create single-photon sources based on these QDs in determined micropillar cavities. The brightness of the QD fluorescence is greatly enhanced on resonance with the fundamental mode of the cavity, leading to an high extraction efficiency of 68%$\pm$6% into a lens with numerical aperture of 0.65, and simultaneously exhibiting low multi-photon probability ($g^{2}(0)$=0.144$\pm$0.012) at this collection efficiency.
- Dec 23 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1612.07396v1Although both epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) and colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures, so far they have demonstrated dramatically-different exciton fine structure splittings (FSSs) at the cryogenic temperature. The single-QD photoluminescence (PL) is dominated by the bright-exciton FSS, while it is the energy separation between bright and dark excitons that is often referred to as the FSS in a single NC. Here we show that, in single perovskite CsPbI3 NCs synthesized from a colloidal approach, a bright-exciton FSS as large as hundreds of \mueV can be resolved with two orthogonally- and linearly-polarized PL peaks. This PL doublet could switch to a single peak when a single CsPbI3 NC is photo-charged to eliminate the electron-hole exchange interaction. The above findings have prepared an efficient platform suitable for probing exciton and spin dynamics of semiconductor nanostructures at the visible-wavelength range, from which a variety of practical applications such as in entangled photon-pair source and quantum information processing can be envisioned.
- Dec 21 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.06491v2We study the problem of transforming a tripartite pure state to a bipartite one using stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). It is known that the tripartite-to-bipartite SLOCC convertibility is characterized by the maximal Schmidt rank of the given tripartite state, i.e. the largest Schmidt rank over those bipartite states lying in the support of the reduced density operator. In this paper, we further study this problem and exhibit novel results in both multi-copy and asymptotic settings. In the multi-copy regime, we observe that the maximal Schmidt rank is strictly super-multiplicative, i.e. the maximal Schmidt rank of the tensor product of two tripartite pure states can be strictly larger than the product of their maximal Schmidt ranks. We then provide a full characterization of those tripartite states whose maximal Schmidt rank is strictly super-multiplicative when taking tensor product with itself. In the asymptotic setting, we focus on determining the tripartite-to-bipartite SLOCC entanglement transformation rate, which turns out to be equivalent to computing the asymptotic maximal Schmidt rank of the tripartite state, defined as the regularization of its maximal Schmidt rank. Despite the difficulty caused by the super-multiplicative property, we provide explicit formulas for evaluating the asymptotic maximal Schmidt ranks of two important families of tripartite pure states, by resorting to certain results of the structure of matrix spaces, including the study of matrix semi-invariants. These formulas give a sufficient and necessary condition to determine whether a given tripartite pure state can be transformed to the bipartite maximally entangled state under SLOCC, in the asymptotic setting. Applying the recent progress on the non-commutative rank problem, we can verify this condition in deterministic polynomial time.
- Dec 13 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.03875v2Quantum steering has recently been formalized in the framework of a resource theory of steering, and several quantifiers have already been introduced. Here, we propose an information-theoretic quantifier for steering called intrinsic steerability, which uses conditional mutual information to measure the deviation of a given assemblage from one having a local hidden-state model. We thus relate conditional mutual information to quantum steering and introduce monotones that satisfy certain desirable properties. The idea behind the quantifier is to suppress the correlations that can be explained by an inaccessible quantum system and then quantify the remaining intrinsic correlations. A variant of the intrinsic steerability finds operational meaning as the classical communication cost of sending the measurement choice and outcome to an eavesdropper who possesses a purifying system of the underlying bipartite quantum state that is being measured.
- Dec 06 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.00942v2We describe a hybrid quantum system composed of a micrometer-size carbon nanotube (CNT) longitudinally coupled to a flux qubit. We demonstrate the usefulness of this device for generating high-fidelity nonclassical states of the CNT via dissipative quantum engineering. Sideband cooling of the CNT to its ground state and generating a squeezed ground state, as a mechanical analogue of the optical squeezed vacuum, are two additional examples of the dissipative quantum engineering studied here. Moreover, we show how to generate a long-lived macroscopically-distinct superposition (i.e., a Schrödinger cat-like) state. This cat state can be trapped, under some conditions, in a dark state, as can be verified by detecting the optical response of control fields.
- Dec 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.09982v1Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global real-time quantum communication. In such a SC, most of the satellites will work in sunlight. Unfortunately, none of previous ground testing experiments could be implemented at daytime. During daytime, the bright sunlight background prohibits quantum communication in transmission over long distances. In this letter, by choosing a working wavelength of 1550 nm and developing free-space single-mode fibre coupling technology and ultralow noise up-conversion single photon detectors, we overcome the noise due to sunlight and demonstrate a 53-km free space quantum key distribution (QKD) in the daytime through a 48-dB loss channel. Our system not only shows the feasibility of satellite based quantum communication in daylight, but also has the ability to naturally adapt to ground fibre optics, representing an essential step towards a SC-based global quantum network.
- Nov 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.07328v1A major obstacle to attain the fundamental precision limit of the phase estimation in an interferometry is the identification and implementation of the optimal measurement. Here we demonstrate that this can be accomplished by the use of three conventional measurements among interferometers with Bayesian estimation techniques. Conditions that hold for the precision limit to be attained with these measurements are obtained by explicitly calculating the Fisher information. Remarkably, these conditions are naturally satisfied in most interferometric experiments. We apply our results to an experiment of atomic spectroscopy and examine robustness of phase sensitivity for the two-axis counter-twisted state suffering from detection noise.
- Nov 23 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1611.07186v2We present a theoretical study of a four-electron four-quantum-dot system based on molecular orbital methods, which hosts a pair of singlet-triplet spin qubits. We explicitly take into account of the admixture of electron wave functions in all dots, and have found that this mixing of wave functions has consequences on the energy spectrum, exchange interaction and the gate crosstalk of the system. Specifically, we have found that when the two singlet-triplet qubits are close enough, some of the states are no longer dominated by the computational basis states and the exchange interaction can not simply be understood as the energy difference between the singlet and triplet states. Using the Hund-Mulliken calculation of the Hubbard parameters, we characterize the effective exchange interaction of the system and have found good agreement with results calculated by taking energy differences where applicable. We have studied the two commonly conceived schemes coupling two qubits, the exchange and capacitive coupling, and have found that when the inter-qubit distance is at certain intermediate values, the two kinds of coupling are comparable in strength, complicating analyses of the evolution of the two qubits. We also investigate the gate crosstalk in the system due to the quantum mechanical mixing of electron states and have found that while this effect is typically very weak, it should not be ignored if the spacing between the qubits are similar to or less than the distance between the double dots that constitute the qubit.
- Oct 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.08656v4We investigate the role of quantum coherence depletion (QCD) in Grover search algorithm (GA) by using several typical measures of quantum coherence and quantum correlations. By using the relative entropy of coherence measure ($\mathcal{C}_r$), we show that the success probability depends on the QCD. The same phenomenon is also found by using the $l_1$ norm of coherence measure ($\mathcal{C}_{l_1}$). In the limit case, the cost performance is defined to characterize the behavior about QCD in enhancing the success probability of GA, which is only related to the number of searcher items and the scale of database, no matter using $\mathcal{C}_r$ or $\mathcal{C}_{l_1}$. In generalized Grover search algorithm (GGA), the QCD for a class of states increases with the required optimal measurement time. In comparison, the quantification of other quantum correlations in GA, such as pairwise entanglement, multipartite entanglement, pairwise discord and genuine multipartite discord, cannot be directly related to the success probability or the optimal measurement time. Additionally, we do not detect pairwise nonlocality or genuine tripartite nonlocality in GA since Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and Svetlichny's inequality are not violated.
- Oct 21 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.06381v3We investigate the classical communication over quantum channels when assisted by no-signaling (NS) and positive-partial-transpose-preserving (PPT) codes, for which both the optimal success probability of a given transmission rate and the one-shot $\epsilon$-error capacity are formalized as semidefinite programs (SDPs). Based on this, we obtain improved SDP finite blocklength converse bounds of general quantum channels for entanglement-assisted codes and unassisted codes. Furthermore, we derive two SDP strong converse bounds for the classical capacity of general quantum channels: for any code with a rate exceeding either of the two bounds of the channel, the success probability vanishes exponentially fast as the number of channel uses increases. In particular, applying our efficiently computable bounds, we derive an improved upper bound on the classical capacity of the amplitude damping channel. We also establish the strong converse property for the classical and private capacities of a new class of quantum channels. We finally study the zero-error setting and provide efficiently computable upper bounds on the one-shot zero-error capacity of a general quantum channel.
- In this comment, we criticize three main conclusions of the letter\citeLee2016. We show that the concept of fractional winding number(FWN) is factitious, Lee's conclusions on Fig. 3 are finite-size effect and the breakdown of bulk-boundary correspondence (BBBC) cannot be explained by "defective".
- Sep 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.08234v1The concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state is a new type of multipartite entangled state, which has potential application in future quantum information. In this paper, we propose a protocol of constructing arbitrary C-GHZ entangled state approximatively. Different from the previous protocols, each logic is encoded in the coherent state. This protocol is based on the linear optics, which is feasible in experimental technology. This protocol may be useful in quantum information based on the C-GHZ state.
- Sep 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.06835v2Quantum control of systems plays important roles in modern science and technology. The ultimate goal of quantum control is to achieve high fidelity universal control in the time-optimal way. Although high fidelity universal control has been reported in various quantum systems, experimental implementation of time-optimal universal control remains elusive. Here we report the experimental realization of time-optimal universal control of spin qubits in diamond. By generalizing a recent method for solving quantum brachistochrone equations [X. Wang, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 170501 (2015)], we obtained accurate minimum time protocols for multiple qubits with fixed qubits' interactions and constrained control field. Single- and two-qubit time-optimal gates are experimentally implemented with fidelities of 99% obtained via quantum process tomography. Our work provides a time-optimal route to achieve accurate quantum control, and unlocks new capabilities for emerging field of time-optimal control in general quantum systems.
- Sep 05 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.00590v2We propose a method to entangle two distant vibrating microsize mirrors (i.e., mechanical oscillators) in a cavity optomechanical system. In this scheme, we discuss both the resonant and large-detuning conditions, and show that the entanglement of two mechanical oscillators can be achieved with the assistance of a two-level atom and cavity-radiation pressure. In the resonant case, the operation time is relatively short, which is desirable to minimize the effects of decoherence. While in the large-detuning case, the cavity is only virtually excited during the interaction. Therefore, the decay of the cavity is effectively suppressed, which makes the efficient decoherence time of the cavity to be greatly prolonged. Thus, we observe that this virtual-photon process of microscopic objects may induce the entanglement of macroscopic objects. Moreover, in both cases, the generation of entanglement is deterministic and no measurements on the atom and the cavity are required. These are experimentally important. Finally, the decoherence effect and the experimental feasibility of the proposal are briefly discussed.
- Aug 17 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.04508v3Quantum Lovász number is a quantum generalization of the Lovász number in graph theory. It is the best known efficiently computable upper bound of the entanglement-assisted zero-error classical capacity of a quantum channel. However, it remains an intriguing open problem whether quantum entanglement can always enhance the zero-error capacity to achieve the quantum Lovász number. In this paper, by constructing a particular class of qutrit-to-qutrit channels, we show that there exists a strict gap between the entanglement-assisted zero-error capacity and the quantum Lovász number. Interestingly, for this class of quantum channels, the quantum generalization of fractional packing number is strictly larger than the zero-error capacity assisted with feedback or no-signalling correlations, which differs from the case of classical channels.
- Aug 16 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.04195v3Heralded near-deterministic multi-qubit controlled phase gates with integrated error detection have recently been proposed by Borregaard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 110502 (2015)]. This protocol is based on a single four-level atom (a heralding quartit) and $N$ three-level atoms (operational qutrits) coupled to a single-resonator mode acting as a cavity bus. Here we generalize this method for two distant resonators without the cavity bus between the heralding and operational atoms. Specifically, we analyze the two-qubit controlled-Z gate and its multi-qubit-controlled generalization (i.e., a Toffoli-like gate) acting on the two-lowest levels of $N$ qutrits inside one resonator, with their successful actions being heralded by an auxiliary microwave-driven quartit inside the other resonator. Moreover, we propose a circuit-quantum-electrodynamics realization of the protocol with flux and phase qudits in linearly-coupled transmission-line resonators with dissipation. These methods offer a quadratic fidelity improvement compared to cavity-assisted deterministic gates.
- Aug 11 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.03076v1We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of Boson sampling and paves the way for further multi-mode and multi-excitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.