results for au:Villadoro_G in:hep-th

- May 16 2018 hep-th cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1805.05882v1Perturbation theory of a large class of scalar field theories in $d<4$ can be shown to be Borel resummable using arguments based on Lefschetz thimbles. As an example we study in detail the $\lambda \phi^4$ theory in two dimensions in the $Z_2$ symmetric phase. We extend the results for the perturbative expansion of several quantities up to N$^8$LO and show how the behavior of the theory at strong coupling can be recovered successfully using known resummation techniques. In particular, we compute the vacuum energy and the mass gap for values of the coupling up to the critical point, where the theory becomes gapless and lies in the same universality class of the 2d Ising model. Several properties of the critical point are determined and agree with known exact expressions. The results are in very good agreement (and with comparable precision) with those obtained by other non-perturbative approaches, such as lattice simulations and Hamiltonian truncation methods.
- We study quantum mechanical systems with a discrete spectrum. We show that the asymptotic series associated to certain paths of steepest-descent (Lefschetz thimbles) are Borel resummable to the full result. Using a geometrical approach based on the Picard-Lefschetz theory we characterize the conditions under which perturbative expansions lead to exact results. Even when such conditions are not met, we explain how to define a different perturbative expansion that reproduces the full answer without the need of transseries, i.e. non-perturbative effects, such as real (or complex) instantons. Applications to several quantum mechanical systems are presented.
- In quantum mechanics and quantum field theory perturbation theory generically requires the inclusion of extra contributions non-perturbative in the coupling, such as instantons, to reproduce exact results. We show how full non-perturbative results can be encoded in a suitable modified perturbative series in a class of quantum mechanical problems. We illustrate this explicitly in examples which are known to contain non-perturbative effects, such as the (supersymmetric) double-well potential, the pure anharmonic oscillator, and the perturbative expansion around a false vacuum.
- Dec 03 2014 astro-ph.CO hep-th arXiv:1412.0678v2We investigate the possible implications of the measured value of the scalar tilt $n_s$ for the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ in slow-roll, single-field inflationary models. The measured value of the tilt satisfies $n_s -1\sim 1/N_*$, where $N_* \sim 60$ is the number of $e$-folds for observationally relevant scales. If this is not a coincidence and the scaling holds for different values of $N$, it strongly suggests that either $r$ is as big as $10^{-1}$ (a possibility in tension with the recent data), or smaller than $10^{-2}$ and exponentially dependent on $n_s$. A large region of the ($n_s$,$r$) plane is not compatible with this scaling.
- It has recently been shown that in single field slow-roll inflation the total volume cannot grow by a factor larger than e^(S_dS/2) without becoming infinite. The bound is saturated exactly at the phase transition to eternal inflation where the probability to produce infinite volume becomes non zero. We show that the bound holds sharply also in any space-time dimensions, when arbitrary higher-dimensional operators are included and in the multi-field inflationary case. The relation with the entropy of de Sitter and the universality of the bound strengthen the case for a deeper holographic interpretation. As a spin-off we provide the formalism to compute the probability distribution of the volume after inflation for generic multi-field models, which might help to address questions about the population of vacua of the landscape during slow-roll inflation.
- We clarify a number of issues on Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) terms in supergravity, keeping the formalism at a minumum and making use of explicit examples. We explain why, if the U(1) vector is massive everywhere in field space, FI terms are not genuine and can always be redefined away or introduced when they are not present. We formulate a simple anomaly-free model with a genuine FI term, a classically stable de Sitter (dS) vacuum and no global symmetries. We explore the relation between N=2 and N=1 FI terms by discussing N=1 truncations of N=2 models with classically stable dS vacua.
- We study the possibility of gauging the Standard Model flavor group. Anomaly cancellation leads to the addition of fermions whose mass is inversely proportional to the known fermion masses. In this case all flavor violating effects turn out to be controlled roughly by the Standard Model Yukawa, suppressing transitions for the light generations. Due to the inverted hierarchy the scale of new gauge flavor bosons could be as low as the electroweak scale without violating any existing bound but accessible at the Tevatron and the LHC. The mechanism of flavor protection potentially provides an alternative to Minimal Flavor Violation, with flavor violating effects suppressed by hierarchy of scales rather than couplings.
- Jun 03 2009 hep-th arXiv:0906.0370v3We establish the precise correspondence between Type-IIA flux compactifications preserving an exact or spontaneously broken N=4 supersymmetry in four dimensions, and gaugings of their effective N=4 supergravities. We exhibit the explicit map between fluxes and Bianchi identities in the higher-dimensional theory and generalized structure constants and Jacobi identities in the reduced theory, also detailing the origin of gauge groups embedded at angles in the duality group. We present AdS4 solutions of the massive Type-IIA theory with spontaneous breaking to N=1, at small string coupling and large volume, and discuss their dual CFT3.
- We calculate the probability distribution for the volume of the Universe after slow-roll inflation both in the eternal and in the non-eternal regime. Far from the eternal regime the probability distribution for the number of e-foldings, defined as one third of the logarithm of the volume, is sharply peaked around the number of e-foldings of the classical inflaton trajectory. At the transition to the eternal regime this probability is still peaked (with the width of order one e-folding) around the average, which gets twice larger at the transition point. As one enters the eternal regime the probability for the volume to be finite rapidly becomes exponentially small. In addition to developing techniques to study eternal inflation, our results allow us to establish the quantum generalization of a recently proposed bound on the number of e-foldings in the non-eternal regime: the probability for slow-roll inflation to produce a finite volume larger than e^(S_dS/2), where S_dS is the de Sitter entropy at the end of the inflationary stage, is smaller than the uncertainty due to non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. The existence of such a bound provides a consistency check for the idea of de Sitter complementarity.
- Even if nothing but a light Higgs is observed at the LHC, suggesting that the Standard Model is unmodified up to scales far above the weak scale, Higgs physics can yield surprises of fundamental significance for cosmology. As has long been known, the Standard Model vacuum may be metastable for low enough Higgs mass, but a specific value of the decay rate holds special significance: for a very narrow window of parameters, our Universe has not yet decayed but the current inflationary period can not be future eternal. Determining whether we are in this window requires exquisite but achievable experimental precision, with a measurement of the Higgs mass to 0.1 GeV at the LHC, the top mass to 60 MeV at a linear collider, as well as an improved determination of alpha_s by an order of magnitude on the lattice. If the parameters are observed to lie in this special range, particle physics will establish that the future of our Universe is a global big crunch, without harboring pockets of eternal inflation, strongly suggesting that eternal inflation is censored by the fundamental theory. This conclusion could be drawn even more sharply if metastability with the appropriate decay rate is found in the MSSM, where the physics governing the instability can be directly probed at the TeV scale.
- Oct 16 2007 hep-th arXiv:0710.2551v2We derive new consistency conditions for string compactifications with generic fluxes (RR, NSNS, geometrical) and localized sources (D-branes, NS-branes, KK-monopoles). The constraints are all related by string dualities and share a common origin in M-theory. We also find new sources of instabilities. We discuss the importance of these conditions for the consistency of the effective action and for the study of interpolating solutions between vacua.
- It is well known that in Lorentz invariant quantum field theories in flat space the commutator of space-like separated local operators vanishes (microcausality). We provide two different arguments showing that this is a consequence of the causal structure of the classical theory, rather than of Lorentz invariance. In particular, microcausality holds in arbitrary curved space-times, where Lorentz invariance is explicitly broken by the background metric. As illustrated by an explicit calculation on a cylinder this property is rather non trivial at the level of Feynman diagrams.
- Jun 22 2007 hep-th arXiv:0706.3049v1Exploiting the fact that Kaluza-Klein monopoles and the associated generalized orbifold planes are sources for geometrical fluxes, omega, we show that the standard constraint omega.omega=0, valid for superstring compactifications on twisted tori, can be consistently relaxed. This leads to novel possibilities for constructing superstring models with fluxes and localized sources, as well as for stabilizing moduli. This also explains the ten-dimensional origin of a family of N=4 gauged supergravities, whose interpretation in type-IIA orientifold compactifications was lacking.
- Apr 16 2007 hep-th arXiv:0704.1814v1We show that in any model of non-eternal inflation satisfying the null energy condition, the area of the de Sitter horizon increases by at least one Planck unit in each inflationary e-folding. This observation gives an operational meaning to the finiteness of the entropy S_dS of an inflationary de Sitter space eventually exiting into an asymptotically flat region: the asymptotic observer is never able to measure more than e^(S_dS) independent inflationary modes. This suggests a limitation on the amount of de Sitter space outside the horizon that can be consistently described at the semiclassical level, fitting well with other examples of the breakdown of locality in quantum gravity, such as in black hole evaporation. The bound does not hold in models of inflation that violate the null energy condition, such as ghost inflation. This strengthens the case for the thermodynamical interpretation of the bound as conventional black hole thermodynamics also fails in these models, strongly suggesting that these theories are incompatible with basic gravitational principles.
- The long-distance effective field theory of our Universe--the Standard Model coupled to gravity--has a unique 4D vacuum, but we show that it also has a landscape of lower-dimensional vacua, with the potential for moduli arising from vacuum and Casimir energies. For minimal Majorana neutrino masses, we find a near-continuous infinity of AdS3xS1 vacua, with circumference ~20 microns and AdS3 length 4x10^25 m. By AdS/CFT, there is a CFT2 of central charge c~10^90 which contains the Standard Model (and beyond) coupled to quantum gravity in this vacuum. Physics in these vacua is the same as in ours for energies between 10^-1 eV and 10^48 GeV, so this CFT2 also describes all the physics of our vacuum in this energy range. We show that it is possible to realize quantum-stabilized AdS vacua as near-horizon regions of new kinds of quantum extremal black objects in the higher-dimensional space--near critical black strings in 4D, near-critical black holes in 3D. The violation of the null-energy condition by the Casimir energy is crucial for these horizons to exist, as has already been realized for analogous non-extremal 3D black holes by Emparan, Fabbri and Kaloper. The new extremal 3D black holes are particularly interesting--they are (meta)stable with an entropy independent of hbar and G_N, so a microscopic counting of the entropy may be possible in the G_N->0 limit. Our results suggest that it should be possible to realize the larger landscape of AdS vacua in string theory as near-horizon geometries of new extremal black brane solutions.
- We elucidate the structure of D terms in N=1 orientifold compactifications with fluxes. As a case study, we consider a simple orbifold of the type-IIA theory with D6-branes at angles, O6-planes and general NSNS, RR and Scherk-Schwarz geometrical fluxes. We examine in detail the emergence of D terms, in their standard supergravity form, from an appropriate limit of the D-brane action. We derive the consistency conditions on gauged symmetries and general fluxes coming from brane-localized Bianchi identities, and their relation with the Freed-Witten anomaly. We extend our results to other N=1 compactifications and to non-geometrical fluxes. Finally, we discuss the possible role of U(1) D terms in the stabilization of the untwisted moduli from the closed string sector.
- We introduce a new mechanism for producing locally stable de-Sitter or Minkowski vacua, with spontaneously broken N=1 supersymmetry and no massless scalars, applicable to superstring and M-theory compactifications with fluxes. We illustrate the mechanism with a simple N=1 supergravity model that provides parametric control on the sign and the size of the vacuum energy. The crucial ingredient is a gauged U(1) that involves both an axionic shift and an R-symmetry, and severely constrains the F- and D-term contributions to the potential.
- We consider N=1 compactifications of the type-IIA theory on the T6/(Z2xZ2) orbifold and O6 orientifold, in the presence of D6-branes and general NSNS, RR and Scherk-Schwarz geometrical fluxes. Introducing a suitable dual formulation of the theory, we derive and solve the Bianchi identities, and show how certain combinations of fluxes can relax the constraints on D6-brane configurations coming from the cancellation of RR tadpoles. We then compute, via generalized dimensional reduction, the N=1, D=4 effective potential for the seven main moduli, and comment on the relation with truncated N=4 gaugings. As a byproduct, we obtain a general geometrical expression for the superpotential. We finally identify a family of fluxes, compatible with all Bianchi identities, that perturbatively stabilize all seven moduli in supersymmetric AdS4.
- Jul 14 2004 hep-th arXiv:hep-th/0407105v2We construct new N=6 gauged supergravities in four and five dimensions using generalized dimensional reduction. Supersymmetry is spontaneously broken to N=4,2,0 with vanishing cosmological constant. We discuss the gaugings of the broken phases, the scalar geometries and the spectrum. Generalized orbifold reduction is also considered and an N=3 no-scale model is obtained with three independent mass parameters.
- Jun 23 2004 hep-th arXiv:hep-th/0406185v2We consider the generalized dimensional reduction of pure ungauged N=4, D=5 supergravity, where supersymmetry is spontaneously broken to N=2 or N=0 with identically vanishing scalar potential. We explicitly construct the resulting gauged D=4 theory coupled to a single vector multiplet, which provides the minimal N=4 realization of a no-scale model. We discuss its relation with the standard classification of N=4 gaugings, extensions to non-compact twists and to higher dimensions, the N=2 theories obtained via consistent Z_2 orbifold projections and prospects for further generalizations.