results for au:Ursin_R in:quant-ph

- Mar 05 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.00583v1Techniques for the distribution of quantum-secured cryptographic keys have reached a level of maturity allowing them to be implemented in all kinds of environments, away from any form of laboratory infrastructure. Here, we detail the distribution of entanglement between Malta and Sicily over a 96 km-long submarine telecommunications optical fibre cable. We used this standard telecommunications fibre as a quantum channel to distribute polarisation-entangled photons and were able to observe around 257 photon pairs per second, with a polarisation visibility above 90%. Our experiment demonstrates the feasibility of using deployed submarine telecommunications optical fibres as long-distance quantum channels for polarisation-entangled photons. This opens up a plethora of possibilities for future experiments and technological applications using existing infrastructure.
- Jan 22 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.06194v1Quantum networks scale the advantages of quantum communication protocols to more than just two distant users. Here we present a fully connected quantum network architecture in which a single entangled photon source distributes quantum states to a multitude of users. Our network architecture thus minimizes the resources required of each user without sacrificing security or functionality. As no adaptations of the source are required to add users, the network can readily be scaled to a large number of clients, whereby no trust in the provider of the quantum source is required. Unlike previous attempts at multi-user networks, which have been based on active components, and thus limited to some duty cycle, our implementation is fully passive and thus provides the potential for unprecedented quantum communication speeds. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a single source of bi-partite polarization entanglement which is multiplexed into 12 wavelength channels to distribute 6 states between 4 users in a fully connected graph using only 1 fiber and polarization analysis module per user.
- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Nov 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.03409v3Satellites are the efficient way to achieve global scale quantum communication (Q.Com) because unavoidable losses restrict fiber based Q.Com to a few hundred kilometers. We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a Q.Com uplink with a tiny 3U CubeSat (measuring just 10X10X32 cm^3 ) using commercial off-the-shelf components, the majority of which have space heritage. We demonstrate how to leverage the latest advancements in nano-satellite body-pointing to show that our 4kg CubeSat can provide performance comparable to much larger 600kg satellite missions. A comprehensive link budget and simulation was performed to calculate the secure key rates. We discuss design choices and trade-offs to maximize the key rate while minimizing the cost and development needed. Our detailed design and feasibility study can be readily used as a template for global scale Q.Com.
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01886v3We present a ground-to-space quantum key distribution (QKD) mission concept and the accompanying feasibility study for the development of the low earth orbit CubeSat payload. The quantum information is carried by single photons with the binary codes represented by polarization states of the photons. Distribution of entangled photons between the ground and the satellite can be used to certify the quantum nature of the link: a guarantee that no eavesdropping can take place. By placing the entangled photon source on the ground, the space segments contains only the less complex detection system, enabling its implementation in a compact enclosure, compatible with the 12U CubeSat standard (12 dm3). This reduces the overall cost of the project, making it an ideal choice as a pathfinder for future European quantum communication satellite missions. The space segment is also more versatile than one that contains the source since it is compatible with a multiple of QKD protocols (not restricted to entangled photon schemes) and can be used in quantum physics experiments, such as the investigation of entanglement decoherence. Other possible experiments include atmospheric transmission/turbulence characterization, dark area mapping, fine pointing and tracking, and accurate clock synchronization; all crucial for future global scale quantum communication efforts.
- May 01 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.08707v1Quantum communication is a prime space technology application and offers near-term possibilities for long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and experimental tests of quantum entanglement. However, there exists considerable developmental risks and subsequent costs and time required to raise the technological readiness level of terrestrial quantum technologies and to adapt them for space operations. The small-space revolution is a promising route by which synergistic advances in miniaturization of both satellite systems and quantum technologies can be combined to leap-frog conventional space systems development. Here, we outline a recent proposal to perform orbit-to-ground transmission of entanglement and QKD using a CubeSat platform deployed from the International Space Station (ISS). This ambitious mission exploits advances in nanosatellite attitude determination and control systems (ADCS), miniaturised target acquisition and tracking sensors, compact and robust sources of single and entangled photons, and high-speed classical communications systems, all to be incorporated within a 10 kg 6 litre mass-volume envelope. The CubeSat Quantum Communications Mission (CQuCoM) would be a pathfinder for advanced nanosatellite payloads and operations, and would establish the basis for a constellation of low-Earth orbit trusted-nodes for QKD service provision.
- Models of quantum systems on curved space-times lack sufficient experimental verification. Some speculative theories suggest that quantum properties, such as entanglement, may exhibit entirely different behavior to purely classical systems. By measuring this effect or lack thereof, we can test the hypotheses behind several such models. For instance, as predicted by Ralph and coworkers [T C Ralph, G J Milburn, and T Downes, Phys. Rev. A, 79(2):22121, 2009, T C Ralph and J Pienaar, New Journal of Physics, 16(8):85008, 2014], a bipartite entangled system could decohere if each particle traversed through a different gravitational field gradient. We propose to study this effect in a ground to space uplink scenario. We extend the above theoretical predictions of Ralph and coworkers and discuss the scientific consequences of detecting/failing to detect the predicted gravitational decoherence. We present a detailed mission design of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Space QUEST (Space - Quantum Entanglement Space Test) mission, and study the feasibility of the mission schema.
- Jan 17 2017 physics.ins-det quant-ph arXiv:1701.03783v2Single-photon detectors, like Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs), have a great importance in many fields like quantum key distribution, laser ranging, florescence microscopy, etc. Afterpulsing is a typical non ideal behavior of APDs, operated in Geiger mode, which adversely affects any application which measures the number or timing of detection events. Several conflicting studies have tried to model afterpulsing behavior and link it to fundamental semiconductor physics. Here we describe experiments we performed on at least 2 different detectors from 3 manufacturers, all commonly used in quantum optics setups. We report on the timing structure of the counts. By fitting different models to these data, we found statistically significant differences between the detectors used. Furthermore, we report on the presence of high order afterpulses which are not accounted for in any of the standard models of afterpulse behavior. This might have significant implication e.g. in quantum key distribution systems, as the modeling of the devices in use will have to be part of the security analysis for some systems. Significant differences between manufacturers and even between seemingly identical detectors of the same make and batch suggest that every individual detector needs to be calibrated. We describe a reliable procedure to perform such a calibration and present our findings on three different commercial products.
- Jan 05 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1701.00989v1The secure communication of information plays an ever increasing role in our society today. Classical methods of encryption inherently rely on the difficulty of solving a problem such as finding prime factors of large numbers and can, in principle, be cracked by a fast enough machine. The burgeoning field of quantum communication relies on the fundamental laws of physics to offer unconditional information security. Here we introduce the key concepts of quantum superposition and entanglement as well as the no-cloning theorem that form the basis of this field. Then, we review basic quantum communication schemes with single and entangled photons and discuss recent experimental progress in ground and space-based quantum communication. Finally, we discuss the emerging field of high-dimensional quantum communication, which promises increased data rates and higher levels of security than ever before. We discuss recent experiments that use the orbital angular momentum of photons for sharing large amounts of information in a secure fashion.
- Dec 05 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.00751v2Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource in quantum information processing and its distribution between distant parties is a key challenge in quantum communications. Increasing the dimensionality of entanglement has been shown to improve robustness and channel capacities in secure quantum communications. Here we report on the distribution of genuine high-dimensional entanglement via a 1.2-km-long free-space link across Vienna. We exploit hyperentanglement, that is, simultaneous entanglement in polarization and energy-time bases, to encode quantum information, and observe high-visibility interference for successive correlation measurements in each degree of freedom. These visibilities impose lower bounds on entanglement in each subspace individually and certify four-dimensional entanglement for the hyperentangled system. The high-fidelity transmission of high-dimensional entanglement under real-world atmospheric link conditions represents an important step towards long-distance quantum communications with more complex quantum systems and the implementation of advanced quantum experiments with satellite links.
- Nov 22 2016 quant-ph astro-ph.CO arXiv:1611.06985v2Bell's theorem states that some predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a local-realist theory. That conflict is expressed by Bell's inequality, which is usually derived under the assumption that there are no statistical correlations between the choices of measurement settings and anything else that can causally affect the measurement outcomes. In previous experiments, this "freedom of choice" was addressed by ensuring that selection of measurement settings via conventional "quantum random number generators" was space-like separated from the entangled particle creation. This, however, left open the possibility that an unknown cause affected both the setting choices and measurement outcomes as recently as mere microseconds before each experimental trial. Here we report on a new experimental test of Bell's inequality that, for the first time, uses distant astronomical sources as "cosmic setting generators." In our tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons, and that each stellar photon's color was set at emission, we observe statistically significant $\gtrsim 7.31 \sigma$ and $\gtrsim 11.93 \sigma$ violations of Bell's inequality with estimated $p$-values of $ \lesssim 1.8 \times 10^{-13}$ and $\lesssim 4.0 \times 10^{-33}$, respectively, thereby pushing back by $\sim$600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.
- Aug 09 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.02473v1The quantization of the electromagnetic field has successfully paved the way for the development of the Standard Model of Particle Physics and has established the basis for quantum technologies. Gravity, however, continues to hold out against physicists' efforts of including it into the framework of quantum theory. Experimental techniques in quantum optics have only recently reached the precision and maturity required for the investigation of quantum systems under the influence of gravitational fields. Here, we report on experiments in which a genuine quantum state of an entangled photon pair was exposed to a series of different accelerations. We measure an entanglement witness for $g$ values ranging from 30 mg to up to 30 g - under free-fall as well on a spinning centrifuge - and have thus derived an upper bound on the effects of uniform acceleration on photonic entanglement. Our work represents the first quantum optics experiment in which entanglement is systematically tested in geodesic motion as well as in accelerated reference frames with acceleration a>>g = 9.81 m/s^2.
- Jun 07 2016 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1606.01811v1Spatial modes of light can potentially carry a vast amount of information, making them promising candidates for both classical and quantum communication. However, the distribution of such modes over large distances remains difficult. Intermodal coupling complicates their use with common fibers, while free-space transmission is thought to be strongly influenced by atmospheric turbulence. Here we show the transmission of orbital angular momentum modes of light over a distance of 143 kilometers between two Canary Islands, which is 50 times greater than the maximum distance achieved previously. As a demonstration of the transmission quality, we use superpositions of these modes to encode a short message. At the receiver, an artificial neural network is used for distinguishing between the different twisted light superpositions. The algorithm is able to identify different mode superpositions with an accuracy of more than 80% up to the third mode order, and decode the transmitted message with an error rate of 8.33%. Using our data, we estimate that the distribution of orbital angular momentum entanglement over more than 100 kilometers of free space is feasible. Moreover, the quality of our free-space link can be further improved by the use of state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems.
- Nov 11 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1511.03190v2Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here we report a Bell test that closes the most significant of these loopholes simultaneously. Using a well-optimized source of entangled photons, rapid setting generation, and highly efficient superconducting detectors, we observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The purely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism does not exceed $3.74 \times 10^{-31}$, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.
- Mar 10 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.02640v1Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schrödinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission MAQRO may overcome these limitations and allow addressing those fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal of MAQRO is to probe the vastly unexplored "quantum-classical" transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for truly macroscopic objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware for the mission will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the (M4) Cosmic Vision call of the European Space Agency for a medium-size mission opportunity with a possible launch in 2025.
- Sep 10 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1409.2746v2Single photon detectors are important for a wide range of applications each with their own specific requirements, which makes necessary the precise characterization of detectors. Here, we present a simple and accurate methodology of characterizing dark count rate, detection efficiency, and after-pulsing in single photon detectors purely based on their counting statistics. We demonstrate our new method on a custom-made, free-running single photon detector based on an InGaAs based avalanche photo diode (APD), though the methodology presented here is applicable for any type of single photon detector.
- We propose a quantum experiment to measure with high precision the Schwarzschild space-time parameters of the Earth. The scheme can also be applied to measure distances by taking into account the curvature of the Earth's space-time. As a wave-packet of (entangled) light is sent from the Earth to a satellite it is red-shifted and deformed due to the curvature of space-time. Measurements after the propagation enable the estimation of the space-time parameters. We compare our results with the state of the art, which involves classical measurement methods, and discuss what developments are required in space-based quantum experiments to improve on the current measurement of the Schwarzschild radius of the Earth.
- Jul 18 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1407.4602v2Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.
- Apr 29 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1404.6914v1We demonstrate a novel scheme for femto-second pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion in periodically poled KTP crystals. Our scheme is based on a crossed crystal configuration with collinear quasi-phase-matching. The non-degenerate photon pairs are split in a fiber-based wavelength division multiplexer. The source is easier to align than common pulsed sources based on bulk BBO crystals and exhibits high-quality polarization entanglement as well as non-classical interference capabilities. Hence, we expect this source to be a well-suited candidate for multi-photon state generation e.g. for linear optical quantum computation and quantum communication networks.
- Mar 13 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.2811v2Recently, the results of the first experimental test for entangled photons closing the detection loophole (also referred to as the fair sampling loophole) were published (Vienna, 2013). From the theoretical viewpoint the main distinguishing feature of this long-aspired experiment was that the Eberhard inequality was used. Almost simultaneously another experiment closing this loophole was performed (Urbana-Champaign, 2013) and it was based on the Clauser-Horne inequality (for probabilities). The aim of this note is to analyze the mathematical and experimental equivalence of tests based on the Eberhard inequality and various forms on the Clauser-Horne inequality. The structure of the mathematical equivalence is nontrivial. In particular, it is necessary to distinguish between algebraic and statistical equivalence. Although the tests based on these inequalities are algebraically equivalent, they need not be equivalent statistically, i.e., theoretically the level of statistical significance can drop under transition from one test to another (at least for finite samples). Nevertheless, the data collected in the Vienna-test implies not only a statistically significant violation of the Eberhard inequality, but also of the Clauser-Horne inequality (in the ratio-rate form): for both a violation $>60\sigma.$
- Mar 04 2014 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1403.0009v4As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g. for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e. entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 standard deviations beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Since our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our assay to lay the ground for a fully-fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.
- Feb 12 2014 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1402.2602v2The transverse spatial modes of light offer a large state-space with interesting physical properties. For exploiting it in future long-distance experiments, spatial modes will have to be transmitted over turbulent free-space links. Numerous recent lab-scale experiments have found significant degradation in the mode quality after transmission through simulated turbulence and consecutive coherent detection. Here we experimentally analyze the transmission of one prominent class of spatial modes, the orbital-angular momentum (OAM) modes, through 3 km of strong turbulence over the city of Vienna. Instead of performing a coherent phase-dependent measurement, we employ an incoherent detection scheme which relies on the unambiguous intensity patterns of the different spatial modes. We use a pattern recognition algorithm (an artificial neural network) to identify the characteristic mode pattern displayed on a screen at the receiver. We were able to distinguish between 16 different OAM mode superpositions with only ~1.7% error, and use them to encode and transmit small grey-scale images. Moreover, we found that the relative phase of the superposition modes is not affected by the atmosphere, establishing the feasibility for performing long-distance quantum experiments with the OAM of photons. Our detection method works for other classes of spatial modes with unambiguous intensity patterns as well, and can further be improved by modern techniques of pattern recognition.
- We characterize a new commercial, back-illuminated reach-through silicon single-photon avalanche photo diode (SPAD) SAP500 (Laser Components. Inc.), operated in Geiger-mode for purpose of photon counting. We show that for this sensor a significant interplay exists between dark counts, detection efficiency, afterpulsing, excess voltage and operating temperature, sometimes requiring a careful optimization tailored for a specific application. We find that a large flat plateau of sensitive area of about 0.5 mm in diameter, a peak quantum efficiency of 73% at 560 nm and timing precision down to 150 ps FWHM are the main distinguishing characteristics of this SPAD.
- Sep 04 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1309.0712v2In a local realist world view, physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement, and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Proper experimental violation of a Bell inequality would show that the world cannot be described within local realism. Such experiments usually require additional assumptions that make them vulnerable to a number of "loopholes." A recent experiment [Giustina et al, Nature, 2013] violated a Bell inequality without being vulnerable to the detection (or fair-sampling) loophole, therefore not needing the fair-sampling assumption. Here we analyze the more subtle coincidence-time loophole, and propose and prove the validity of two different methods of data analysis that avoid it. Both methods are general and can be used both for pulsed and continuous-wave experiments. We apply them to demonstrate that the experiment mentioned above violates local realism without being vulnerable to the coincidence-time loophole, therefore not needing the corresponding fair-coincidence assumption.
- Dec 04 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1212.0533v2The violation of a Bell inequality is an experimental observation that forces one to abandon a local realistic worldview, namely, one in which physical properties are (probabilistically) defined prior to and independent of measurement and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. All such experimental violations require additional assumptions depending on their specific construction making them vulnerable to so-called "loopholes." Here, we use photons and high-efficiency superconducting detectors to violate a Bell inequality closing the fair-sampling loophole, i.e. without assuming that the sample of measured photons accurately represents the entire ensemble. Additionally, we demonstrate that our setup can realize one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution on both sides. This represents a significant advance relevant to both fundamental tests and promising quantum applications.
- Nov 22 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1211.5059v2Single photons are an important prerequisite for a broad spectrum of quantum optical applications. We experimentally demonstrate a heralded single-photon source based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion in collinear bulk optics, and fiber-coupled bolometric transition-edge sensors. Without correcting for background, losses, or detection inefficiencies, we measure an overall heralding efficiency of 83 %. By violating a Bell inequality, we confirm the single-photon character and high-quality entanglement of our heralded single photons which, in combination with the high heralding efficiency, are a necessary ingredient for advanced quantum communication protocols such as one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution.
- Nov 12 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1211.2111v1We propose performing quantum optics experiments in an ground-to-space scenario using the International Space Station, which is equipped with a glass viewing window and a photographer's lens mounted on a motorized camera pod. A dedicated small add-on module with single-photon detection, time-tagging and classical communication capabilities would enable us to perform the first-ever quantum optics experiments in space. We present preliminary design concepts for the ground and flight segments and study the feasibility of the intended mission scenario.
- Oct 05 2012 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1210.1282v1We present a high-fidelity quantum teleportation experiment over a high-loss free-space channel between two laboratories. We teleported six states of three mutually unbiased bases and obtained an average state fidelity of 0.82(1), well beyond the classical limit of 2/3. With the obtained data, we tomographically reconstructed the process matrices of quantum teleportation. The free-space channel attenuation of 31 dB corresponds to the estimated attenuation regime for a down-link from a low-earth-orbit satellite to a ground station. We also discussed various important technical issues for future experiments, including the dark counts of single-photon detectors, coincidence-window width etc. Our experiment tested the limit of performing quantum teleportation with state-of-the-art resources. It is an important step towards future satellite-based quantum teleportation and paves the way for establishing a worldwide quantum communication network.
- We demonstrate how adversaries with unbounded computing resources can break Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not Information-Theoretically Secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced it was shown to prevent straightforward Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols. In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity. Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKD-postprocessing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.
- Jul 31 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1207.6931v1The study of the free-space distribution of quantum correlations is necessary for any future application of quantum as classical communication aiming to connect two remote locations. Here we study the propagation of a coherent laser beam over 143 Km (between Tenerife and La Palma Islands of the Canary archipelagos). By attenuating the beam we also studied the propagation at the single photon level. We investigated the statistic of arrival of the incoming photons and the scintillation of the beam. From the analysis of the data, we propose the exploitation of turbulence to improve the SNR of the signal.
- Jun 29 2012 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1206.6578v2The counterintuitive features of quantum physics challenge many common-sense assumptions. In an interferometric quantum eraser experiment, one can actively choose whether or not to erase which-path information, a particle feature, of one quantum system and thus observe its wave feature via interference or not by performing a suitable measurement on a distant quantum system entangled with it. In all experiments performed to date, this choice took place either in the past or, in some delayed-choice arrangements, in the future of the interference. Thus in principle, physical communications between choice and interference were not excluded. Here we report a quantum eraser experiment, in which by enforcing Einstein locality no such communication is possible. This is achieved by independent active choices, which are space-like separated from the interference. Our setup employs hybrid path-polarization entangled photon pairs which are distributed over an optical fiber link of 55 m in one experiment, or over a free-space link of 144 km in another. No naive realistic picture is compatible with our results because whether a quantum could be seen as showing particle- or wave-like behavior would depend on a causally disconnected choice. It is therefore suggestive to abandon such pictures altogether.
- May 18 2012 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1205.3909v1Quantum teleportation [1] is a quintessential prerequisite of many quantum information processing protocols [2-4]. By using quantum teleportation, one can circumvent the no-cloning theorem [5] and faithfully transfer unknown quantum states to a party whose location is even unknown over arbitrary distances. Ever since the first experimental demonstrations of quantum teleportation of independent qubits [6] and of squeezed states [7], researchers have progressively extended the communication distance in teleportation, usually without active feed-forward of the classical Bell-state measurement result which is an essential ingredient in future applications such as communication between quantum computers. Here we report the first long-distance quantum teleportation experiment with active feed-forward in real time. The experiment employed two optical links, quantum and classical, over 143 km free space between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife. To achieve this, the experiment had to employ novel techniques such as a frequency-uncorrelated polarization-entangled photon pair source, ultra-low-noise single-photon detectors, and entanglement-assisted clock synchronization. The average teleported state fidelity was well beyond the classical limit of 2/3. Furthermore, we confirmed the quality of the quantum teleportation procedure (without feed-forward) by complete quantum process tomography. Our experiment confirms the maturity and applicability of the involved technologies in real-world scenarios, and is a milestone towards future satellite-based quantum teleportation.
- Apr 25 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1204.5330v1We present a simple but highly efficient source of polarization-entangled photons based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in bulk periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystals (PPKTP) pumped by a 405 nm laser diode. Utilizing one of the highest available nonlinear coefficients in a non-degenerate, collinear type-0 phase-matching configuration, we generate polarization entanglement via the crossed-crystal scheme and detect 0.64 million photon pair events/s/mW, while maintaining an overlap fidelity with the ideal Bell state of 0.98 at a pump power of 0.025 mW.
- Mar 23 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1203.4834v2Motivated by the question, which kind of physical interactions and processes are needed for the production of quantum entanglement, Peres has put forward the radical idea of delayed-choice entanglement swapping. There, entanglement can be "produced a posteriori, after the entangled particles have been measured and may no longer exist". In this work we report the first realization of Peres' gedanken experiment. Using four photons, we can actively delay the choice of measurement-implemented via a high-speed tunable bipartite state analyzer and a quantum random number generator-on two of the photons into the time-like future of the registration of the other two photons. This effectively projects the two already registered photons onto one definite of two mutually exclusive quantum states in which either the photons are entangled (quantum correlations) or separable (classical correlations). This can also be viewed as "quantum steering into the past".
- Nov 04 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1111.0760v3Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, there still remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes - the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes - in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of "steering". The term steering was introduced by Schrödinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer the state of a distant system as in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument. Einstein called this "spooky action at a distance". EPR-Steering has recently been rigorously formulated as a quantum information task opening it up to new experimental tests. Here, we present the first loophole-free demonstration of EPR-steering by violating three-setting quadratic steering inequality, tested with polarization entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories. Our experiment demonstrates this effect while simultaneously closing all loopholes: both the locality loophole and a specific form of the freedom-of-choice loophole are closed by having a large separation of the parties and using fast quantum random number generators, and the fair-sampling loophole is closed by having high overall detection efficiency. Thereby, we exclude - for the first time loophole-free - an important class of local realistic theories considered by EPR. As well as its foundational importance, loop-hole-free steering also allows the distribution of quantum entanglement secure from an untrusted party.
- Feb 16 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1102.3033v2A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as $1.14\times 10^{-2}$ while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size, low power consumption and the fact that the components used can be space qualified make the source particularly suitable for secure satellite communication.
- Jul 28 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1007.4645v1A significant limitation of practical quantum key distribution (QKD) setups is currently their limited operational range. It has recently been emphasized (X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, and H.-K. Lo., Phys. Rev. A, 76:012307, 2007) that entanglement-based QKD systems can tolerate higher channel losses than systems based on weak coherent laser pulses (WCP), in particular when the source is located symmetrically between the two communicating parties, Alice and Bob. In the work presented here, we experimentally study this important advantage by implementing different entanglement-based QKD setups on a 144~km free-space link between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife. We established three different configurations where the entangled photon source was placed at Alice's location, asymmetrically between Alice and Bob and symmetrically in the middle between Alice and Bob, respectively. The resulting quantum channel attenuations of 35~dB, 58~dB and 71~dB, respectively, significantly exceed the limit for WCP systems. This confirms that QKD over distances of 300~km and even more is feasible with entangled state sources placed in the middle between Alice and Bob.
- Feb 13 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0902.2015v2Quantum entanglement enables tasks not possible in classical physics. Many quantum communication protocols require the distribution of entangled states between distant parties. Here we experimentally demonstrate the successful transmission of an entangled photon pair over a 144 km free-space link. The received entangled states have excellent, noise-limited fidelity, even though they are exposed to extreme attenuation dominated by turbulent atmospheric effects. The total channel loss of 64 dB corresponds to the estimated attenuation regime for a two-photon satellite quantum communication scenario. We confirm that the received two-photon states are still highly entangled by violating the CHSH inequality by more than 5 standard deviations. From a fundamental point of view, our results show that the photons are virtually not subject to decoherence during their 0.5 ms long flight through air, which is encouraging for future world-wide quantum communication scenarios.
- Nov 20 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0811.3129v2Bell's theorem shows that local realistic theories place strong restrictions on observable correlations between different systems, giving rise to Bell's inequality which can be violated in experiments using entangled quantum states. Bell's theorem is based on the assumptions of realism, locality, and the freedom to choose between measurement settings. In experimental tests, "loopholes" arise which allow observed violations to still be explained by local realistic theories. Violating Bell's inequality while simultaneously closing all such loopholes is one of the most significant still open challenges in fundamental physics today. In this paper, we present an experiment that violates Bell's inequality while simultaneously closing the locality loophole and addressing the freedom-of-choice loophole, also closing the latter within a reasonable set of assumptions. We also explain that the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes can be closed only within non-determinism, i.e. in the context of stochastic local realism.
- Oct 27 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0810.4452v1In a recent experiment, Salart et al. addressed the important issues of the speed of hypothetical communication and of reference frames in Bell-type experiments. The authors report that they "performed a Bell experiment using entangled photons" and conclude from their experimental results that "to maintain an explanation based on spooky action at a distance we would have to assume that the spooky action propagates at speeds even greater than the bounds obtained in our experiment", exceeding the speed of light by orders of magnitude. Here we show that, analyzing the experimental procedure, explanations with subluminal or even no communication at all exist for the experiment.
- Sep 23 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0809.3689v1We report on the usage of a linear optics phase gate for distinguishing all four Bell states simultaneously in a quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping protocol. This is demonstrated by full state tomography of the one and two qubit output states of the two protocols, yielding average state fidelities of about 0.83 and 0.77, respectively. In addition, the performance of the teleportation channel is characterised by quantum process tomography. The non classical properties of the entanglement swapping output states are further confirmed by the violation of a CHSH-type Bell inequality of 2.14 on average.
- Jun 06 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0806.0945v1The European Space Agency (ESA) has supported a range of studies in the field of quantum physics and quantum information science in space for several years, and consequently we have submitted the mission proposal Space-QUEST (Quantum Entanglement for Space Experiments) to the European Life and Physical Sciences in Space Program. We propose to perform space-to-ground quantum communication tests from the International Space Station (ISS). We present the proposed experiments in space as well as the design of a space based quantum communication payload.
- Extending quantum communication to Space environments would enable to perform fundamental experiments on quantum physics as well as applications of quantum information at planetary and interplanetary scales. Here, we report the first experimental implementation of a scheme for single-photon exchange between a satellite and an Earth-based station. We built an experiment that mimics a single photon source on a satellite, exploiting the telescope at the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency to detect the transmitted photons. Weak laser pulses, emitted by the ground-based station, are directed towards a satellite equipped with cube-corner retroreflectors. These reflect a small portion of the pulse, with an average of less-than-one photon per pulse directed to our receiver, as required for the faint-pulse quantum communication. We were able to detect returns from satellite Ajisai, a low-earth orbit geodetic satellite, whose orbit has a perigee height of 1485 km.
- Jul 27 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0607182v2Quantum Entanglement is the essence of quantum physics and inspires fundamental questions about the principles of nature. Moreover it is also the basis for emerging technologies of quantum information processing such as quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation and quantum computation. Bell's discovery, that correlations measured on entangled quantum systems are at variance with a local realistic picture led to a flurry of experiments confirming the quantum predictions. However, it is still experimentally undecided whether quantum entanglement can survive global distances, as predicted by quantum theory. Here we report the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality measured by two observers separated by 144 km between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife via an optical free-space link using the Optical Ground Station (OGS) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Furthermore we used the entangled pairs to generate a quantum cryptographic key under experimental conditions and constraints characteristic for a Space-to-ground experiment. The distance in our experiment exceeds all previous free-space experiments by more than one order of magnitude and exploits the limit for ground-based free-space communication; significantly longer distances can only be reached using air- or space-based platforms. The range achieved thereby demonstrates the feasibility of quantum communication in space, involving satellites or the International Space Station (ISS).
- Aug 18 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0508128v1Linear optics quantum logic operations enabled the observation of a four-photon cluster state. We prove genuine four-partite entanglement and study its persistency, demonstrating remarkable differences to the usual GHZ state. Efficient analysis tools are introduced in the experiment, which will be of great importance in further studies on multi-particle entangled states.
- Jul 01 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0506269v1Linear optics quantum logic gates are the best tool to generate multi-photon entanglement. Simplifying a recent approach [Phys. Rev. A 65, 062324; Phys. Rev. A 66, 024308] we were able to implement the conditional phase gate with only one second order interference at a polarization dependent beam splitter, thereby significantly increasing its stability. The improved quality of the gate is evaluated by analysing its entangling capability and by performing full process tomography. The achieved results ensure that this device is well suited for implementation in various multi photon quantum information protocols.
- Jan 04 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0501008v2We have distributed entangled photons directly through the atmosphere to a receiver station 7.8 km away over the city of Vienna, Austria at night. Detection of one photon from our entangled pairs constitutes a triggered single photon source from the sender. With no direct time-stable connection, the two stations found coincidence counts in the detection events by calculating the cross-correlation of locally-recorded time stamps shared over a public internet channel. For this experiment, our quantum channel was maintained for a total of 40 minutes during which time a coincidence lock found approximately 60000 coincident detection events. The polarization correlations in those events yielded a Bell parameter, S=2.27/pm0.019, which violates the CHSH-Bell inequality by 14 standard deviations. This result is promising for entanglement-based free-space quantum communication in high-density urban areas. It is also encouraging for optical quantum communication between ground stations and satellites since the length of our free-space link exceeds the atmospheric equivalent.
- Experimental teleportation of quantum entanglement with an optimal linear optics Bell-state analyzerSep 02 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0409008v1We demonstrate an experiment on entanglement swapping using an optimal Bell-state measurement capable of identifying two of the four Bell-states for polarization entangled photons, which is the optimum with linear optical elements. The two final photons belong to separately created paris. They are entangled after their original partner photons have been subjected to the Bell state measurement, whose outcome determines the type of entanglement of the final photon pair. The resulting violation of Bell's inequality in both cases confirms the success of the teleportation protocol.
- Aug 11 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0408067v1We have tested the experimental prerequisites for a Space-to-Ground quantum communication link between satellites and an optical ground station. The feasibility of our ideas is being assessed using the facilities of the ASI Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO). Specific emphasis is put on the necessary technological modifications of the existing infrastructure to achieve single photon reception from an orbiting satellite.
- Jul 19 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0407131v1In this work we review the security vulnerability of Quantum Cryptography with respect to "man-in-the-middle attacks" and the standard authentication methods applied to counteract these attacks. We further propose a modified authentication algorithm which features higher efficiency with respect to consumption of mutual secret bits.
- Apr 21 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0404115v2We present an entangled-state quantum cryptography system that operated for the first time in a real world application scenario. The full key generation protocol was performed in real time between two distributed embedded hardware devices, which were connected by 1.45 km of optical fiber, installed for this experiment in the Vienna sewage system. The generated quantum key was immediately handed over and used by a secure communication application.
- Apr 06 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0404027v1In this letter we present the first implementation of a quantum coin tossing protocol. This protocol belongs to a class of ``two-party'' cryptographic problems, where the communication partners distrust each other. As with a number of such two-party protocols, the best implementation of the quantum coin tossing requires qutrits. In this way, we have also performed the first complete quantum communication protocol with qutrits. In our experiment the two partners succeeded to remotely toss a row of coins using photons entangled in the orbital angular momentum. We also show the experimental bounds of a possible cheater and the ways of detecting him.
- Dec 25 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0312197v1Superposition is one of the most distinct features of quantum theory and has been demonstrated in numerous realizations of Young's classical double-slit interference experiment and its analogues. However, quantum entanglement - a significant coherent superposition in multiparticle systems - yields phenomena that are much richer and more interesting than anything that can be seen in a one-particle system. Among them, one important type of multi-particle experiments uses path-entangled number-states, which exhibit pure higher-order interference and allow novel applications in metrology and imaging such as quantum interferometry and spectroscopy with phase sensitivity at the Heisenberg limit or quantum lithography beyond the classical diffraction limit. Up to now, in optical implementations of such schemes lower-order interference effects would always decrease the overall performance at higher particle numbers. They have thus been limited to two photons. We overcome this limitation and demonstrate a linear-optics-based four-photon interferometer. Observation of a four-particle mode-entangled state is confirmed by interference fringes with a periodicity of one quarter of the single-photon wavelength. This scheme can readily be extended to arbitrary photon numbers and thus represents an important step towards realizable applications with entanglement-enhanced performance.