Dec 22 2017 cs.CV
We introduce Intelligent Annotation Dialogs for bounding box annotation. We train an agent to automatically choose a sequence of actions for a human annotator to produce a bounding box in a minimal amount of time. Specifically, we consider two actions: box verification, where the annotator verifies a box generated by an object detector, and manual box drawing. We explore two kinds of agents, one based on predicting the probability that a box will be positively verified, and the other based on reinforcement learning. We demonstrate that (1) our agents are able to learn efficient annotation strategies in several scenarios, automatically adapting to the image difficulty, the desired quality of the boxes, and the detector strength; (2) in all scenarios the resulting annotation dialogs speed up annotation compared to manual box drawing alone and box verification alone, while also outperforming any fixed combination of verification and drawing in most scenarios; (3) in a realistic scenario where the detector is iteratively re-trained, our agents evolve a series of strategies that reflect the shifting trade-off between verification and drawing as the detector grows stronger.
Aug 22 2017 cs.CV
We propose to revisit knowledge transfer for training object detectors on target classes from weakly supervised training images, helped by a set of source classes with bounding-box annotations. We present a unified knowledge transfer framework based on training a single neural network multi-class object detector over all source classes, organized in a semantic hierarchy. This generates proposals with scores at multiple levels in the hierarchy, which we use to explore knowledge transfer over a broad range of generality, ranging from class-specific (bicycle to motorbike) to class-generic (objectness to any class). Experiments on the 200 object classes in the ILSVRC 2013 detection dataset show that our technique: (1) leads to much better performance on the target classes (70.3% CorLoc, 36.9% mAP) than a weakly supervised baseline which uses manually engineered objectness  (50.5% CorLoc, 25.4% mAP). (2) delivers target object detectors reaching 80% of the mAP of their fully supervised counterparts. (3) outperforms the best reported transfer learning results on this dataset (+41% CorLoc and +3% mAP over [18, 46], +16.2% mAP over ). Moreover, we also carry out several across-dataset knowledge transfer experiments [27, 24, 35] and find that (4) our technique outperforms the weakly supervised baseline in all dataset pairs by 1.5x-1.9x, establishing its general applicability.
Aug 10 2017 cs.CV
Manually annotating object bounding boxes is central to building computer vision datasets, and it is very time consuming (annotating ILSVRC  took 35s for one high-quality box ). It involves clicking on imaginary corners of a tight box around the object. This is difficult as these corners are often outside the actual object and several adjustments are required to obtain a tight box. We propose extreme clicking instead: we ask the annotator to click on four physical points on the object: the top, bottom, left- and right-most points. This task is more natural and these points are easy to find. We crowd-source extreme point annotations for PASCAL VOC 2007 and 2012 and show that (1) annotation time is only 7s per box, 5x faster than the traditional way of drawing boxes ; (2) the quality of the boxes is as good as the original ground-truth drawn the traditional way; (3) detectors trained on our annotations are as accurate as those trained on the original ground-truth. Moreover, our extreme clicking strategy not only yields box coordinates, but also four accurate boundary points. We show (4) how to incorporate them into GrabCut to obtain more accurate segmentations than those delivered when initializing it from bounding boxes; (5) semantic segmentations models trained on these segmentations outperform those trained on segmentations derived from bounding boxes.
Jul 20 2017 cs.CV
Many machine vision applications require predictions for every pixel of the input image (for example semantic segmentation, boundary detection). Models for such problems usually consist of encoders which decreases spatial resolution while learning a high-dimensional representation, followed by decoders who recover the original input resolution and result in low-dimensional predictions. While encoders have been studied rigorously, relatively few studies address the decoder side. Therefore this paper presents an extensive comparison of a variety of decoders for a variety of pixel-wise prediction tasks. Our contributions are: (1) Decoders matter: we observe significant variance in results between different types of decoders on various problems. (2) We introduce a novel decoder: bilinear additive upsampling. (3) We introduce new residual-like connections for decoders. (4) We identify two decoder types which give a consistently high performance.
Apr 21 2017 cs.CV
Training object class detectors typically requires a large set of images with objects annotated by bounding boxes. However, manually drawing bounding boxes is very time consuming. In this paper we greatly reduce annotation time by proposing center-click annotations: we ask annotators to click on the center of an imaginary bounding box which tightly encloses the object instance. We then incorporate these clicks into existing Multiple Instance Learning techniques for weakly supervised object localization, to jointly localize object bounding boxes over all training images. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007 and MS COCO show that: (1) our scheme delivers high-quality detectors, performing substantially better than those produced by weakly supervised techniques, with a modest extra annotation effort; (2) these detectors in fact perform in a range close to those trained from manually drawn bounding boxes; (3) as the center-click task is very fast, our scheme reduces total annotation time by 9x to 18x.
Dec 13 2016 cs.CV
Semantic classes can be either things (objects with a well-defined shape, e.g. car, person) or stuff (amorphous background regions, e.g. grass, sky). While lots of classification and detection works focus on thing classes, less attention has been given to stuff classes. Nonetheless, stuff classes are important as they allow to explain important aspects of an image, including (1) scene type; (2) which thing classes are likely to be present and their location (through contextual reasoning); (3) physical attributes, material types and geometric properties of the scene. To understand stuff and things in context we introduce COCO-Stuff, which augments all 164K images of the COCO 2017 dataset with pixel-wise annotations for 91 stuff classes. We introduce an efficient stuff annotation protocol based on superpixels, which leverages the original thing annotations. We quantify the speed versus quality trade-off of our protocol and explore the relation between annotation time and boundary complexity. Furthermore, we use COCO-Stuff to analyze: (a) the importance of stuff and thing classes in terms of their surface cover and how frequently they are mentioned in image captions; (b) the spatial relations between stuff and things, highlighting the rich contextual relations that make our dataset unique; (c) the performance of a modern semantic segmentation method on stuff and thing classes, and whether stuff is easier to segment than things.
Jul 27 2016 cs.CV
We propose a novel method for semantic segmentation, the task of labeling each pixel in an image with a semantic class. Our method combines the advantages of the two main competing paradigms. Methods based on region classification offer proper spatial support for appearance measurements, but typically operate in two separate stages, none of which targets pixel labeling performance at the end of the pipeline. More recent fully convolutional methods are capable of end-to-end training for the final pixel labeling, but resort to fixed patches as spatial support. We show how to modify modern region-based approaches to enable end-to-end training for semantic segmentation. This is achieved via a differentiable region-to-pixel layer and a differentiable free-form Region-of-Interest pooling layer. Our method improves the state-of-the-art in terms of class-average accuracy with 64.0% on SIFT Flow and 49.9% on PASCAL Context, and is particularly accurate at object boundaries.
Feb 29 2016 cs.CV
Training object class detectors typically requires a large set of images in which objects are annotated by bounding-boxes. However, manually drawing bounding-boxes is very time consuming. We propose a new scheme for training object detectors which only requires annotators to verify bounding-boxes produced automatically by the learning algorithm. Our scheme iterates between re-training the detector, re-localizing objects in the training images, and human verification. We use the verification signal both to improve re-training and to reduce the search space for re-localisation, which makes these steps different to what is normally done in a weakly supervised setting. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007 show that (1) using human verification to update detectors and reduce the search space leads to the rapid production of high-quality bounding-box annotations; (2) our scheme delivers detectors performing almost as good as those trained in a fully supervised setting, without ever drawing any bounding-box; (3) as the verification task is very quick, our scheme substantially reduces total annotation time by a factor 6x-9x.
Jul 07 2015 cs.CV
Semantic segmentation is the task of assigning a class-label to each pixel in an image. We propose a region-based semantic segmentation framework which handles both full and weak supervision, and addresses three common problems: (1) Objects occur at multiple scales and therefore we should use regions at multiple scales. However, these regions are overlapping which creates conflicting class predictions at the pixel-level. (2) Class frequencies are highly imbalanced in realistic datasets. (3) Each pixel can only be assigned to a single class, which creates competition between classes. We address all three problems with a joint calibration method which optimizes a multi-class loss defined over the final pixel-level output labeling, as opposed to simply region classification. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on the popular SIFT Flow  dataset in both the fully and weakly supervised setting by a considerably margin (+6% and +10%, respectively).
Apr 27 2015 cs.CV
Intuitively, the appearance of true object boundaries varies from image to image. Hence the usual monolithic approach of training a single boundary predictor and applying it to all images regardless of their content is bound to be suboptimal. In this paper we therefore propose situational object boundary detection: We first define a variety of situations and train a specialized object boundary detector for each of them using [Dollar and Zitnick 2013]. Then given a test image, we classify it into these situations using its context, which we model by global image appearance. We apply the corresponding situational object boundary detectors, and fuse them based on the classification probabilities. In experiments on ImageNet, Microsoft COCO, and Pascal VOC 2012 segmentation we show that our situational object boundary detection gives significant improvements over a monolithic approach. Additionally, our method substantially outperforms [Hariharan et al. 2011] on semantic contour detection on their SBD dataset.