results for au:Torres_D in:gr-qc

- Feb 13 2018 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1802.04177v1From the hundreds of gamma-ray pulsars known, only a handful show non-thermal X-ray pulsations. Instead, nine objects pulse in non-thermal X-rays but lack counterparts at higher energies. Here, we present a physical model for the non-thermal emission of pulsars above 1 keV. With just four physical parameters, we fit the spectrum of the gamma/X-ray pulsars along seven orders of magnitude. We find that all detections can be encompassed in a continuous variation of the model parameters, and pose that their values could likely relate to the closure mechanism operating in the accelerating region. The model explains the appearance of sub-exponential cutoffs at high energies as a natural consequence of synchro-curvature dominated losses, unveiling that curvature-only emission may play a relatively minor role --if any-- in the spectrum of most pulsars. The model also explains the flattening of the X-ray spectra at soft energies as a result of propagating particles being subject to synchrotron losses all along their trajectories. Using this model, we show how observations in gamma-rays can predict the detectability of the pulsar in X-rays, and viceversa.
- Apr 28 2016 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1604.07864v3This Supplement provides supporting material for arXiv:1602.08492 . We briefly summarize past electromagnetic (EM) follow-up efforts as well as the organization and policy of the current EM follow-up program. We compare the four probability sky maps produced for the gravitational-wave transient GW150914, and provide additional details of the EM follow-up observations that were performed in the different bands.
- Mar 01 2016 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1602.08492v4A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.
- This article has been withdrawn by arXiv admins due to excessive reuse of content from other authors. We also note that this article has been retracted from Physics Letters B at http://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2015.03.024
- May 16 2014 astro-ph.SR gr-qc arXiv:1405.3838v2Pulsars in binary systems have been very successful to test the validity of general relativity in the strong field regime. So far, such binaries include neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) systems. It is commonly believed that a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary will be much superior for this purpose. But in what sense is this true? Does it apply to all possible deviations?
- A decade ago, it was shown that a wide class of scalar-tensor theories can pass very restrictive weak field tests of gravity and yet exhibit non-perturbative strong field deviations away from General Relativity. This phenomenon was called `Spontaneous Scalarization' and causes the (Einstein frame) scalar field inside a neutron star to rapidly become inhomogeneous once the star's mass increases above some critical value. For a star whose mass is below the threshold, the field is instead nearly uniform (a state which minimises the star's energy) and the configuration is similar to the General Relativity one. Here, we show that the spontaneous scalarization phenomenon is linked to another strong field effect: a spontaneous violation of the weak energy condition.
- We present a complete treatment in the strong field limit of gravitational retro-lensing by a static spherically symmetric compact object having a photon sphere. The results are compared with those corresponding to ordinary lensing in similar strong field situations. As examples of application of the formalism, a supermassive black hole at the galactic center and a stellar mass black hole in the galactic halo are studied as retro-lenses, in both cases using the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom geometries.
- Aug 16 2002 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0208039v1We present three different theoretically foreseen, but unusual, astrophysical situations where the gravitational lens equation ends up being the same, thus producing a degeneracy problem. These situations are (a) the case of gravitational lensing by exotic stresses (matter violating the weak energy condition and thus having a negative mass, particular cases of wormholes solutions can be used as an example), (b) scalar field gravitational lensing (i.e. when considering the appearance of a scalar charge in the lensing scenario), and (c) gravitational lensing in closed universes (with antipodes).The reasons that lead to this degeneracy in the lens equations, the possibility of actually encountering it in the real universe, and eventually the ways to break it, are discussed.
- We present a detailed study of the effects of gravitational microlensing on compact and distant $\gamma$-ray blazars. These objects have $\gamma$-ray emitting regions which are small enough as to be affected by microlensing effects produced by stars lying in intermediate galaxies. We analyze the temporal evolution of the gamma-ray magnification for sources moving in a caustic pattern field, where the combined effects of thousands of stars are taken into account using a numerical technique. We propose that some of the unidentified $\gamma$-ray sources (particularly some of those lying at high galactic latitude whose gamma-ray statistical properties are very similar to detected $\gamma$-ray blazars) are indeed the result of gravitational lensing magnification of background undetected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs).
- This paper continues the study of the properties of an accretion disc rotating around a non-baryonic (assumed super-massive) compact object. This kind of objects, generically known as boson stars, were earlier proposed as a possible alternative scenario to the existence of super-masive black holes in the center of every galaxy. A dilute boson star has also been proposed as a large part of the non-baryonic dark matter, flattening galactic rotational velocities curves. In this contribution, we compute the profile of the emission lines of Iron; its shape has been for long known as a useful diagnosis of the space-time geometry. We compare with the case of a Schwarzschild black hole, concluding that the differences are observationally distinguishable.
- The different definitions for the equation of state of a non-minimally coupled scalar field that have been introduced in the literature are analyzed. Particular emphasis is made upon those features that could yield to an observable way of distinguishing non-minimally coupled theories from General Relativity, with the same or with alternate potentials. It is found that some earlier claims on that super-quintessence, a stage of super-accelerated expansion of the universe, is possible within realistic non-minimally coupled theories are the result of an arguable definition of the equation of state. In particular, it is shown that these previous results do not import any observable consequence, i.e. that the theories are observationally identical to General Relativity models and that super-quintessence is not more than a mathematical outcome. Finally, in the case of non-minimally coupled theories with coupling $F=1+\xi \phi^2$ and tracking potentials, it is shown that no super-quintessence is possible.
- Mar 14 2002 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0203049v3In this paper we study the strong gravitational lensing scenario where the lens is a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. We obtain the basic equations and show that, as in the case of Schwarzschild black hole, besides the primary and secondary images, two infinite sets of relativistic images are formed. We find analytical expressions for the positions and amplifications of the relativistic images. The formalism is applied to the case of a low-mass black hole placed at the galactic halo.
- We study the emissivity properties of a geometrically thin, optically thick, steady accretion disc about a static boson star. Starting from a numerical computation of the metric potentials and the rotational velocities of the particles in the vicinity of the compact object, we obtain the power per unit area, the temperature of the disc, and the spectrum of the emitted radiation. In order to see if different central objects could be actually distinguished, all these results are compared with the case of a central Schwarzschild black hole of equal mass. We considered different situations both for the boson star, assumed with and without self-interactions, and the disc, whose internal commencement can be closer to the center than in the black hole case. We finally make some considerations about the Eddington luminosity, which becomes radially dependent for a transparent object. We found that, particularly at high energies, differences in the emitted spectrum are notorious. Reasons for that are discussed.
- We propose that some of the high-latitude unidentified EGRET gamma-ray sources could be the result of gravitational lensing amplification of the innermost regions of distant, faint, active galactic nuclei. These objects have gamma-ray emitting regions small enough as to be affected by microlensing of stars in interposed galaxies. We compute the gravitational amplification taking into account effects of the host galaxy of the lens and prove that, whereas the innermost gamma-ray regions can be magnified up to thousand times, there is no amplification at radio frequencies, leading to the observed absence of strong counterparts. Some new effects in the spectral evolution of a gravitational microlensed gamma-ray AGN are predicted. Within a reasonable range of lensing parameters, and/or types of sources, both variable and non-variable EGRET detections at high latitudes can be explained by microlensing. The same phenomenon could also have an important incidence among the future GLAST detections at high-latitudes.
- The non-thermal supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946 (G347.3-0.5) has recently been shown to be a site of cosmic ray (CR) electron acceleration to TeV energies (Muraishi et al. 2000). Here we present evidence that this remnant is also accelerating CR nuclei. Such nuclei can interact with ambient interstellar gas to produce high energy gamma-rays via the decay of neutral pions. We associate the unidentified EGRET GeV gamma- ray source 3EG J1714-3857 with a massive (~3*10 5 Mo) and dense (~500 nucleons cm -3) molecular cloud interacting with RX J1713.7-3946. Direct evidence for such interaction is provided by observations of the lowest two rotational transitions of CO in the cloud; as in other clear cases of interaction, the CO(J=2-1)/CO(J=1-0) ratio is significantly enhanced. Since the cloud is of low radio and X-ray brightness, CR electrons cannot be responsible for the bulk of its GeV emission there. A picture thus emerges where both electrons and nuclei are being accelerated by the SNR: whereas the CR electrons dominate the local non-thermal radio, X-ray and TeV emission, the shock accelerated CR protons and ions (hadrons) are revealed through their interactions in the adjacent massive cloud. Such a scenario had been anticipated by Aharonian, Drury and Volk (1994).
- We present a correlative study between all unidentified EGRET sources at low Galactic latitudes and the newly discovered pulsars in the released portion of the Parkes multibeam radio survey. We note 14 positional coincidences: eight of these are ``Vela-like'' pulsars, with relatively small periods, small characteristic ages, and high spin-down luminosities. Three of these coincidences have been investigated by D'Amico et al. (2001) and Camilo et al. (2001). Among the others, we argue that PSR J1015-5719 may plausibly generate part of the high energy radiation observed from 3EG J1014-5705. Three additional interesting cases are: 3EG J1410-6147 and either of PSRs J1412-6145 or J1413-6141, if the pulsars are at the estimated distance of the coincident SNR G312.4-0.4; and 3EG J1639-4702/PSR J1637-4642. The remaining positional coincidences between the EGRET sources and the newly discovered pulsars are almost certainly spurious.
- We study the colour changes induced by blending in a wormhole-like microlensing scenario with extended sources. The results are compared with those obtained for limb darkening. We assess the possibility of an actual detection of the colour curve using the difference image analysis method.
- We present a study of the unidentified gamma-ray source 3EG J0542+2610. This source is spatially superposed to the supernova remnant G180.0-1.7, but its time variability makes unlikely a physical link. We have searched into the EGRET location error box for compact radio sources that could be the low energy counterpart of the gamma-ray source. Although 29 point-like radio sources were detected and measured, none of them is strong enough as to be considered the counterpart of a background gamma-ray emitting AGN. We suggest that the only object within the 95 % error box capable of producing the required gamma-ray flux is the X-ray transient A0535+26. We show that this Be/accreting pulsar can produce variable hadronic gamma-ray emission through the mechanism originally proposed by Cheng & Ruderman (1989), where a proton beam accelerated in a magnetospheric electrostatic gap impacts the transient accretion disk.
- Jun 15 2001 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0106048v1Closed time-like curves naturally appear in a variety of chronology-violating space-times. In these space-times, the Principle of Self-Consistency demands an harmony between local and global affairs that excludes grandfather-like paradoxes. However, self-existing objects trapped in CTCs are not seemingly avoided by the standard interpretation of this principle, usually constrained to a dynamical framework. In this paper we discuss whether we are committed to accept an ontology with self-existing objects if CTCs actually occur in the universe. In addition, the epistemological status of the Principle of Self-Consistency is analyzed and a discussion on the information flux through CTCs is presented.
- We provide an in depth study of the theoretical peculiarities that arise in effective negative mass lensing, both for the case of a point mass lens and source, and for extended source situations. We describe novel observational signatures arising in the case of a source lensed by a negative mass. We show that a negative mass lens produces total or partial eclipse of the source in the umbra region and also show that the usual Shapiro time delay is replaced with an equivalent time gain. We describe these features both theoretically, as well as through numerical simulations. We provide negative mass microlensing simulations for various intensity profiles and discuss the differences between them. The light curves for microlensing events are presented and contrasted with those due to lensing produced by normal matter. Presence or absence of these features in the observed microlensing events can shed light on the existence of natural wormholes in the Universe.
- If the universe is slightly non-extensive, and the distribution functions are not exactly given by those of Boltzmann-Gibbs, the primordial production of light elements will be non-trivially modified. In particular, the principle of detailed balance (PDB), of fundamental importance in the standard analytical analysis, is no longer valid, and a non-extensive correction appears. This correction is computed and its influence is studied and compared with previous works, where, even when the universe was considered as an slightly non-extensive system, the PDB was assumed valid. We analytically track the formation of Helium and Deuterium, and study the kind of deviation one could expect from the standard regime. The correction to the capture time, the moment in which Deuterium can no longer be substantially photo-disintegrated, is also presented. This allows us to take into account the process of the free decay of neutrons, which was absent in all previous treatments of the topic. We show that even when considering a first (linear) order correction in the quantum distribution functions, the final output on the primordial nucleosynthesis yields cannot be reduced to a linear correction in the abundances. We finally obtain new bounds upon the non-extensive parameter, both comparing the range of physical viability of the theory, and using the latest observational data.
- We analyze how the thermal history of the universe is influenced by the statistical description, assuming a deviation from the usual Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution functions. These deviations represent the possible appearance of non-extensive effects related with the existence of long range forces, memory effects, or evolution in fractal or multi-fractal space. In the early universe, it is usually assumed that the distribution functions are the standard ones. Then, considering the evolution in a larger theoretical framework will allow to test this assumption and to place limits to the range of its validity. The corrections obtained will change with temperature, and consequently, the bounds on the possible amount of non-extensivity will also change with time. We generalize results which can be used in other contexts as well, as the Boltzmann equation and the Saha law, and provide an estimate on how known cosmological bounds on the masses of neutrinos are modified by a change in the statistics. We particularly analyze here the recombination epoch, making explicit use of the chemical potentials involved in order to attain the necessary corrections. All these results constitute the basic tools needed for placing bounds on the amount of non-extensivity that could be present at different eras and will be later used to study primordial nucleosynthesis.
- Chromaticity effects introduced by the finite source size in microlensing events by presumed natural wormholes are studied. It is shown that these effects provide a specific signature that allow to discriminate between ordinary and negative mass lenses through the spectral analysis of the microlensing events. Both galactic and extragalactic situations are discussed.
- We present a Monte Carlo analysis of the recently introduced variability indices $\tau$ (Tompkins 1999) and $I$ (Zhang et al. 2000 & Torres et al. 2001) for $\gamma$-ray sources. We explore different variability criteria and prove that these two indices, despite the very different approaches used to compute them, are statistically correlated (5 to 7$\sigma$). This conclusion is maintained also for the subset of AGNs and high latitude ($|b|>10$ deg) sources, whereas the correlation is lowered for the low latitude ones, where the influence of the diffuse galactic emission background is strong.
- We present a study of the radio environment of the gamma-ray source 3EG J1828+0142. This source presents a very high variability index in its gamma emission and a steep high-energy spectral index $\Gamma\sim-2.8$. Large-scale radio maps at different frequencies show the presence of a shell-type non-thermal structure when the diffuse emission from the Galactic disk is eliminated. At small scales, VLA radio images reveal the existence of several weak point sources within the 95 % gamma-ray confidence location contour. Most of these sources present non-thermal spectral indices, but it is not clear whether they are extragalactic or not. We discuss the possibility of a scenario where the large structure is a SNR and one of the compact radio sources is an isolated black hole also produced in the original supernova explosion. The black hole could be responsible for the variable gamma-ray emission according to Punsly's (1998) model. INTEGRAL observations with IBIS imager could detect the inverse Compton and blueshifted pair annihilation radiation from the relativistic electron-positron jets of the hole. Some estimates are presented in this regard.
- We present a set of simulations of the macrolensing effects produced by large-scale cosmological violations of the energy conditions. These simulations show how the appearance of a background field of galaxies is affected when lensed by a region with an energy density equivalent to a negative mass ranging from $10^{12}$ to $10^{17}$ solar masses. We compare with the macrolensing results of equal amounts of positive mass, and show that, contrary to the usual case where tangential arc-like structures are expected, there appear radial arcs-runaway filaments-and a central void. These results make the cosmological macrolensing produced by space-time domains where the weak energy conditions is violated, observationally distinguishable from standard regions. Whether large domains with negative energy density indeed exist in the universe can now be decided by future observations of deep fields.
- Dec 08 2000 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0012031v1In a recent work (Torres, Capozziello and Lambiase, Physical Review D62, 104012 (2000)), it was shown that a supermassive boson star could provide an alternative model for the galactic center, usually assumed as a black hole. Here we comment on some of the possibilities to actually detect this object, and how can it be distinguished from the standard and other alternative models.
- We present the results of a spatial correlation analysis between unidentified gamma-ray sources in the 3EG catalog and candidates to supernova remnants. This work extends a previous study made by Romero, Benaglia & Torres (1999). We also consider the gamma-ray emission variability and the spectral index for the sources with positional coincidence.
- Nov 28 2000 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0011097v1Using traversable wormholes as theoretical background, we revisit a deep question of general relativity: Does a uniformly accelerated charged particle radiate? We particularize to the recently proposed gravitational Čerenkov radiation, that happens when the spatial part of the Ricci tensor is negative. If $^{^{(3+1)}}R^i_{\phantom{i}i}< 0$, the matter threading the gravitational field violates the weak energy condition. In this case, the effective refractive index for light is bigger than 1, i.e. particles propagates, in that medium, faster than photons. This leads to a violation of the equivalence principle.
- We discuss the possibility that the stellar system Cyg OB2 No.5 can be a gamma-ray source in the light of recent EGRET and radio data. This system is formed by an O7 Ia + Ofpe/WN9 contact binary. A third star, probably a B0 V star also associated with the system, is located at $\sim 1700$ AU from the primary. We estimate the expected gamma-ray luminosity from the colliding winds region, the terminal shock of the wind, and the unstable zone at the base of the wind, and conclude that, under very reasonable assumptions, Cyg OB2 No.5 can generate about a half of the gamma-ray flux detected from the positionally coincident source 3EG J2033+4118. We suggest, then, that other O stars belonging to the association, also placed within the 95 % probability EGRET location contour, could contribute to the observed gamma-ray flux.
- The unidentified, low-latitude, $\gamma$-ray source 3EG J1828+0142 presents high levels of variability and a steep spectral index $\Gamma\sim2.7$. Here we propose a model for this source where the high-energy emission is produced by a galactic Kerr-Newman black hole. The model takes into account electron-positron annihilation losses in the calculation of the expected spectral energy distribution and can reproduce the observational features, including the absence of a strong radio counterpart. We also report the discovery of a nearby supernova remnant that could be associated with the original supernova explosion that created the black hole. Several faint radio sources were also detected in the radio field within the inner $\gamma$-ray confidence contour and their spectral index estimated. Some of these sources could be the expected weak radio counterpart.
- We present a study of 40 low-latitude unidentified 3EG gamma-ray sources which were found to be not positionally coincident with any known class of potential gamma-ray emitters in the Galaxy (Romero, Benaglia & Torres, 1999). We have performed a variability analysis which reveals that many of these 40 sources are variable. These sources have, in addition, a steep mean value of the gamma-ray spectral index, $<\Gamma> = 2.41 \pm 0.2$, which, combined with the high level of variability seems to rule out a pulsar origin. The positional coincidences with uncatalogued candidates to supernova remnants were also studied. Only 7 sources in the sample are spatially coincident with these candidates, a result that is shown to be consistent with the expected level of pure chance association. A complementary search for weak radio counterparts was also conducted and the results are presented as an extensive table containing all significant point-like radio sources within the 40 EGRET fields. We argue that in order to produce the high variability, steep gamma-ray spectra, and absence of strong radio counterparts observed in some of the gamma-ray sources of our sample a new class of objects should be postulated, and we analyze a viable candidate.
- Jun 26 2000 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0006086v1We explore the possibility that a charged particle moving in the gravitational field generated by a scalar star could radiate energy via a recently proposed gravitational Čerenkov mechanism. We numerically prove that this is not possible for stable boson stars. We also show that soliton stars could have Čerenkov radiation for particular values of the boson mass, although diluteness of the star grows and actual observational possibility decreases for the more usually discussed boson masses. These conclusions diminish, although do not completely rule out, the observational possibility of actually detecting scalar stars using this mechanism, and lead us to consider other forms, like gravitational lensing.
- Nov 11 1999 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9911038v1We study boson star configurations with generic, but not non-topological, self-interaction terms, i.e. we do not restrict ourselves just to consider the standard $\lambda |\psi|^4$ interaction but more general U(1)-symmetry-preserving profiles. We find that when compared with the usual potential, similar results for masses and number of particles appear. However, changes are of order of few percent of the star masses. We explore the stability properties of the configurations, that we analyze using catastrophe theory. We also study possible observational outputs: gravitational redshifts, rotation curves of accreted particles, and lensing phenomena, and compare with the usual case.
- May 17 1999 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9905045v1Theories with varying gravitational constant $G$ have been studied since long time ago. Among them, the most promising candidates as alternatives of the standard General Relativity are known as scalar-tensor theories. They provide consistent descriptions of the observed universe and arise as the low energy limit of several pictures of unified interactions. Therefore, an increasing interest on the astrophysical consequences of such theories has been sparked over the last few years. In this essay we comment on two methodological approaches to study evolution of astrophysical objects within a varying-$G$ theory, and the particular results we have obtained for boson and white dwarf stars.
- May 07 1999 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9905017v2We study charged boson stars in scalar-tensor (ST) gravitational theories. We analyse the weak field limit of the solutions and analytically show that there is a maximum charge to mass ratio for the bosons above which the weak field solutions are not stable. This charge limit can be greater than the GR limit for a wide class of ST theories. We numerically investigate strong field solutions in both the Brans Dicke and power law ST theories. We find that the charge limit decreases with increasing central boson density. We discuss the gravitational evolution of charged and uncharged boson stars in a cosmological setting and show how, at any point in its evolution, the physical properties of the star may be calculated by a rescaling of a solution whose asymptotic value of the scalar field is equal to its initial asymptotic value. We focus on evolution in which the particle number of the star is conserved and we find that the energy and central density of the star decreases as the cosmological time increases. We also analyse the appearance of the scalarization phenomenon recently discovered for neutron stars configurations and, finally, we give a short discussion on how making the correct choice of mass influences the argument over which conformal frame, the Einstein frame or the Jordan frame, is physical.
- We present a study on the possible association of unidentified $\gamma$-ray sources in the Third EGRET (3EG) catalog with different types of galactic objects such as Wolf-Rayet and Of stars, supernova remnants (SNRs), and OB associations (considered as pulsar tracers). We have made use of numerical simulations of galactic populations of $\gamma$-ray point sources in order to determine the statistical significance of the positional coincidences. New constraints on pure chance association are presented for SNRs and OB associations, and it is shown that massive stars present marginally significant correlation with 3EG sources at a $3\sigma$ level.
- Apr 08 1999 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9904020v1We introduce a simple and straight-forward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology -- for weak-field and perturbed FLRW situations. In particular we demonstrate that it yields quantities which are approximately tensorial in these situations, and that its application to an exact FLRW metric yields another FLRW metric, to first-order in integrals over the local coordinates. Finally, we indicate some important limits of any linearized averaging procedure with respect to cosmological perturbations which are the result of averages over large amplitude small and intermediate scale inhomogeneities, and show our averaging procedure can be approximately implemented by that of Zotov and Stoeger in these cases.
- May 20 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9805075v1In this essay, we assume that negative mass objects can exist in the extragalactic space and analyze the consequences of their microlensing on light from distant Active Galactic Nuclei. We find that such events have very similar features to some observed Gamma Ray Bursts and use recent satellite data to set an upper bound to the amount of negative mass in the universe.
- Mar 30 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9803094v1We make a detailed study of boson star configurations in Jordan--Brans--Dicke theory, studying both equilibrium properties and stability, and considering boson stars existing at different cosmic epochs. We show that boson stars can be stable at any time of cosmic history and that equilibrium stars are denser in the past. We analyze three different proposed mass functions for boson star systems, and obtain results independently of the definition adopted. We study how the configurations depend on the value of the Jordan--Brans--Dicke coupling constant, and the properties of the stars under extreme values of the gravitational asymptotic constant. This last point allows us to extract conclusions about the stability behaviour concerning the scalar field. Finally, other dynamical variables of interest, like the radius, are also calculated. In this regard, it is shown that the radius corresponding to the maximal boson star mass remains roughly the same during cosmological evolution.
- Oct 09 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9710048v2`Gravitational memory' refers to the possibility that, in cosmologies with a time-varying gravitational `constant', objects such as black holes may retain a memory of conditions at the time of their birth. We consider this phenomenon in a different physical scenario, where the objects under consideration are boson stars. We construct boson star solutions in scalar-tensor gravity theories, and consider their dependence on the asymptotic value of the gravitational strength. We then discuss several possible physical interpretations, including the concept of pure gravitational stellar evolution.
- Oct 06 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9710026v2We present here analytical solutions of General Relativity that describe evolving wormholes with a non-constant redshift function. We show that the matter that threads these wormholes is not necessarily exotic. Finally, we investigate some issues concerning WEC violation and human traversability in these time-dependent geometries.
- Jul 12 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9707025v1A simple Lorentzian vacuum wormhole solution of Brans-Dicke gravitation is presented and analysed. It is shown that such solution holds for both, the Brans-Dicke theory endowed with torsion (for a value of the coupling parameter $\omega > 1/2$) and for the vacuum -no torsion- case (for $\omega < -2$).
- Apr 03 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9704006v1We study equilibrium configurations of boson stars in the framework of general scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. We analyse several possible couplings, with acceptable weak field limit and, when known, nucleosynthesis bounds, in order to work in the cosmologically more realistic cases of this kind of theories. We found that for general scalar-tensor gravitation, the range of masses boson stars might have is comparable with the general relativistic case. We also analyse the possible formation of boson stars along different eras of cosmic evolution, allowing for the effective gravitational constant far out form the star to deviate from its current value. In these cases, we found that the boson stars masses are sensitive to this kind of variations, within a typical few percent. We also study cases in which the coupling is implicitly defined, through the dependence on the radial coordinate, allowing it to have significant variations in the radius of the structure.
- Dec 18 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9612048v1A study of an algorithm method capable to reveal anisotropic solutions of general scalar-tensor gravitation -including non-minimally couplings- is presented. It is found that it is possible to classify the behavior of the field of different scalar-tensor theories in equivalence classes, with the same classifier function that was obtained in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models.
- Nov 01 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9610070v2Analytical wormhole solutions in Brans-Dicke theory in the presence of matter are presented. It is shown that the wormhole throat must not be necessarily threaded with exotic matter.
- Oct 11 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9610021v1The slow roll approximation is studied for cosmological models in Hyperextended Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity. A procedure to obtain slow roll solutions in non-minimally coupled gravity is outlined and some examples are provided. An integral condition over the functional form of the non-minimal coupling is imposed in order to obtain intermediate inflationary behavior.
- Oct 11 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9610022v1We study a general Scalar-Tensor Theory with an arbitrary coupling funtion $\omega (\phi )$ but also an arbitrary dependence of the ``gravitational constant'' $G(\phi )$ in the cases in which either one of them, or both, do not admit an analytical inverse, as in the hyperextended inflationary scenario. We present the full set of field equations and study their cosmological behavior. We show that different scalar-tensor theories can be grouped in classes with the same solution for the scalar field.
- Nov 21 1995 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9511055v2The deviation of primordial Helium production due to a variation on the difference between the rest masses of the nucleons is presented. It is found an upper bound $\delta (M_{_n} - M_{_p}) \alt 0.129$ MeV, between the present and nucleosynthesis epochs. This bound is used to analyze Wesson's theory of gravitation; as a result, it is ruled out by observation.