Knowledge bases play a crucial role in many applications, for example question answering and information retrieval. Despite the great effort invested in creating and maintaining them, even the largest representatives (e.g., Yago, DBPedia or Wikidata) are highly incomplete. We introduce relational graph convolutional networks (R-GCNs) and apply them to two standard knowledge base completion tasks: link prediction (recovery of missing facts, i.e.~subject-predicate-object triples) and entity classification (recovery of missing attributes of entities). R-GCNs are a generalization of graph convolutional networks, a recent class of neural networks operating on graphs, and are developed specifically to deal with highly multi-relational data, characteristic of realistic knowledge bases. Our methods achieve competitive performance on standard benchmarks for both tasks, demonstrating especially promising results on the challenging FB15k-237 subset of Freebase.
Recent research in psycholinguistics has provided increasing evidence that humans predict upcoming content. Prediction also affects perception and might be a key to robustness in human language processing. In this paper, we investigate the factors that affect human prediction by building a computational model that can predict upcoming discourse referents based on linguistic knowledge alone vs. linguistic knowledge jointly with common-sense knowledge in the form of scripts. We find that script knowledge significantly improves model estimates of human predictions. In a second study, we test the highly controversial hypothesis that predictability influences referring expression type but do not find evidence for such an effect.
We present an approach to learning multi-sense word embeddings relying both on monolingual and bilingual information. Our model consists of an encoder, which uses monolingual and bilingual context (i.e. a parallel sentence) to choose a sense for a given word, and a decoder which predicts context words based on the chosen sense. The two components are estimated jointly. We observe that the word representations induced from bilingual data outperform the monolingual counterparts across a range of evaluation tasks, even though crosslingual information is not available at test time.
Word representations induced from models with discrete latent variables (e.g.\ HMMs) have been shown to be beneficial in many NLP applications. In this work, we exploit labeled syntactic dependency trees and formalize the induction problem as unsupervised learning of tree-structured hidden Markov models. Syntactic functions are used as additional observed variables in the model, influencing both transition and emission components. Such syntactic information can potentially lead to capturing more fine-grain and functional distinctions between words, which, in turn, may be desirable in many NLP applications. We evaluate the word representations on two tasks -- named entity recognition and semantic frame identification. We observe improvements from exploiting syntactic function information in both cases, and the results rivaling those of state-of-the-art representation learning methods. Additionally, we revisit the relationship between sequential and unlabeled-tree models and find that the advantage of the latter is not self-evident.
In this work, we propose a new method to integrate two recent lines of work: unsupervised induction of shallow semantics (e.g., semantic roles) and factorization of relations in text and knowledge bases. Our model consists of two components: (1) an encoding component: a semantic role labeling model which predicts roles given a rich set of syntactic and lexical features; (2) a reconstruction component: a tensor factorization model which relies on roles to predict argument fillers. When the components are estimated jointly to minimize errors in argument reconstruction, the induced roles largely correspond to roles defined in annotated resources. Our method performs on par with most accurate role induction methods on English, even though, unlike these previous approaches, we do not incorporate any prior linguistic knowledge about the language.
We introduce a new approach to unsupervised estimation of feature-rich semantic role labeling models. Our model consists of two components: (1) an encoding component: a semantic role labeling model which predicts roles given a rich set of syntactic and lexical features; (2) a reconstruction component: a tensor factorization model which relies on roles to predict argument fillers. When the components are estimated jointly to minimize errors in argument reconstruction, the induced roles largely correspond to roles defined in annotated resources. Our method performs on par with most accurate role induction methods on English and German, even though, unlike these previous approaches, we do not incorporate any prior linguistic knowledge about the languages.
Induction of common sense knowledge about prototypical sequences of events has recently received much attention. Instead of inducing this knowledge in the form of graphs, as in much of the previous work, in our method, distributed representations of event realizations are computed based on distributed representations of predicates and their arguments, and then these representations are used to predict prototypical event orderings. The parameters of the compositional process for computing the event representations and the ranking component of the model are jointly estimated from texts. We show that this approach results in a substantial boost in ordering performance with respect to previous methods.