results for au:Thomsen_H in:physics
Finite systems in confining potentials are known to undergo structural transitions similar to phase transitions. However, these systems are inhomogeneous, and their "melting" point may depend on the position in the trap and vary with the particle number. Focusing on three-dimensional Coulomb systems in a harmonic trap a rich physics is revealed: in addition to radial melting we demonstrate the existence of intrashell disordering and inter-shell angular melting. Our analysis takes advantage of a novel melting criterion that is based on the spatial two and three-particle distribution functions and the associated reduced entropy which can be directly measured in complex plasma experiments.
The most attractive feature of dusty plasmas is the possibility to create strong correlations at room temperatures. At the same time, these plasmas allow for a precise diagnostics with single-particle resolution. From such measurements, the structural properties of finite two-dimensional (2D) clusters and three-dimensional (3D) spherical crystals in nearly harmonic traps-Yukawa balls-have been explored in great detail. Their structural properties-the shell compositions and the order within the shells-have been investigated and good agreement to theoretical predictions was found. Open questions on the agenda are the excitation behavior, the structural changes, and phase transitions that occur at elevated temperature. In order to increase the dust temperature in the experiment various techniques have been used. Among them, laser heating appears to have unique capabilities because it affects only the dust particles, leaving the lighter plasma components unchanged. Here we report on recent experimental results where laser heating methods were further improved and applied to finite 2D and 3D clusters. Comparing to simulations, we demonstrate that this indeed allows to increase the temperature in a controlled manner. For the analysis of thermodynamics and phase transitions in these finite systems, we present theoretical and experimental results on the basis of the instantaneous normal modes, pair distribution function and the recently introduced center-two-particle distribution function.
Dusty plasmas are a model system for studying strong correlation. The dust grains' size of a few micro-meters and their characteristic oscillation frequency of a few hertz allows for an investigation of many particle effects on an atomic level. In this article, we model the heat transport through an axially confined 2D dust cluster from the center to the outside. The system behaves particularly interesting since heat is not only conducted within the dust component but also transfered to the neutral gas. Fitting the analytical solution to the obtained radial temperature profiles allows to determine the heat conductivity $\kheat$. The heat conductivity is found to be constant over a wide range of coupling strengths even including the phase transition from solid to liquid here, as it was also found in extended systems by V. Nosenko et al. in 2008 \citePhysRevLett.100.025003
The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors, $\gamma$, for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields $B$. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field $B_0 = 4.414\cdot10^9$ T. For $\chi = \gamma B/B_0 \simeq 1$ quantum corrections are essential for the description of synchrotron radiation to conserve energy. With electrons of energies 10-150 GeV penetrating a germanium single crystal along the $<110>$ axis, we have experimentally investigated the transition from the regime where classical synchrotron radiation is an adequate description, to the regime where the emission drastically changes character; not only in magnitude, but also in spectral shape. The spectrum can only be described by quantum synchrotron radiation formulas. Apart from being a test of strong-field quantum electrodynamics, the experimental results are also relevant for the design of future linear colliders where beamstrahlung - a closely related process - may limit the achievable luminosity.
we report the identification of a localised current structure inside the JET plasma. It is a field aligned closed helical ribbon, carrying current in the same direction as the background current profile (co-current), rotating toroidally with the ion velocity (co-rotating). It appears to be located at a flat spot in the plasma pressure profile, at the top of the pedestal. The structure appears spontaneously in low density, high rotation plasmas, and can last up to 1.4 s, a time comparable to a local resistive time. It considerably delays the appearance of the first ELM.