results for au:Tahan_C in:cond-mat

- Apr 21 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1704.05876v1We investigate coupling an encoded spin qubit to a microwave resonator via qubit energy level curvature versus gate voltage. This approach enables quantum non-demolition readout with strength of tens to hundred MHz all while the qubit stays at its full sweet-spot to charge noise, with zero dipole moment. A "dispersive-like" spin readout approach similar to circuit-QED but avoiding the Purcell effect is proposed. With the addition of gate voltage modulation, selective longitudinal readout and n-qubit entanglement-by-measurement are possible.
- Mar 16 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1603.04829v1We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of spatially separated resonant exchange qubits, defined in three-electron semiconductor triple quantum dots, that are coupled via a superconducting transmission line resonator. Drawing on methods from circuit quantum electrodynamics and Hartmann-Hahn double resonance techniques, we analyze three specific approaches for implementing resonator-mediated two-qubit entangling gates in both dispersive and resonant regimes of interaction. We calculate entangling gate fidelities as well as the rate of relaxation via phonons for resonant exchange qubits in silicon triple dots and show that such an implementation is particularly well-suited to achieving the strong coupling regime. Our approach combines the favorable coherence properties of encoded spin qubits in silicon with the rapid and robust long-range entanglement provided by circuit QED systems.
- Feb 02 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1602.00320v2We introduce an always-on, exchange-only qubit made up of three localized semiconductor spins that offers a true "sweet spot" to fluctuations of the quantum dot energy levels. Both single- and two-qubit gate operations can be performed using only exchange pulses while maintaining this sweet spot. We show how to interconvert this qubit to other three-spin encoded qubits as a new resource for quantum computation and communication.
- Jul 30 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1507.07923v2Superconducting circuits offer tremendous design flexibility in the quantum regime culminating most recently in the demonstration of few qubit systems supposedly approaching the threshold for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Competition in the solid-state comes from semiconductor qubits, where nature has bestowed some very useful properties which can be utilized for spin qubit based quantum computing. Here we begin to explore how selective design principles deduced from spin-based systems could be used to advance superconducting qubit science. We take an initial step along this path proposing an encoded qubit approach realizable with state-of-the-art tunable Josephson junction qubits. Our results show that this design philosophy holds promise, enables microwave-free control, and offers a pathway to future qubit designs with new capabilities such as with higher fidelity or, perhaps, operation at higher temperature. The approach is also especially suited to qubits based on variable super-semi junctions.
- May 07 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1505.01213v1Spin qubits composed of either one or three electrons are realized in a quantum dot formed at a Si/SiO_2-interface in isotopically enriched silicon. Using pulsed electron spin resonance, we perform coherent control of both types of qubits, addressing them via an electric field dependent g-factor. We perform randomized benchmarking and find that both qubits can be operated with high fidelity. Surprisingly, we find that the g-factors of the one-electron and three-electron qubits have an approximately linear but opposite dependence as a function of the applied dc electric field. We develop a theory to explain this g-factor behavior based on the spin-valley coupling that results from the sharp interface. The outer "shell" electron in the three-electron qubit exists in the higher of the two available conduction-band valley states, in contrast with the one-electron case, where the electron is in the lower valley. We formulate a modified effective mass theory and propose that inter-valley spin-flip tunneling dominates over intra-valley spin-flips in this system, leading to a direct correlation between the spin-orbit coupling parameters and the g-factors in the two valleys. In addition to offering all-electrical tuning for single-qubit gates, the g-factor physics revealed here for one-electron and three-electron qubits offers potential opportunities for new qubit control approaches.
- Jul 02 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1407.0372v2Recent improvements in materials growth and fabrication techniques may finally allow for superconducting semiconductors to realize their potential. Here we build on a recent proposal to construct superconducting devices such as wires, Josephson junctions, and qubits inside and out-of single crystal silicon or germanium. Using atomistic fabrication techniques such as STM hydrogen lithography, heavily-doped superconducting regions within a single crystal could be constructed. We describe the characteristic parameters of basic superconducting elements---a 1D wire and a tunneling Josephson junction---and estimate the values for boron-doped silicon. The epitaxial, single-crystal nature of these devices, along with the extreme flexibility in device design down to the single-atom scale, may enable lower-noise or new types of devices and physics. We consider applications for such super-silicon devices, showing that the state-of-the-art transmon qubit and the sought-after phase-slip qubit can both be realized. The latter qubit leverages the natural high kinetic inductance of these materials. Building on this, we explore how kinetic inductance based particle detectors (e.g., photon or phonon) could be realized with potential application in astronomy or nanomechanics. We discuss super-semi devices (such as in silicon, germanium, or diamond) which would not require atomistic fabrication approaches and could be realized today.
- Nov 26 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1311.5937v2Silicon quantum dots are a leading approach for solid-state quantum bits. However, developing this technology is complicated by the multi-valley nature of silicon. Here we observe transport of individual electrons in a silicon CMOS-based double quantum dot under electron spin resonance. An anticrossing of the driven dot energy levels is observed when the Zeeman and valley splittings coincide. A detected anticrossing splitting of 60 MHz is interpreted as a direct measure of spin and valley mixing, facilitated by spin-orbit interaction in the presence of non-ideal interfaces. A lower bound of spin dephasing time of 63 ns is extracted. We also describe a possible experimental evidence of an unconventional spin-valley blockade, despite the assumption of non-ideal interfaces. This understanding of silicon spin-valley physics should enable better control and read-out techniques for the spin qubits in an all CMOS silicon approach.
- Sep 02 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1309.0015v3Superconducting circuits are exceptionally flexible, enabling many different devices from sensors to quantum computers. Separately, epitaxial semiconductor devices such as spin qubits in silicon offer more limited device variation but extraordinary quantum properties for a solid-state system. It might be possible to merge the two approaches, making single-crystal superconducting devices out of a semiconductor by utilizing the latest atomistic fabrication techniques. Here we propose superconducting devices made from precision hole-doped regions within a silicon (or germanium) single crystal. We analyze the properties of this superconducting semiconductor and show that practical superconducting wires, Josephson tunnel junctions or weak links, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), and qubits are feasible. This work motivates the pursuit of "bottom-up" superconductivity for improved or fundamentally different technology and physics.
- Feb 26 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1302.5769v2Arrays of coupled phonon cavities each including an impurity qubit in silicon are considered. We study experimentally feasible architectures that can exhibit quantum many-body phase transitions of phonons, e.g. Mott insulator and superfluid states, due to a strong phonon-phonon interaction (which is mediated by the impurity qubit-cavity phonon coupling). We investigate closed equilibrium systems as well as driven dissipative non-equilibrium systems at zero and non-zero temperatures. Our results indicate that quantum many-body phonon systems are achievable both in on-chip nanomechanical systems in silicon and distributed Bragg reflector phonon cavity heterostructures in silicon-germanium. Temperature and driving field are shown to play a critical role in achieving these phonon superfluid and insulator states, results that are also applicable to polariton systems. Experimental procedures to detect these states are also given. Cavity-phoniton systems enable strong phonon-phonon interactions as well as offering long wavelengths for forming extended quantum states; they may have some advantage in forming truly quantum many-body mechanical states as compared to other optomechanical systems.
- Feb 06 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1302.0983v2Although silicon is a promising material for quantum computation, the degeneracy of the conduction band minima (valleys) must be lifted with a splitting sufficient to ensure formation of well-defined and long-lived spin qubits. Here we demonstrate that valley separation can be accurately tuned via electrostatic gate control in a metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot, providing splittings spanning 0.3 - 0.8 meV. The splitting varies linearly with applied electric field, with a ratio in agreement with atomistic tight-binding predictions. We demonstrate single-shot spin readout and measure the spin relaxation for different valley configurations and dot occupancies, finding one-electron lifetimes exceeding 2 seconds. Spin relaxation occurs via phonon emission due to spin-orbit coupling between the valley states, a process not previously anticipated for silicon quantum dots. An analytical theory describes the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation rate, including the presence of a dramatic rate enhancement (or hot-spot) when Zeeman and valley splittings coincide.
- We expand on previous work that treats relaxation physics of low-lying excited states in ideal, single electron, silicon quantum dots in the context of quantum computing. These states are of three types: orbital, valley, and spin. The relaxation times depend sensitively on system parameters such as the dot size and the external magnetic field. Generally, however, orbital relaxation times are short in strained silicon (from a tenth of a microsecond to picoseconds), spin relaxation times are long (microseconds to greater than seconds), while valley relaxation times are expected to lie in between. The focus is on relaxation due to emission or absorption of phonons, but for spin relaxation we also consider competing mechanisms such as charge noise. Where appropriate, comparison is made to reference systems such as quantum dots in III-V materials and silicon donor states. The phonon bottleneck effect is shown to be rather small in the silicon dots of interest. We compare the theoretical predictions to some recent spin relaxation experiments and comment on the possible effects of non-ideal dots.
- Aug 09 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1208.1776v2We describe a chip-based, solid-state analogue of cavity-QED utilizing acoustic phonons instead of photons. We show how long-lived and tunable acceptor impurity states in silicon nanomechanical cavities can play the role of a matter non-linearity for coherent phonons just as, e.g., the Josephson qubit plays in circuit-QED. Both strong coupling (number of Rabi oscillations ~ 100) and strong dispersive coupling (0.1-2 MHz) regimes can be reached in cavities in the 1-20 GHz range, enabling the control of single phonons, phonon-phonon interactions, dispersive phonon readout of the acceptor qubit, and compatibility with other optomechanical components such as phonon-photon translators. We predict explicit experimental signatures of the acceptor-cavity system.
- Jun 09 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1106.1654v3A quantum mechanical superposition of a long-lived, localized phonon and a matter excitation is described. We identify a realization in strained silicon: a low-lying donor transition (P or Li) driven solely by acoustic phonons at wavelengths where high-Q phonon cavities can be built. This phonon-matter resonance is shown to enter the strongly coupled regime where the "vacuum" Rabi frequency exceeds the spontaneous phonon emission into non-cavity modes, phonon leakage from the cavity, and phonon anharmonicity and scattering. We introduce a micropillar distributed Bragg reflector Si/Ge cavity, where Q=10^5-10^6 and mode volumes V<=25*lambda^3 are reachable. These results indicate that single or many-body devices based on these systems are experimentally realizable.
- Mar 28 2008 cond-mat.other quant-ph arXiv:0803.3963v2The superfluid to Mott insulator transition in cavity polariton arrays is analyzed using the variational cluster approach, taking into account quantum fluctuations exactly on finite length scales. Phase diagrams in one and two dimensions exhibit important non-mean-field features. Single-particle excitation spectra in the Mott phase are dominated by particle and hole bands separated by a Mott gap. In contrast to Bose-Hubbard models, detuning allows for changing the nature of the bosonic particles from quasi-localized excitons to polaritons to weakly interacting photons. The Mott state with density one exists up to temperatures $T/g\gtrsim0.03$, implying experimentally accessible temperatures for realistic cavity couplings $g$.
- Nov 01 2007 cond-mat.other arXiv:0710.5748v3Systems of coupled photonic cavities have been predicted to exhibit quantum phase transitions by analogy with the Hubbard model. To this end, we have studied topologies of few (up to six) photonic cavities each containing a single two-level system. Quantum phase space diagrams are produced for these systems, and compared to mean-field results. We also consider finite effective temperature, and compare this to the notion of disorder. We find the extent of the Mott lobes shrink analogously to the conventional Bose-Hubbard model.
- Oct 24 2007 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:0710.4263v1Semiconductor architectures hold promise for quantum information processing (QIP) applications due to their large industrial base and perceived scalability potential. Electron spins in silicon in particular may be an excellent architecture for QIP and also for spin electronics (spintronics) applications. While the charge of an electron is easily manipulated by charged gates, the spin degree of freedom is well isolated from charge fluctuations. Inherently small spin-orbit coupling and the existence of a spin-zero Si isotope facilitate long single spin qubit coherence times. Here we consider the relaxation properties of localized electronic states in silicon due to donors, quantum wells, and quantum dots, including effects due to phonons and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Our analysis is impeded by the complicated, many-valley band structure of silicon and previously unaddressed physics in silicon quantum wells. We find that electron spins in silicon and especially strained silicon have excellent decoherence properties. Where possible we compare with experiment to test our theories. We go beyond issues of coherence in a quantum computer to problems of control and measurement. Precisely what makes spin relaxation so long in semiconductor architectures makes spin measurement so difficult. To address this, we propose a new scheme for spin readout which has the added benefit of automatic spin initialization, a vital component of quantum computing and quantum error correction. Our results represent important practical milestones on the way to the design and construction of a silicon-based quantum computer.
- New technologies based on the exploitation of so-called "second order" quantum phenomena - such as quantum entanglement - deserve a public-friendly, rational, and sexy name. Spookytechnology is that unifying term. From historical and motivational perspectives, this name has greater value than the many variations of quantum this and quantum that presently used. As many already believe, the pursuit of spookytechnology has profound implications for the development of the physical and information sciences and ultimately for society at large. Spookytechnology will find its place in the increasingly dense line of major technological revolutions of our time: quantum, info, bio, nano, spooky.
- Nov 09 2006 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0611221v2Silicon has many attractive properties for quantum computing, and the quantum dot architecture is appealing because of its controllability and scalability. However, the multiple valleys in the silicon conduction band are potentially a serious source of decoherence for spin-based quantum dot qubits. Only when these valleys are split by a large energy does one obtain well-defined and long-lived spin states appropriate for quantum computing. Here we show that the small valley splittings observed in previous experiments on Si/SiGe heterostructures result from atomic steps at the quantum well interface. Lateral confinement in a quantum point contact limits the electron wavefunctions to several steps, and enhances the valley splitting substantially, up to 1.5 meV. The combination of electronic and magnetic confinement produces a valley splitting larger than the spin splitting, which is controllable over a wide range. These results improve the outlook for realizing spin qubits with long coherence times in silicon-based devices.
- Sep 05 2006 cond-mat.other quant-ph arXiv:cond-mat/0609050v1Recently, condensed matter and atomic experiments have reached a length-scale and temperature regime where new quantum collective phenomena emerge. Finding such physics in systems of photons, however, is problematic, as photons typically do not interact with each other and can be created or destroyed at will. Here, we introduce a physical system of photons that exhibits strongly correlated dynamics on a meso-scale. By adding photons to a two-dimensional array of coupled optical cavities each containing a single two-level atom in the photon-blockade regime, we form dressed states, or polaritons, that are both long-lived and strongly interacting. Our zero temperature results predict that this photonic system will undergo a characteristic Mott insulator (excitations localised on each site) to superfluid (excitations delocalised across the lattice) quantum phase transition. Each cavity's impressive photon out-coupling potential may lead to actual devices based on these quantum many-body effects, as well as observable, tunable quantum simulators. We explicitly show that such phenomena may be observable in micro-machined diamond containing nitrogen-vacancy colour centres and superconducting microwave strip-line resonators.
- Aug 10 2006 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0608229v2We present an effective mass theory for SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum wells, with an emphasis on calculating the valley splitting. The theory introduces a valley coupling parameter, $v_v$, which encapsulates the physics of the quantum well interface. The new effective mass parameter is computed by means of a tight binding theory. The resulting formalism provides rather simple analytical results for several geometries of interest, including a finite square well, a quantum well in an electric field, and a modulation doped two-dimensional electron gas. Of particular importance is the problem of a quantum well in a magnetic field, grown on a miscut substrate. The latter may pose a numerical challenge for atomistic techniques like tight-binding, because of its two-dimensional nature. In the effective mass theory, however, the results are straightforward and analytical. We compare our effective mass results with those of the tight binding theory, obtaining excellent agreement.
- Nov 30 2004 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:cond-mat/0411735v1The mechanisms limiting the spin coherence time of electrons are of great importance for spintronics. We present electron spin resonance (ESR) and transport measurements of six different two dimensional electron gases in silicon/silicon-germanium (Si/SiGe 2DEGs). The spin decoherence time $T_2^*$ is presented in conjunction with the 2DEG density $n_e$ and momentum scattering time $\tau_p$ as measured from transport experiments. A pronounced dependence of $T_2^*$ on the orientation of the applied magnetic field with respect to 2DEG layer is found which is not consistent with that expected from any mechanism described in the literature.
- Aug 19 2004 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0408389v5The lifting of the two-fold degeneracy of the conduction valleys in a strained silicon quantum well is critical for spin quantum computing. Here, we obtain an accurate measurement of the splitting of the valley states in the low-field region of interest, using the microwave spectroscopy technique of electron valley resonance (EVR). We compare our results with conventional methods, observing a linear magnetic field dependence of the valley splitting, and a strong low-field suppression, consistent with recent theory. The resonance linewidth shows a marked enhancement above $T\simeq 300$ mK.
- Apr 19 2004 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0404399v2We report the fabrication and electrical characterization of a single electron transistor in a modulation doped silicon/silicon-germanium heterostructure. The quantum dot is fabricated by electron beam lithography and subsequent reactive ion etching. The dot potential and electron density are modified by laterally defined side gates in the plane of the dot. Low temperature measurements show Coulomb blockade with a single electron charging energy of 3.2 meV.
- Jan 30 2004 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0401615v2Silicon is a leading candidate material for spin-based devices, and two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) formed in silicon heterostructures have been proposed for both spin transport and quantum dot quantum computing applications. The key parameter for these applications is the spin relaxation time. Here we apply the theory of D'yakonov and Perel' (DP) to calculate the electron spin resonance linewidth of a silicon 2DEG due to structural inversion asymmetry for arbitrary static magnetic field direction at low temperatures. We estimate the Rashba spin-orbit coupling coefficient in silicon quantum wells and find the $T_{1}$ and $T_{2}$ times of the spins from this mechanism as a function of momentum scattering time, magnetic field, and device-specific parameters. We obtain agreement with existing data for the angular dependence of the relaxation times and show that the magnitudes are consistent with the DP mechanism. We suggest how to increase the relaxation times by appropriate device design.
- Apr 19 2003 cond-mat.mtrl-sci quant-ph arXiv:cond-mat/0304422v2Electron spin qubits in semiconductors are attractive from the viewpoint of long coherence times. However, single spin measurement is challenging. Several promising schemes incorporate ancillary tunnel couplings that may provide unwanted channels for decoherence. Here, we propose a novel spin-charge transduction scheme, converting spin information to orbital information within a single quantum dot by microwave excitation. The same quantum dot can be used for rapid initialization, gating, and readout. We present detailed modeling of such a device in silicon to confirm its feasibility.
- Mar 18 2002 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:cond-mat/0203319v2Direct phonon spin-lattice relaxation of an electron qubit bound by a donor impurity or quantum dot in SiGe heterostructures is investigated. The aim is to evaluate the importance of decoherence from this mechanism in several important solid-state quantum computer designs operating at low temperatures. We calculate the relaxation rate $1/T_1$ as a function of [100] uniaxial strain, temperature, magnetic field, and silicon/germanium content for Si:P bound electrons. The quantum dot potential is much smoother, leading to smaller splittings of the valley degeneracies. We have estimated these splittings in order to obtain upper bounds for the relaxation rate. In general, we find that the relaxation rate is strongly decreased by uniaxial compressive strain in a SiGe-Si-SiGe quantum well, making this strain an important positive design feature. Ge in high concentrations (particularly over 85%) increases the rate, making Si-rich materials preferable. We conclude that SiGe bound electron qubits must meet certain conditions to minimize decoherence but that spin-phonon relaxation does not rule out the solid-state implementation of error-tolerant quantum computing.