results for au:Swingle_B in:cond-mat

- Thermalization of chaotic quantum many-body systems under unitary time evolution is related to the growth in complexity of initially simple Heisenberg operators. Operator growth is a manifestation of information scrambling and can be diagnosed by out-of-time-order correlators (OTOCs). However, the behavior of OTOCs of local operators in generic chaotic local Hamiltonians remains poorly understood, with some semiclassical and large N models exhibiting exponential growth of OTOCs and a sharp chaos wavefront and other random circuit models showing a diffusively broadened wavefront. In this paper we propose a unified physical picture for scrambling in chaotic local Hamiltonians. We construct a random time-dependent Hamiltonian model featuring a large N limit where the OTOC obeys a Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov (FKPP) type equation and exhibits exponential growth and a sharp wavefront. We show that quantum fluctuations manifest as noise (distinct from the randomness of the couplings in the underlying Hamiltonian) in the FKPP equation and that the noise-averaged OTOC exhibits a cross-over to a diffusively broadened wavefront. At small N we demonstrate that operator growth dynamics, averaged over the random couplings, can be efficiently simulated for all time using matrix product state techniques. To show that time-dependent randomness is not essential to our conclusions, we push our previous matrix product operator methods to very large size and show that data for a time-independent Hamiltonian model are also consistent with a diffusively-broadened wavefront.
- Most experimental protocols for measuring scrambling require time evolution with a Hamiltonian and with the Hamiltonian's negative counterpart (backwards time evolution). Engineering controllable quantum many-body systems for which such forward and backward evolution is possible is a significant experimental challenge. Furthermore, if the system of interest is quantum-chaotic, one might worry that any small errors in the time reversal will be rapidly amplified, obscuring the physics of scrambling. This paper undermines this expectation: We exhibit a renormalization protocol that extracts nearly ideal out-of-time-ordered-correlator measurements from imperfect experimental measurements. We analytically and numerically demonstrate the protocol's effectiveness, up to the scrambling time, in a wide variety of models and for sizable imperfections. The scheme extends to errors from decoherence by an environment.
- Scrambling, a process in which quantum information spreads over a complex quantum system becoming inaccessible to simple probes, happens in generic chaotic quantum many-body systems, ranging from spin chains, to metals, even to black holes. Scrambling can be measured using out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOCs), which are closely tied to the growth of Heisenberg operators. In this work, we present a general method to calculate OTOCs of local operators in local one-dimensional systems based on approximating Heisenberg operators as matrix-product operators (MPOs). Contrary to the common belief that such tensor network methods work only at early times, we show that the entire early growth region of the OTOC can be captured using an MPO approximation with modest bond dimension. We analytically establish the goodness of the approximation by showing that if an appropriate OTOC is close to its initial value, then the associated Heisenberg operator has low entanglement across a given cut. We use the method to study scrambling in a chaotic spin chain with $201$ sites. Based on this data and OTOC results for black holes, local random circuit models, and non-interacting systems, we conjecture a universal form for the dynamics of the OTOC near the wavefront. We show that this form collapses the chaotic spin chain data over more than fifteen orders of magnitude.
- We study the holographic complexity of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton gravity using the recently proposed "complexity = volume" and "complexity = action" dualities. The model we consider has a ground state that is represented in the bulk via a so-called hyperscaling violating geometry. We calculate the action growth of the Wheeler-DeWitt patch of the corresponding black hole solution at non-zero temperature and find that, in the presence of violations of hyperscaling, there is a parametric enhancement of the action growth rate. We partially match this behavior to simple tensor network models which can capture aspects of hyperscaling violation. We also exhibit the switchback effect in complexity growth using shockwave geometries and comment on a subtlety of our action calculations when the metric is discontinuous at a null surface.
- Nov 22 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1711.07500v1A method to study strongly interacting quantum many-body systems at and away from criticality is proposed. The method is based on a MERA-like tensor network that can be efficiently and reliably contracted on a noisy quantum computer using a number of qubits that is much smaller than the system size. We prove that the outcome of the contraction is stable to noise and that the estimated energy upper bounds the ground state energy. The stability, which we numerically substantiate, follows from the positivity of operator scaling dimensions under renormalization group flow. The variational upper bound follows from a particular assignment of physical qubits to different locations of the tensor network plus the assumption that the noise model is local. We postulate a scaling law for how well the tensor network can approximate ground states of lattice regulated conformal field theories in d spatial dimensions and provide evidence for the postulate. Under this postulate, a $O(\log^{d}(1/\delta))$-qubit quantum computer can prepare a valid quantum-mechanical state with energy density $\delta$ above the ground state. In the presence of noise, $\delta = O(\epsilon \log^{d+1}(1/\epsilon))$ can be achieved, where $\epsilon$ is the noise strength.
- Purification is a powerful technique in quantum physics whereby a mixed quantum state is extended to a pure state on a larger system. This process is not unique, and in systems composed of many degrees of freedom, one natural purification is the one with minimal entanglement. Here we study the entropy of the minimally entangled purification, called the entanglement of purification, in three model systems: an Ising spin chain, conformal field theories holographically dual to Einstein gravity, and random stabilizer tensor networks. We conjecture values for the entanglement of purification in all these models, and we support our conjectures with a variety of numerical and analytical results. We find that such minimally entangled purifications have a number of applications, from enhancing entanglement-based tensor network methods for describing mixed states to elucidating novel aspects of the emergence of geometry from entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence.
- We construct entanglement renormalization schemes which provably approximate the ground states of non-interacting fermion nearest-neighbor hopping Hamiltonians on the one-dimensional discrete line and the two-dimensional square lattice. These schemes give hierarchical quantum circuits which build up the states from unentangled degrees of freedom. The circuits are based on pairs of discrete wavelet transforms which are approximately related by a "half-shift": translation by half a unit cell. The presence of the Fermi surface in the two-dimensional model requires a special kind of circuit architecture to properly capture the entanglement in the ground state. We show how the error in the approximation can be controlled without ever performing a variational optimization.
- Two topics, evolving rapidly in separate fields, were combined recently: The out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals quantum-information scrambling in many-body systems. The Kirkwood-Dirac (KD) quasiprobability represents operators in quantum optics. The OTOC has been shown to equal a moment of a summed quasiprobability. That quasiprobability, we argue, is an extension of the KD distribution. We explore the quasiprobability's structure from experimental, numerical, and theoretical perspectives. First, we simplify and analyze the weak-measurement and interference protocols for measuring the OTOC and its quasiprobability. We decrease, exponentially in system size, the number of trials required to infer the OTOC from weak measurements. We also construct a circuit for implementing the weak-measurement scheme. Next, we calculate the quasiprobability (after coarse-graining) numerically and analytically: We simulate a transverse-field Ising model first. Then, we calculate the quasiprobability averaged over random circuits, which model chaotic dynamics. The quasiprobability, we find, distinguishes chaotic from integrable regimes. We observe nonclassical behaviors: The quasiprobability typically has negative components. It becomes nonreal in some regimes. The onset of scrambling breaks a symmetry that bifurcates the quasiprobability, as in classical-chaos pitchforks. Finally, we present mathematical properties. The quasiprobability obeys a Bayes-type theorem, for example, that exponentially decreases the memory required to calculate weak values, in certain cases. A time-ordered correlator analogous to the OTOC, insensitive to quantum-information scrambling, depends on a quasiprobability closer to a classical probability. This work not only illuminates the OTOC's underpinnings, but also generalizes quasiprobability theory and motivates immediate-future weak-measurement challenges.
- We study scrambling, an avatar of chaos, in a weakly interacting metal in the presence of random potential disorder. It is well known that charge and heat spread via diffusion in such an interacting disordered metal. In contrast, we show within perturbation theory that chaos spreads in a ballistic fashion. The squared anticommutator of the electron field operators inherits a light-cone like growth, arising from an interplay of a growth (Lyapunov) exponent that scales as the inelastic electron scattering rate and a diffusive piece due to the presence of disorder. In two spatial dimensions, the Lyapunov exponent is universally related at weak coupling to the sheet resistivity. We are able to define an effective temperature-dependent butterfly velocity, a speed limit for the propagation of quantum information, that is much slower than microscopic velocities such as the Fermi velocity and that is qualitatively similar to that of a quantum critical system with a dynamical critical exponent $z > 1$.
- The growth of commutators of initially commuting local operators diagnoses the onset of chaos in quantum many-body systems. We compute such commutators of local field operators with $N$ components in the $(2+1)$-dimensional $O(N)$ nonlinear sigma model to leading order in $1/N$. The system is taken to be in thermal equilibrium at a temperature $T$ above the zero temperature quantum critical point separating the symmetry broken and unbroken phases. The commutator grows exponentially in time with a rate denoted $\lambda_L$. At large $N$ the growth of chaos as measured by $\lambda_L$ is slow because the model is weakly interacting, and we find $\lambda_L \approx 3.2 T/N$. The scaling with temperature is dictated by conformal invariance of the underlying quantum critical point. We also show that operators grow ballistically in space with a "butterfly velocity" given by $v_B/c \approx 1$ where $c$ is the Lorentz-invariant speed of particle excitations in the system. We briefly comment on the behavior of $\lambda_L$ and $v_B$ in the neighboring symmetry broken and unbroken phases.
- Dec 16 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1612.04840v1We numerically study two non-interacting fermion models, a quantum wire model and a Cherninsulator model, governed by open system Linblad dynamics. The physical setup consists of a unitarilyevolving "bulk" coupled via its boundaries to two dissipative "leads". The open system dynamics ischosen to drive the leads to thermal equilibrium, and by choosing different temperatures and chemicalpotentials for the two leads we may drive the bulk into a non-equilibrium current carrying steady state.We report two main results in this context. First, we show that for an appropriate choice of dynamicsof the leads, the bulk state is also driven to thermal equilibrium even though the open system dynamicsdoes not act directly on it. Second, we show that the steady state which emerges at late time, even in thepresence of currents, is lightly entangled in the sense of having small mutual information and conditionalmutual information for appropriate regions. We also report some results for the rate of approach to thesteady state. These results have bearing on recent attempts to formulate a numerically tractable methodto compute currents in strongly interacting models; specifically, they are relevant for the problem ofdesigning simple leads that can drive a target system into thermal equilibrium at low temperature.
- The way in which geometry encodes entanglement is a topic of much recent interest in quantum many-body physics and the AdS/CFT duality. This relation is particularly pronounced in the case of topological quantum field theories, where topology alone determines the quantum states of the theory. In this work, we study the set of quantum states that can be prepared by the Euclidean path integral in three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory. Specifically, we consider arbitrary 3-manifolds with a fixed number of torus boundaries in both abelian U(1) and non-abelian SO(3) Chern-Simons theory. For the abelian theory, we find that the states that can be prepared coincide precisely with the set of stabilizer states from quantum information theory. This constrains the multipartite entanglement present in this theory, but it also reveals that stabilizer states can be described by topology. In particular, we find an explicit expression for the entanglement entropy of a many-torus subsystem using only a single replica, as well as a concrete formula for the number of GHZ states that can be distilled from a tripartite state prepared through path integration. For the nonabelian theory, we find a notion of "state universality", namely that any state can be prepared to an arbitrarily good approximation. The manifolds we consider can also be viewed as toy models of multi-boundary wormholes in AdS/CFT.
- We study the problem of calculating transport properties of interacting quantum systems, specifically electrical and thermal conductivities, by computing the non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of the system biased by contacts. Our approach is based on the structure of entanglement in the NESS. With reasonable physical assumptions, we show that a NESS close to local equilibrium is lightly entangled and can be represented via a computationally efficient tensor network. We further argue that the NESS may be found by dynamically evolving the system within a manifold of appropriate low entanglement states. A physically realistic law of dynamical evolution is Markovian open system dynamics, or the Lindblad equation. We explore this approach in a well-studied free fermion model where comparisons with the literature are possible. We study both electrical and thermal currents with and without disorder, and compute entropic quantities such as mutual information and conditional mutual information. We conclude with a discussion of the prospects of this approach for the challenging problem of transport in strongly interacting systems, especially those with disorder.
- Recent work has studied the growth of commutators as a probe of chaos and information scrambling in quantum many-body systems. In this work we study the effect of static disorder on the growth of commutators in a variety of contexts. We find generically that disorder slows the onset of scrambling, and, in the case of a many-body localized state, partially halts it. We access the many-body localized state using a standard fixed point Hamiltonian, and we show that operators exhibit slow logarithmic growth under time evolution. We compare the result with the expected growth of commutators in both localized and delocalized non-interacting disordered models. Finally, based on a scaling argument, we state a conjecture about the effect of weak interactions on the growth of commutators in an interacting diffusive metal.
- In arXiv:1407.8203, we introduced the idea of s-sourcery, a general formalism for building many-body quantum ground states using renormalization-group-inspired quantum circuits. Here we define a generalized notion of s-sourcery that applies to mixed states, and study its properties and applicability. We prove a number of theorems establishing the prevalence of mixed s-source fixed points. For our examples we focus on thermal states of local Hamiltonians. Thermal double states (also called thermofield double states) and the machinery of approximate conditional independence are used heavily in the constructions.
- Jul 08 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.dis-nn cond-mat.quant-gas cond-mat.stat-mech hep-th arXiv:1607.01801v1Out-of-time-order correlation functions provide a proxy for diagnosing chaos in quantum systems. We propose and analyze an interferometric scheme for their measurement, using only local quantum control and no reverse time evolution. Our approach utilizes a combination of Ramsey interferometry and the recently demonstrated ability to directly measure Renyi entropies. To implement our scheme, we present a pair of cold-atom-based experimental blueprints; moreover, we demonstrate that within these systems, one can naturally realize the transverse-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (TFSK) model, which exhibits certain similarities with fast scrambling black holes. We perform a detailed numerical study of scrambling in the TFSK model, observing an interesting interplay between the fast scrambling bound and the onset of spin-glass order.
- As experiments are increasingly able to probe the quantum dynamics of systems with many degrees of freedom, it is interesting to probe fundamental bounds on the dynamics of quantum information. We elaborate on the relationship between one such bound---the Lieb-Robinson bound---and the butterfly effect in strongly-coupled quantum systems. The butterfly effect implies the ballistic growth of local operators in time, which can be quantified with the "butterfly" velocity $v_B$. Similarly, the Lieb-Robinson velocity places a state independent ballistic upper bound on the size of time evolved operators in non-relativistic lattice models. Here, we argue that $v_B$ is a state-dependent effective Lieb-Robinson velocity. We study the butterfly velocity in a wide variety of quantum field theories using holography and compare with free particle computations to understand the role of strong coupling. We find that, depending on the way length and time scale, $v_B$ acquires a temperature dependence and decreases towards the IR. We also comment on experimental prospects and on the relationship between the butterfly velocity and signaling.
- We provide a protocol to measure out-of-time-order correlation functions. These correlation functions are of theoretical interest for diagnosing the scrambling of quantum information in black holes and strongly interacting quantum systems generally. Measuring them requires an echo-type sequence in which the sign of a many-body Hamiltonian is reversed. We detail an implementation employing cold atoms and cavity quantum electrodynamics to realize the chaotic kicked top model, and we analyze effects of dissipation to verify its feasibility with current technology. Finally, we propose in broad strokes a number of other experimental platforms where similar out-of-time-order correlation functions can be measured.
- Feb 10 2016 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1602.02805v1We show that a large class of gapless states are renormalization group fixed points in the sense that they can be grown scale by scale using local unitaries. This class of examples includes some theories with dynamical exponent different from one, but does not include conformal field theories. The key property of the states we consider is that the ground state wavefunction is related to the statistical weight of a local statistical model. We give several examples of our construction in the context of Ising magnetism.
- We demonstrate an area law bound on the ground state entanglement entropy of a wide class of gapless quantum states of matter using a strategy called local entanglement thermodynamics. The bound depends only on thermodynamic data, actually a single exponent, the hyper-scaling violation exponent $\theta$. All systems in $d$ spatial dimensions obeying our scaling assumptions and with $\theta < d-1$ obey the area law, while systems with $\theta = d-1$ can violate the area law at most logarithmically. We also discuss the case of frustration-free Hamiltonians and show that to violate the area law more than logarithmically these systems must have an unusually large number of low energy states. Finally, we make contact with the recently proposed $s$-source framework and argue that $\theta$ and $s$ are related by $s=2^\theta$.
- Oct 01 2014 hep-th cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1409.8339v1We demonstrate that 3+1-dimensional quantum electrodynamics with fermionic charges, fermionic monopoles, and fermionic dyons arises at the edge of a 4+1-dimensional gapped state with short-range entanglement. This state cannot be adiabatically connected to a product state, even in the absence of any symmetry. This provides independent evidence for the obstruction found by arXiv:1306.3238 to a 3+1-dimensional short-distance completion of all-fermion electrodynamics. The non-triviality of the bulk is demonstrated by a novel fermion number anomaly.
- We give a detailed physical argument for the area law for entanglement entropy in gapped phases of matter arising from local Hamiltonians. Our approach is based on renormalization group (RG) ideas and takes a resource oriented perspective. We report four main results. First, we argue for the "weak area law": any gapped phase with a unique ground state on every closed manifold obeys the area law. Second, we introduce an RG based classification scheme and give a detailed argument that all phases within the classification scheme obey the area law. Third, we define a special sub-class of gapped phases, \textittopological quantum liquids, which captures all examples of current physical relevance, and we rigorously show that TQLs obey an area law. Fourth, we show that all topological quantum liquids have MERA representations which achieve unit overlap with the ground state in the thermodynamic limit and which have a bond dimension scaling with system size $L$ as $e^{c \log^{d(1+\delta)}(L)}$ for all $\delta >0$. For example, we show that chiral phases in $d=2$ dimensions have an approximate MERA with bond dimension $e^{c \log^{2(1+\delta)}(L)}$. We discuss extensively a number of subsidiary ideas and results necessary to make the main arguments, including field theory constructions. While our argument for the general area law rests on physically-motived assumptions (which we make explicit) and is therefore not rigorous, we may conclude that "conventional" gapped phases obey the area law and that any gapped phase which violates the area law must be a dragon.
- We consider the problem of reconstructing global quantum states from local data. Because the reconstruction problem has many solutions in general, we consider the reconstructed state of maximum global entropy consistent with the local data. We show that unique ground states of local Hamiltonians are exactly reconstructed as the maximal entropy state. More generally, we show that if the state in question is a ground state of a local Hamiltonian with a degenerate space of locally indistinguishable ground states, then the maximal entropy state is close to the ground state projector. We also show that local reconstruction is possible for thermal states of local Hamiltonians. Finally, we discuss a procedure to certify that the reconstructed state is close to the true global state. We call the entropy of our reconstructed maximum entropy state the "reconstruction entropy", and we discuss its relation to emergent geometry in the context of holographic duality.
- Entanglement entropy is a useful probe of compressible quantum matter because it can detect the existence of Fermi surfaces, both of microscopic fermionic degrees of freedom and of "hidden" gauge charged fermions. Much recent attention has focused on holographic efforts to model strongly interacting compressible matter of interest for condensed matter physics. We complete the entanglement analysis initiated in Huijse \em et al., Phys. Rev. B 85, 035121 (2012) (arXiv:1112.0573) and Ogawa \em et al., JHEP 1, 125 (2012) (arXiv:1111.1023) using the recent proposal of Faulkner \em et al. (arXiv:1307.2892) to analyze the entanglement entropy of the visible fermions which arises from bulk loop corrections. We find perfect agreement between holographic and field theoretic calculations.
- Renormalization is often described as the removal or "integrating out" of high energy degrees of freedom. In the context of quantum matter, one might suspect that quantum entanglement provides a sharp way to characterize such a loss of degrees of freedom. Indeed, for quantum many-body systems with Lorentz invariance, such entanglement monotones have been proven to exist in one, two, and three spatial dimensions. In each dimension d, a certain term in the entanglement entropy of a d-ball decreases along renormalization group (RG) flows. Given that most quantum many-body systems available in the laboratory are not Lorentz invariant, it is important to generalize these results if possible. In this work we demonstrate the impossibility of a wide variety of such generalizations. We do this by exhibiting a series of counterexamples with understood renormalization group flows which violate entanglement RG monotonicity. We discuss bosons at finite density, fermions at finite density, and majorization in Lorentz invariant theories, among other results.
- Jul 02 2013 cond-mat.dis-nn quant-ph arXiv:1307.0507v1We study a simple and tractable model of many-body localization. The main idea is to take a renormalization group perspective in which local entanglement is removed to reach a product state. The model is built from a random local unitary which implements a real space renormalization procedure and a fixed point Hamiltonian with random exponentially decaying interactions. We prove that every energy eigenstate is localized, that energy is not transported, and argue that despite being fine tuned, the model is stable to perturbations. We also show that every energy eigenstate obeys an area law for entanglement entropy and we consider the dynamics of entanglement entropy under perturbations. In the case of extensive pertubations we recover a logarithmic growth of entanglement observed in recent numerical simulations.
- We present a general theory of the singularity in the London penetration depth at symmetry-breaking and topological quantum critical points within a superconducting phase. While the critical exponents, and ratios of amplitudes on the two sides of the transition are universal, an overall sign depends upon the interplay between the critical theory and the underlying Fermi surface. We determine these features for critical points to spin density wave and nematic ordering, and for a topological transition between a superconductor with $\mathbb{Z}_2$ fractionalization and a conventional superconductor. We note implications for recent measurements of the London penetration depth in BaFe$_2$(As$_{1-x}$P$_x$)$_2$ (Hashimoto et al., Science 336, 1554 (2012)).
- Regulated Lorentz invariant quantum field theories satisfy an area law for the entanglement entropy $S$ of a spatial subregion in the ground state in $d>1$ spatial dimensions; nevertheless, the full density matrix contains many more than $e^{S}$ non-zero eigenvalues. We ask how well the state of a subregion $R$ in the ground state of such a theory can be approximated when keeping only the $e^{S}$ largest eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix of $R$. We argue that by taking the region $R$ big enough, we can always ensure that keeping roughly $e^{S}$ states leads to bounded error in trace norm even for subregions in gapless ground states. We support these general arguments with an explicit computation of the error in a half-space geometry for a free scalar field in any dimension. Along the way we show that the Renyi entropy of a ball in the ground state of any conformal field theory at small Renyi parameter is controlled by the conventional \textitthermal entropy density at low temperatures. We also reobtain and generalize some old results relevant to DMRG on the decay of Schmidt coefficients of intervals in one dimensional ground states. Finally, we discuss the role of the regulator, the insensitivity of our arguments to the precise ultraviolet physics, and the role of adiabatic continuity in our results.
- This paper has been withdrawn and superseded by a new version entitled "Singularity of the London penetration depth at quantum critical points in superconductors" by Debanjan Chowdhury, Brian Swingle, Erez Berg and Subir Sachdev, posted in arXiv:1305.2918. The more recent paper has a number of new interesting results and includes a comprehensive analysis of 3 different classes of QCPs, including the one that was originally considered.
- In this work we compute subleading oscillating terms in the Renyi entropy of Fermi gases and Fermi liquids corresponding to $2k_F$-like oscillations. Our theoretical tools are the one dimensional formulation of Fermi liquid entanglement familiar from discussions of the logarithmic violation of the area law and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The main result is a formula for the oscillating term for any region geometry and a spherical Fermi surface. We compare this term to numerical calculations of entanglement using the correlation function method and find excellent agreement. We also compare with quantum Monte Carlo data on interacting Fermi liquids where we also find excellent agreement up to moderate interaction strengths.
- Oct 22 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1210.5514v4Topological Majorana fermion (MF) quasiparticles have been recently suggested to exist in semiconductor quantum wires with proximity induced superconductivity and a Zeeman field. Although the experimentally observed zero bias tunneling peak and a fractional ac-Josephson effect can be taken as necessary signatures of MFs, neither of them constitutes a sufficient "smoking gun" experiment. Since one pair of Majorana fermions share a single conventional fermionic degree of freedom, MFs are in a sense fractionalized excitations. Based on this fractionalization we propose a tunneling experiment that furnishes a nearly unique signature of end state MFs in semiconductor quantum wires. In particular, we show that a "teleportation"-like experiment is not enough to distinguish MFs from pairs of MFs, which are equivalent to conventional zero energy states, but our proposed tunneling experiment, in principle, can make this distinction.
- We elaborate on our earlier proposal connecting entanglement renormalization and holographic duality in which we argued that a tensor network can be reinterpreted as a kind of skeleton for an emergent holographic space. Here we address the question of the large $N$ limit where on the holographic side the gravity theory becomes classical and a non-fluctuating smooth spacetime description emerges. We show how a number of features of holographic duality in the large $N$ limit emerge naturally from entanglement renormalization, including a classical spacetime generated by entanglement, a sparse spectrum of operator dimensions, and phase transitions in mutual information. We also address questions related to bulk locality below the AdS radius, holographic duals of weakly coupled large $N$ theories, Fermi surfaces in holography, and the holographic interpretation of branching MERA. Some of our considerations are inspired by the idea of quantum expanders which are generalized quantum transformations that add a definite amount of entropy to most states. Since we identify entanglement with geometry, we thus argue that classical spacetime may be built from quantum expanders (or something like them).
- We compute the entanglement entropy of a wide class of exactly solvable models which may be characterized as describing matter coupled to gauge fields. Our principle result is an entanglement sum rule which states that entropy of the full system is the sum of the entropies of the two components. In the context of the exactly solvable models we consider, this result applies to the full entropy, but more generally it is a statement about the additivity of universal terms in the entropy. We also prove that the Renyi entropy is exactly additive and hence that the entanglement spectrum factorizes. Our proof simultaneously extends and simplifies previous arguments, with extensions including new models at zero temperature as well as the ability to treat finite temperature crossovers. We emphasize that while the additivity is an exact statement, each term in the sum may still be difficult to compute. Our results apply to a wide variety of phases including Fermi liquids, spin liquids, and some non-Fermi liquid metals.
- Sep 05 2012 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1209.0776v1We study a variety of questions related to entanglement in symmetry protected phases, especially those introduced in arXiv:1106.4772 (Chen et al., 2011). These phases are analogous to topological insulators in that they are short range entangled states with symmetry protected edge or surface states. We show that the now standard bulk-edge correspondence relating the entanglement spectrum to the gapless edge spectrum holds for these phases as well. We also consider the question of coupling these models to gauge fields or equivalently of introducing long range entanglement. We argue that this procedure yields models with perturbatively stable edge or surface states at a variety of interface types. The non-onsite nature of the edge symmetry plays an important role in our considerations.
- May 10 2012 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1205.2085v1In this work we explore experimental signatures of fractional topological insulators in three dimensions. These are states of matter with a fully gapped bulk that host exotic gapless surface states and fractionally charged quasiparticles. They are partially characterized by a non-trivial magneto-electric response while preserving time reversal. We describe how these phases appear in a variety of probes including photoemmission, tunneling, and quantum oscillations. We also discuss the effects of doping and proximate superconductivity. We argue that despite our current theoretical inability to predict materials where such phases will realized, they should be relatively easy to detect experimentally.
- Feb 14 2012 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1202.2367v1We study the structure of entanglement in a supersymmetric lattice model of fermions on certain types of decorated graphs with quenched disorder. In particular, we construct models with controllable ground state degeneracy protected by supersymmetry and the choice of Hilbert space. We show that in certain special limits these degenerate ground states are associated with local impurities and that there exists a basis of the ground state manifold in which every basis element satisfies a boundary law for entanglement entropy. On the other hand, by considering incoherent mixtures or coherent superpositions of these localized ground states, we can find regions that violate the boundary law for entanglement entropy over a wide range of length scales. More generally, we discuss various desiderata for constructing violations of the boundary law for entanglement entropy and discuss possible relations of our work to recent holographic studies.
- We postulate the existence of universal crossover functions connecting the universal parts of the entanglement entropy to the low temperature thermal entropy in gapless quantum many-body systems. These scaling functions encode the intuition that the same low energy degrees of freedom which control low temperature thermal physics are also responsible for the long range entanglement in the quantum ground state. We demonstrate the correctness of the proposed scaling form and determine the scaling function for certain classes of gapless systems whose low energy physics is described by a conformal field theory. We also use our crossover formalism to argue that local systems which are "natural" can violate the boundary law at most logarithmically. In particular, we show that several non-Fermi liquid phases of matter have entanglement entropy that is at most of order $L^{d-1}\log{(L)} $ for a region of linear size $L$ thereby confirming various earlier suggestions in the literature. We also briefly apply our crossover formalism to the study of fluctuations in conserved quantities and discuss some subtleties that occur in systems that spontaneously break a continuous symmetry.
- Dec 06 2011 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1112.0573v3General scaling arguments, and the behavior of the thermal entropy density, are shown to lead to an infrared metric holographically representing a compressible state with hidden Fermi surfaces. This metric is characterized by a general dynamic critical exponent, z, and a specific hyperscaling violation exponent, \theta. The same metric exhibits a logarithmic violation of the area law of entanglement entropy, as shown recently by Ogawa et al. (arXiv:1111.1023). We study the dependence of the entanglement entropy on the shape of the entangling region(s), on the total charge density, on temperature, and on the presence of additional visible Fermi surfaces of gauge-neutral fermions; for the latter computations, we realize the needed metric in an Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. All our results support the proposal that the holographic theory describes a metallic state with hidden Fermi surfaces of fermions carrying gauge charges of deconfined gauge fields.
- Sep 15 2011 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1109.3185v1We study the entanglement properties of deconfined quantum critical points. We show not only that these critical points may be distinguished by their entanglement structure but also that they are in general more highly entangled that conventional critical points. We primarily focus on computations of the entanglement entropy of deconfined critical points in 2+1 dimensions, drawing connections to topological entanglement entropy and a recent conjecture on the monotonicity under RG flow of universal terms in the entanglement entropy. We also consider in some detail a variety of issues surrounding the extraction of universal terms in the entanglement entropy. Finally, we compare some of our results to recent numerical simulations.
- Sep 08 2011 cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1109.1569v2We provide a parton construction of wavefunctions and effective field theories for fractional Chern insulators. We also analyze a strong coupling expansion in lattice gauge theory that enables us to reliably map the parton gauge theory onto the microsopic Hamiltonian. We show that this strong coupling expansion is useful because of a special hierarchy of energy scales in fractional quantum Hall physics. Our procedure is illustrated using the Hofstadter model and then applied to bosons at 1/2 filling and fermions at 1/3 filling in a checkerboard lattice model recently studied numerically. Because our construction provides a more or less unique mapping from microscopic model to effective parton description, we obtain wavefunctions in the same phase as the observed fractional Chern insulators without tuning any continuous parameters.
- The bulk-edge correspondence for topological quantum liquids states that the spectrum of the reduced density matrix of a large subregion reproduces the thermal spectrum of a physical edge. This correspondence suggests an intricate connection between ground state entanglement and physical edge dynamics. We give a simple geometric proof of the bulk-edge correspondence for a wide variety of physical systems. Our unified proof relies on geometric techniques available in Lorentz invariant and conformally invariant quantum field theories. These methods were originally developed in part to understand the physics of black holes, and we now apply them to determine the local structure of entanglement in quantum many-body systems.
- This paper is motivated by prospects for non-Abelian statistics of deconfined particle-like objects in 3+1 dimensions, realized as solitons with localized Majorana zeromodes. To this end, we study the fermionic collective coordinates of magnetic monopoles in 3+1 dimensional spontaneously-broken SU(2) gauge theories with various spectra of fermions. We argue that a single Majorana zeromode of the monopole is not compatible with cancellation of the Witten SU(2) anomaly. We also compare this approach with other attempts to realize deconfined non-Abelian objects in 3+1 dimensions.
- I study the mutual information between spatial subsystems in a variety of scale invariant quantum field theories. While it is derived from the bare entanglement entropy, the mutual information offers a more refined probe of the entanglement structure of quantum field theories because it remains finite in the continuum limit. I argue that the mutual information has certain universal singularities that are a manifestation of the idea of "entanglement per scale". Moreover, I propose a method, based on an ansatz for higher dimensional twist operators, to compute the entanglement entropy, Renyi entropy, and mutual information in a general quantum field theory. The relevance of these results to the search for renormalization group monotones, to holographic duality, and to entanglement based simulation methods for many body systems are all discussed.
- Jul 29 2010 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1007.4825v1I compute the leading contribution to the ground state Renyi entropy $S_{\alpha}$ for a region of linear size $L$ in a Fermi liquid. The result contains a universal boundary law violating term simply related the more familiar entanglement entropy. I also obtain a universal crossover function that smoothly interpolates between the zero temperature result and the ordinary thermal Renyi entropy of a Fermi liquid. Formulas for the entanglement entropy of more complicated regions, including non-convex and disconnected regions, are obtained from the conformal field theory formulation of Fermi surface dynamics. These results permit an evaluation of the quantum mutual information between different regions in a Fermi liquid. I also study the number fluctuations in a Fermi liquid. Taken together, these results give a reasonably complete characterization of the low energy quantum information content of Fermi liquids.
- May 07 2010 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1005.1076v1Topological insulators are characterized by the presence of gapless surface modes protected by time-reversal symmetry. In three space dimensions the magnetoelectric response is described in terms of a bulk theta term for the electromagnetic field. Here we construct theoretical examples of such phases that cannot be smoothly connected to any band insulator. Such correlated topological insulators admit the possibility of fractional magnetoelectric response described by fractional theta/pi. We show that fractional theta/pi is only possible in a gapped time reversal invariant system of bosons or fermions if the system also has deconfined fractional excitations and associated degenerate ground states on topologically non-trivial spaces. We illustrate this result with a concrete example of a time reversal symmetric topological insulator of correlated bosons with theta = pi/4. Extensions to electronic fractional topological insulators are briefly described.
- Many systems exhibit boundary law scaling for entanglement entropy in more than one spatial dimension. Here I describe three systems in 3+1 dimensions that violate the boundary law for entanglement entropy. The first is free Weyl fermions in a magnetic field, the second is a holographic strong coupling generalization of the Weyl fermion system, and the third is a strong topological insulator in the presence of dislocations. These systems are unified by the presence of a low energy description that includes many gapless 1+1 dimensional modes. I conclude with some comments on the search for highly entangled states of quantum matter and some potential experimental signatures.
- The Fermi surface may be usefully viewed as a collection of 1+1 dimensional chiral conformal field theories. This approach permits straightforward calculation of many anomalous ground state properties of the Fermi gas including entanglement entropy and number fluctuations. The 1+1 dimensional picture also generalizes to finite temperature and the presence of interactions. Finally, I argue that the low energy entanglement structure of Fermi liquid theory is universal, depending only on the geometry of the interacting Fermi surface.
- Topological Properties of Tensor Network States From Their Local Gauge and Local Symmetry StructuresJan 26 2010 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1001.4517v1Tensor network states are capable of describing many-body systems with complex quantum entanglement, including systems with non-trivial topological order. In this paper, we study methods to calculate the topological properties of a tensor network state from the tensors that form the state. Motivated by the concepts of gauge group and projective symmetry group in the slave-particle/projective construction, and by the low-dimensional gauge-like symmetries of some exactly solvable Hamiltonians, we study the $d$-dimensional gauge structure and the $d$-dimensional symmetry structure of a tensor network state, where $d\leq d_{space}$ with $d_{space}$ the dimension of space. The $d$-dimensional gauge structure and $d$-dimensional symmetry structure allow us to calculate the string operators and $d$-brane operators of the tensor network state. This in turn allows us to calculate many topological properties of the tensor network state, such as ground state degeneracy and quasiparticle statistics.
- Free fermions with a finite Fermi surface are known to exhibit an anomalously large entanglement entropy. The leading contribution to the entanglement entropy of a region of linear size $L$ in $d$ spatial dimensions is $S\sim L^{d-1} \log{L}$, a result that should be contrasted with the usual boundary law $S \sim L^{d-1}$. This term depends only on the geometry of the Fermi surface and on the boundary of the region in question. I give an intuitive account of this anomalous scaling based on a low energy description of the Fermi surface as a collection of one dimensional gapless modes. Using this picture, I predict a violation of the boundary law in a number of other strongly correlated systems.
- May 11 2009 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:0905.1317v1I show how recent progress in real space renormalization group methods can be used to define a generalized notion of holography inspired by holographic dualities in quantum gravity. The generalization is based upon organizing information in a quantum state in terms of scale and defining a higher dimensional geometry from this structure. While states with a finite correlation length typically give simple geometries, the state at a quantum critical point gives a discrete version of anti de Sitter space. Some finite temperature quantum states include black hole-like objects. The gross features of equal time correlation functions are also reproduced in this geometric framework. The relationship between this framework and better understood versions of holography is discussed.
- Sep 18 2008 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:0809.2821v1We show that general string-net condensed states have a natural representation in terms of tensor product states (TPS) . These TPS's are built from local tensors. They can describe both states with short-range entanglement (such as the symmetry breaking states) and states with long-range entanglement (such as string-net condensed states with topological/quantum order). The tensor product representation provides a kind of 'mean-field' description for topologically ordered states and could be a powerful way to study quantum phase transitions between such states. As an attempt in this direction, we show that the constructed TPS's are fixed-points under a certain wave-function renormalization group transformation for quantum states.