Sarcasm is a sophisticated speech act which commonly manifests on social communities such as Twitter and Reddit. The prevalence of sarcasm on the social web is highly disruptive to opinion mining systems due to not only its tendency of polarity flipping but also usage of figurative language. Sarcasm commonly manifests with a contrastive theme either between positive-negative sentiments or between literal-figurative scenarios. In this paper, we revisit the notion of modeling contrast in order to reason with sarcasm. More specifically, we propose an attention-based neural model that looks in-between instead of across, enabling it to explicitly model contrast and incongruity. We conduct extensive experiments on six benchmark datasets from Twitter, Reddit and the Internet Argument Corpus. Our proposed model not only achieves state-of-the-art performance on all datasets but also enjoys improved interpretability.
May 03 2018 cs.CL
With parallelizable attention networks, the neural Transformer is very fast to train. However, due to the auto-regressive architecture and self-attention in the decoder, the decoding procedure becomes slow. To alleviate this issue, we propose an average attention network as an alternative to the self-attention network in the decoder of the neural Transformer. The average attention network consists of two layers, with an average layer that models dependencies on previous positions and a gating layer that is stacked over the average layer to enhance the expressiveness of the proposed attention network. We apply this network on the decoder part of the neural Transformer to replace the original target-side self-attention model. With masking tricks and dynamic programming, our model enables the neural Transformer to decode sentences over four times faster than its original version with almost no loss in training time and translation performance. We conduct a series of experiments on WMT17 translation tasks, where on 6 different language pairs, we obtain robust and consistent speed-ups in decoding.
Apr 20 2018 cs.CV
The output of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) has been shown to be discontinuous which can make the CNN image classifier vulnerable to small well-tuned artificial perturbations. That is, images modified by adding such perturbations(i.e. adversarial perturbations) that make little difference to human eyes, can completely alter the CNN classification results. In this paper, we propose a practical attack using differential evolution(DE) for generating effective adversarial perturbations. We comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of different types of DEs for conducting the attack on different network structures. The proposed method is a black-box attack which only requires the miracle feedback of the target CNN systems. The results show that under strict constraints which simultaneously control the number of pixels changed and overall perturbation strength, attacking can achieve 72.29%, 78.24% and 61.28% non-targeted attack success rates, with 88.68%, 99.85% and 73.07% confidence on average, on three common types of CNNs. The attack only requires modifying 5 pixels with 20.44, 14.76 and 22.98 pixel values distortion. Thus, the result shows that the current DNNs are also vulnerable to such simpler black-box attacks even under very limited attack conditions.
Feb 27 2018 cs.CL
Generating plausible and fluent sentence with desired properties has long been a challenge. Most of the recent works use recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and their variants to predict following words given previous sequence and target label. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to generate constrained sentences via Gibbs Sampling. The candidate sentences are revised and updated iteratively, with sampled new words replacing old ones. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method to generate plausible and diverse sentences.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an extension of the traditional Internet, which allows a very large number of smart devices, such as home appliances, network cameras, sensors and controllers to connect to one another to share information and improve user experiences. Current IoT devices are typically micro-computers for domain-specific computations rather than traditional functionspecific embedded devices. Therefore, many existing attacks, targeted at traditional computers connected to the Internet, may also be directed at IoT devices. For example, DDoS attacks have become very common in IoT environments, as these environments currently lack basic security monitoring and protection mechanisms, as shown by the recent Mirai and Brickerbot IoT botnets. In this paper, we propose a novel light-weight approach for detecting DDos malware in IoT environments.We firstly extract one-channel gray-scale images converted from binaries, and then utilize a lightweight convolutional neural network for classifying IoT malware families. The experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve 94.0% accuracy for the classification of goodware and DDoS malware, and 81.8% accuracy for the classification of goodware and two main malware families.
Jan 17 2018 cs.CL
The dominant neural machine translation (NMT) models apply unified attentional encoder-decoder neural networks for translation. Traditionally, the NMT decoders adopt recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to perform translation in a left-toright manner, leaving the target-side contexts generated from right to left unexploited during translation. In this paper, we equip the conventional attentional encoder-decoder NMT framework with a backward decoder, in order to explore bidirectional decoding for NMT. Attending to the hidden state sequence produced by the encoder, our backward decoder first learns to generate the target-side hidden state sequence from right to left. Then, the forward decoder performs translation in the forward direction, while in each translation prediction timestep, it simultaneously applies two attention models to consider the source-side and reverse target-side hidden states, respectively. With this new architecture, our model is able to fully exploit source- and target-side contexts to improve translation quality altogether. Experimental results on NIST Chinese-English and WMT English-German translation tasks demonstrate that our model achieves substantial improvements over the conventional NMT by 3.14 and 1.38 BLEU points, respectively. The source code of this work can be obtained from https://github.com/DeepLearnXMU/ABDNMT.
Jan 17 2018 cs.CL
Partially inspired by successful applications of variational recurrent neural networks, we propose a novel variational recurrent neural machine translation (VRNMT) model in this paper. Different from the variational NMT, VRNMT introduces a series of latent random variables to model the translation procedure of a sentence in a generative way, instead of a single latent variable. Specifically, the latent random variables are included into the hidden states of the NMT decoder with elements from the variational autoencoder. In this way, these variables are recurrently generated, which enables them to further capture strong and complex dependencies among the output translations at different timesteps. In order to deal with the challenges in performing efficient posterior inference and large-scale training during the incorporation of latent variables, we build a neural posterior approximator, and equip it with a reparameterization technique to estimate the variational lower bound. Experiments on Chinese-English and English-German translation tasks demonstrate that the proposed model achieves significant improvements over both the conventional and variational NMT models.
Dec 15 2017 cs.NI
Fast and efficient identify a large number of RFID tags in the region of interest is a critical issue in various RFID applications. In this paper, a novel sub-frame-based algorithm with a time-efficient frame size adjustment strategy to reduce the time complexity for EPCglobal C1 Gen2 UHF RFID standard is proposed. By observing the slot statistics in a sub-frame, the tag quantity is estimated by the reader, which afterwards efficiently calculates an optimal frame size to fit the unread tags. Only when the expected time efficiency in the oncoming frame is higher than that in the previous frame, the reader starts the new identification round with the updated frame. Moreover, the estimation of the proposed algorithm is implemented by the look-up tables, which allows dramatically reduction in the computational complexity. Simulation results show noticeable throughput, time efficiency, and identification speed improvements of the proposed solution over the existing approaches.
Nov 29 2017 cs.CV
Raindrops adhered to a glass window or camera lens can severely hamper the visibility of a background scene and degrade an image considerably. In this paper, we address the problem by visually removing raindrops, and thus transforming a raindrop degraded image into a clean one. The problem is intractable, since first the regions occluded by raindrops are not given. Second, the information about the background scene of the occluded regions is completely lost for most part. To resolve the problem, we apply an attentive generative network using adversarial training. Our main idea is to inject visual attention into both the generative and discriminative networks. During the training, our visual attention learns about raindrop regions and their surroundings. Hence, by injecting this information, the generative network will pay more attention to the raindrop regions and the surrounding structures, and the discriminative network will be able to assess the local consistency of the restored regions. This injection of visual attention to both generative and discriminative networks is the main contribution of this paper. Our experiments show the effectiveness of our approach, which outperforms the state of the art methods quantitatively and qualitatively.
Breast density classification is an essential part of breast cancer screening. Although a lot of prior work considered this problem as a task for learning algorithms, to our knowledge, all of them used small and not clinically realistic data both for training and evaluation of their models. In this work, we explore the limits of this task with a data set coming from over 200,000 breast cancer screening exams. We use this data to train and evaluate a strong convolutional neural network classifier. In a reader study, we find that our model can perform this task comparably to a human expert.
Recent research has revealed that the output of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) can be easily altered by adding relatively small perturbations to the input vector. In this paper, we analyze an attack in an extremely limited scenario where only one pixel can be modified. For that we propose a novel method for generating one-pixel adversarial perturbations based on differential evolution. It requires less adversarial information and can fool more types of networks. The results show that 70.97% of the natural images can be perturbed to at least one target class by modifying just one pixel with 97.47% confidence on average. Thus, the proposed attack explores a different take on adversarial machine learning in an extreme limited scenario, showing that current DNNs are also vulnerable to such low dimension attacks.
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) are widely used in modern artificial intelligence (AI) and smart vision systems but also limited by computation latency, throughput, and energy efficiency on a resource-limited scenario, such as mobile devices, internet of things (IoT), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and so on. A hardware streaming architecture is proposed to accelerate convolution and pooling computations for state-of-the-art deep CNNs. It is optimized for energy efficiency by maximizing local data reuse to reduce off-chip DRAM data access. In addition, image and feature decomposition techniques are introduced to optimize memory access pattern for an arbitrary size of image and number of features within limited on-chip SRAM capacity. A prototype accelerator was implemented in TSMC 65 nm CMOS technology with 2.3 mm x 0.8 mm core area, which achieves 144 GOPS peak throughput and 0.8 TOPS/W peak energy efficiency.
Sep 13 2017 cs.CY
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a network of connected devices collecting and exchanging data over the Internet. These things can be artificial or natural, and interact as autonomous agents forming a complex system. In turn, Business Process Management (BPM) was established to analyze, discover, design, implement, execute, monitor and evolve collaborative business processes within and across organizations. While the IoT and BPM have been regarded as separate topics in research and practice, we strongly believe that the management of IoT applications will strongly benefit from BPM concepts, methods and technologies on the one hand; on the other one, the IoT poses challenges that will require enhancements and extensions of the current state-of-the-art in the BPM field. In this paper, we question to what extent these two paradigms can be combined and we discuss the emerging challenges.
Aug 30 2017 cs.CV
We present a framework for learning to describe fine-grained visual differences between instances using attribute phrases. Attribute phrases capture distinguishing aspects of an object (e.g., "propeller on the nose" or "door near the wing" for airplanes) in a compositional manner. Instances within a category can be described by a set of these phrases and collectively they span the space of semantic attributes for a category. We collect a large dataset of such phrases by asking annotators to describe several visual differences between a pair of instances within a category. We then learn to describe and ground these phrases to images in the context of a *reference game* between a speaker and a listener. The goal of a speaker is to describe attributes of an image that allows the listener to correctly identify it within a pair. Data collected in a pairwise manner improves the ability of the speaker to generate, and the ability of the listener to interpret visual descriptions. Moreover, due to the compositionality of attribute phrases, the trained listeners can interpret descriptions not seen during training for image retrieval, and the speakers can generate attribute-based explanations for differences between previously unseen categories. We also show that embedding an image into the semantic space of attribute phrases derived from listeners offers 20% improvement in accuracy over existing attribute-based representations on the FGVC-aircraft dataset.
Apr 28 2017 cs.CL
Neural machine translation (NMT) heavily relies on an attention network to produce a context vector for each target word prediction. In practice, we find that context vectors for different target words are quite similar to one another and therefore are insufficient in discriminatively predicting target words. The reason for this might be that context vectors produced by the vanilla attention network are just a weighted sum of source representations that are invariant to decoder states. In this paper, we propose a novel GRU-gated attention model (GAtt) for NMT which enhances the degree of discrimination of context vectors by enabling source representations to be sensitive to the partial translation generated by the decoder. GAtt uses a gated recurrent unit (GRU) to combine two types of information: treating a source annotation vector originally produced by the bidirectional encoder as the history state while the corresponding previous decoder state as the input to the GRU. The GRU-combined information forms a new source annotation vector. In this way, we can obtain translation-sensitive source representations which are then feed into the attention network to generate discriminative context vectors. We further propose a variant that regards a source annotation vector as the current input while the previous decoder state as the history. Experiments on NIST Chinese-English translation tasks show that both GAtt-based models achieve significant improvements over the vanilla attentionbased NMT. Further analyses on attention weights and context vectors demonstrate the effectiveness of GAtt in improving the discrimination power of representations and handling the challenging issue of over-translation.
We propose a multi-view network for text classification. Our method automatically creates various views of its input text, each taking the form of soft attention weights that distribute the classifier's focus among a set of base features. For a bag-of-words representation, each view focuses on a different subset of the text's words. Aggregating many such views results in a more discriminative and robust representation. Through a novel architecture that both stacks and concatenates views, we produce a network that emphasizes both depth and width, allowing training to converge quickly. Using our multi-view architecture, we establish new state-of-the-art accuracies on two benchmark tasks.
Feb 01 2017 cs.DB
In April 2016, a community of researchers working in the area of Principles of Data Management (PDM) joined in a workshop at the Dagstuhl Castle in Germany. The workshop was organized jointly by the Executive Committee of the ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems (PODS) and the Council of the International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT). The mission of this workshop was to identify and explore some of the most important research directions that have high relevance to society and to Computer Science today, and where the PDM community has the potential to make significant contributions. This report describes the family of research directions that the workshop focused on from three perspectives: potential practical relevance, results already obtained, and research questions that appear surmountable in the short and medium term.
Nov 29 2016 cs.CL
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become the leading cause of death in China, and most of the cases can be prevented by controlling risk factors. The goal of this study was to build a corpus of CVD risk factor annotations based on Chinese electronic medical records (CEMRs). This corpus is intended to be used to develop a risk factor information extraction system that, in turn, can be applied as a foundation for the further study of the progress of risk factors and CVD. We designed a light annotation task to capture CVD risk factors with indicators, temporal attributes and assertions that were explicitly or implicitly displayed in the records. The task included: 1) preparing data; 2) creating guidelines for capturing annotations (these were created with the help of clinicians); 3) proposing an annotation method including building the guidelines draft, training the annotators and updating the guidelines, and corpus construction. Then, a risk factor annotated corpus based on de-identified discharge summaries and progress notes from 600 patients was developed. Built with the help of clinicians, this corpus has an inter-annotator agreement (IAA) F1-measure of 0.968, indicating a high reliability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first annotated corpus concerning CVD risk factors in CEMRs and the guidelines for capturing CVD risk factor annotations from CEMRs were proposed. The obtained document-level annotations can be applied in future studies to monitor risk factors and CVD over the long term.
Sep 27 2016 cs.CL
Neural machine translation (NMT) heavily relies on word-level modelling to learn semantic representations of input sentences. However, for languages without natural word delimiters (e.g., Chinese) where input sentences have to be tokenized first, conventional NMT is confronted with two issues: 1) it is difficult to find an optimal tokenization granularity for source sentence modelling, and 2) errors in 1-best tokenizations may propagate to the encoder of NMT. To handle these issues, we propose word-lattice based Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) encoders for NMT, which generalize the standard RNN to word lattice topology. The proposed encoders take as input a word lattice that compactly encodes multiple tokenizations, and learn to generate new hidden states from arbitrarily many inputs and hidden states in preceding time steps. As such, the word-lattice based encoders not only alleviate the negative impact of tokenization errors but also are more expressive and flexible to embed input sentences. Experiment results on Chinese-English translation demonstrate the superiorities of the proposed encoders over the conventional encoder.
Aug 01 2016 cs.CL
The vanilla attention-based neural machine translation has achieved promising performance because of its capability in leveraging varying-length source annotations. However, this model still suffers from failures in long sentence translation, for its incapability in capturing long-term dependencies. In this paper, we propose a novel recurrent neural machine translation (RNMT), which not only preserves the ability to model varying-length source annotations but also better captures long-term dependencies. Instead of the conventional attention mechanism, RNMT employs a recurrent neural network to extract the context vector, where the target-side previous hidden state serves as its initial state, and the source annotations serve as its inputs. We refer to this new component as contexter. As the encoder, contexter and decoder in our model are all derivable recurrent neural networks, our model can still be trained end-to-end on large-scale corpus via stochastic algorithms. Experiments on Chinese-English translation tasks demonstrate the superiority of our model to attention-based neural machine translation, especially on long sentences. Besides, further analysis of the contexter revels that our model can implicitly reflect the alignment to source sentence.
May 26 2016 cs.CL
Models of neural machine translation are often from a discriminative family of encoderdecoders that learn a conditional distribution of a target sentence given a source sentence. In this paper, we propose a variational model to learn this conditional distribution for neural machine translation: a variational encoderdecoder model that can be trained end-to-end. Different from the vanilla encoder-decoder model that generates target translations from hidden representations of source sentences alone, the variational model introduces a continuous latent variable to explicitly model underlying semantics of source sentences and to guide the generation of target translations. In order to perform efficient posterior inference and large-scale training, we build a neural posterior approximator conditioned on both the source and the target sides, and equip it with a reparameterization technique to estimate the variational lower bound. Experiments on both Chinese-English and English- German translation tasks show that the proposed variational neural machine translation achieves significant improvements over the vanilla neural machine translation baselines.
May 26 2016 cs.CL
In this paper, we propose a bidimensional attention based recursive autoencoder (BattRAE) to integrate clues and sourcetarget interactions at multiple levels of granularity into bilingual phrase representations. We employ recursive autoencoders to generate tree structures of phrases with embeddings at different levels of granularity (e.g., words, sub-phrases and phrases). Over these embeddings on the source and target side, we introduce a bidimensional attention network to learn their interactions encoded in a bidimensional attention matrix, from which we extract two soft attention weight distributions simultaneously. These weight distributions enable BattRAE to generate compositive phrase representations via convolution. Based on the learned phrase representations, we further use a bilinear neural model, trained via a max-margin method, to measure bilingual semantic similarity. To evaluate the effectiveness of BattRAE, we incorporate this semantic similarity as an additional feature into a state-of-the-art SMT system. Extensive experiments on NIST Chinese-English test sets show that our model achieves a substantial improvement of up to 1.63 BLEU points on average over the baseline.
Apr 05 2016 cs.CV
Model compression and knowledge distillation have been successfully applied for cross-architecture and cross-domain transfer learning. However, a key requirement is that training examples are in correspondence across the domains. We show that in many scenarios of practical importance such aligned data can be synthetically generated using computer graphics pipelines allowing domain adaptation through distillation. We apply this technique to learn models for recognizing low-resolution images using labeled high-resolution images, non-localized objects using labeled localized objects, line-drawings using labeled color images, etc. Experiments on various fine-grained recognition datasets demonstrate that the technique improves recognition performance on the low-quality data and beats strong baselines for domain adaptation. Finally, we present insights into workings of the technique through visualizations and relating it to existing literature.
Mar 15 2016 cs.CL
Implicit discourse relation recognition is a crucial component for automatic discourselevel analysis and nature language understanding. Previous studies exploit discriminative models that are built on either powerful manual features or deep discourse representations. In this paper, instead, we explore generative models and propose a variational neural discourse relation recognizer. We refer to this model as VarNDRR. VarNDRR establishes a directed probabilistic model with a latent continuous variable that generates both a discourse and the relation between the two arguments of the discourse. In order to perform efficient inference and learning, we introduce neural discourse relation models to approximate the prior and posterior distributions of the latent variable, and employ these approximated distributions to optimize a reparameterized variational lower bound. This allows VarNDRR to be trained with standard stochastic gradient methods. Experiments on the benchmark data set show that VarNDRR can achieve comparable results against stateof- the-art baselines without using any manual features.
Mar 15 2016 cs.CL
Humans comprehend the meanings and relations of discourses heavily relying on their semantic memory that encodes general knowledge about concepts and facts. Inspired by this, we propose a neural recognizer for implicit discourse relation analysis, which builds upon a semantic memory that stores knowledge in a distributed fashion. We refer to this recognizer as SeMDER. Starting from word embeddings of discourse arguments, SeMDER employs a shallow encoder to generate a distributed surface representation for a discourse. A semantic encoder with attention to the semantic memory matrix is further established over surface representations. It is able to retrieve a deep semantic meaning representation for the discourse from the memory. Using the surface and semantic representations as input, SeMDER finally predicts implicit discourse relations via a neural recognizer. Experiments on the benchmark data set show that SeMDER benefits from the semantic memory and achieves substantial improvements of 2.56\% on average over current state-of-the-art baselines in terms of F1-score.
Mar 14 2016 cs.NI
This paper investigates the resource scheduling for heterogeneous vehicular networks, where some moving vehicles are selected and scheduled as helping relays to assist information transmission between the roadside infrastructure and other moving vehicles. For such a system, we propose a mobile-service based max-min fairness resource scheduling scheme, where service amount which is more suitable for high mobility scenarios is adopted to characterize the information transmission capacity of the links and the max-min criteria is adopted to meet the fairness requirement of the moving vehicles. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme. It is shown that our proposed scheme archives higher throughput and better fairness compared with random scheduling scheme and non relaying scheme.
Visual observations of dynamic phenomena, such as human actions, are often represented as sequences of smoothly-varying features . In cases where the feature spaces can be structured as Riemannian manifolds, the corresponding representations become trajectories on manifolds. Analysis of these trajectories is challenging due to non-linearity of underlying spaces and high-dimensionality of trajectories. In vision problems, given the nature of physical systems involved, these phenomena are better characterized on a low-dimensional manifold compared to the space of Riemannian trajectories. For instance, if one does not impose physical constraints of the human body, in data involving human action analysis, the resulting representation space will have highly redundant features. Learning an effective, low-dimensional embedding for action representations will have a huge impact in the areas of search and retrieval, visualization, learning, and recognition. The difficulty lies in inherent non-linearity of the domain and temporal variability of actions that can distort any traditional metric between trajectories. To overcome these issues, we use the framework based on transported square-root velocity fields (TSRVF); this framework has several desirable properties, including a rate-invariant metric and vector space representations. We propose to learn an embedding such that each action trajectory is mapped to a single point in a low-dimensional Euclidean space, and the trajectories that differ only in temporal rates map to the same point. We utilize the TSRVF representation, and accompanying statistical summaries of Riemannian trajectories, to extend existing coding methods such as PCA, KSVD and Label Consistent KSVD to Riemannian trajectories or more generally to Riemannian functions.
Topic modelling techniques such as LDA have recently been applied to speech transcripts and OCR output. These corpora may contain noisy or erroneous texts which may undermine topic stability. Therefore, it is important to know how well a topic modelling algorithm will perform when applied to noisy data. In this paper we show that different types of textual noise will have diverse effects on the stability of different topic models. From these observations, we propose guidelines for text corpus generation, with a focus on automatic speech transcription. We also suggest topic model selection methods for noisy corpora.
Mar 24 2015 cs.CV
Statistical classification of actions in videos is mostly performed by extracting relevant features, particularly covariance features, from image frames and studying time series associated with temporal evolutions of these features. A natural mathematical representation of activity videos is in form of parameterized trajectories on the covariance manifold, i.e. the set of symmetric, positive-definite matrices (SPDMs). The variable execution-rates of actions implies variable parameterizations of the resulting trajectories, and complicates their classification. Since action classes are invariant to execution rates, one requires rate-invariant metrics for comparing trajectories. A recent paper represented trajectories using their transported square-root vector fields (TSRVFs), defined by parallel translating scaled-velocity vectors of trajectories to a reference tangent space on the manifold. To avoid arbitrariness of selecting the reference and to reduce distortion introduced during this mapping, we develop a purely intrinsic approach where SPDM trajectories are represented by redefining their TSRVFs at the starting points of the trajectories, and analyzed as elements of a vector bundle on the manifold. Using a natural Riemannain metric on vector bundles of SPDMs, we compute geodesic paths and geodesic distances between trajectories in the quotient space of this vector bundle, with respect to the re-parameterization group. This makes the resulting comparison of trajectories invariant to their re-parameterization. We demonstrate this framework on two applications involving video classification: visual speech recognition or lip-reading and hand-gesture recognition. In both cases we achieve results either comparable to or better than the current literature.