results for au:Steele_G in:quant-ph

- Oct 27 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1710.09744v1When a two level system (TLS) is coupled to an electromagnetic resonator, its transition frequency changes in response to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, a phenomenon known as the Lamb shift. Remarkably, by replacing the TLS by a harmonic oscillator, normal mode splitting leads to a similar shift, despite its completely classical origin. In a weakly-anharmonic system, lying in between the harmonic oscillator and a TLS, the origins of such shifts can be unclear. An example of such a system is the transmon qubit in a typical circuit quantum electrodynamics setting. Although often referred to as a Lamb shift, it cannot originate purely from vacuum fluctuations since in the limit of zero anharmonicity, the system becomes classical. Here, we treat normal-mode splitting separately from quantum effects in the Hamiltonian of a weakly-anharmonic system, providing a framework for understanding the extent to which the frequency shift can be attributed to quantum fluctuations.
- Apr 21 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1704.06208v1With the introduction of superconducting circuits into the field of quantum optics, many novel experimental demonstrations of the quantum physics of an artificial atom coupled to a single-mode light field have been realized. Engineering such quantum systems offers the opportunity to explore extreme regimes of light-matter interaction that are inaccessible with natural systems. For instance the coupling strength $g$ can be increased until it is comparable with the atomic or mode frequency $\omega_{a,m}$ and the atom can be coupled to multiple modes which has always challenged our understanding of light-matter interaction. Here, we experimentally realize the first Transmon qubit in the ultra-strong coupling regime, reaching coupling ratios of $g/\omega_{m}=0.19$ and we measure multi-mode interactions through a hybridization of the qubit up to the fifth mode of the resonator. This is enabled by a qubit with 88% of its capacitance formed by a vacuum-gap capacitance with the center conductor of a coplanar waveguide resonator. In addition to potential applications in quantum information technologies due to its small size and localization of electric fields in vacuum, this new architecture offers the potential to further explore the novel regime of multi-mode ultra-strong coupling.
- Apr 17 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1704.04421v1In this experiment, we couple a superconducting Transmon qubit to a high-impedance $645\ \Omega$ microwave resonator. Doing so leads to a large qubit-resonator coupling rate $g$, measured through a large vacuum Rabi splitting of $2g\simeq 910$ MHz. The coupling is a significant fraction of the qubit and resonator oscillation frequencies $\omega$, placing our system close to the ultra-strong coupling regime ($\bar{g}=g/\omega=0.071$ on resonance). Combining this setup with a vacuum-gap Transmon architecture shows the potential of reaching deep into the ultra-strong coupling $\bar{g} \sim 0.45$ with Transmon qubits.
- Jan 19 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1701.05095v2Circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction of artificial atoms, open transmission lines and electromagnetic resonators fabricated from superconducting electronics. While the theory of an artificial atom coupled to one mode of a resonator is well studied, considering multiple modes leads to divergences which are not well understood. Here, we introduce a first-principles model of a multimode resonator coupled to a Josephson junction atom. Studying the model in the absence of any cutoff, in which the coupling rate to mode number $n$ scales as $\sqrt{n}$ for $n$ up to $\infty$, we find that quantities such as the Lamb shift do not diverge due to a natural rescaling of the bare atomic parameters that arises directly from the circuit analysis. Introducing a cutoff in the coupling from a non-zero capacitance of the Josephson junction, we provide a physical interpretation of the decoupling of higher modes in the context of circuit analysis. In addition to explaining the convergence of the quantum Rabi model with no cutoff, our work also provides a useful framework for analyzing the ultra-strong coupling regime of multimode circuit QED.
- Nov 14 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1611.03842v1We investigate superconducting interference device (SQUID) with two asymmetric Josephson junctions coupled to a mechanical resonator embedded in the loop of the SQUID. We quantize this system in the case when the frequency of the mechanical resonator is much lower than the cavity frequency of the SQUID and in the case when they are comparable. In the first case, the radiation pressure and cross-Kerr type interactions arise and are modified by asymmetry. Cross-Kerr type coupling is the leading term at the extremum points where radiation pressure is zero. In the second case, the main interaction is single-photon beam splitter, which exists only at finite asymmetry. Another interaction in this regime is of cross-Kerr type, which exists at all asymmetries, but generally much weaker than the beam splitter interaction. Increasing magnetic field can substantially enhance optomechanical couplings strength with the potential for the radiation pressure coupling to reach the single-photon strong coupling regime, even the ultrastrong coupling regime, in which the single-photon coupling rate exceeds the mechanical frequency.
- Aug 03 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1507.08898v2In cavity optomechanics, light is used to control mechanical motion. A central goal of the field is achieving single-photon strong coupling, which would enable the creation of quantum superposition states of motion. Reaching this limit requires significant improvements in optomechanical coupling and cavity coherence. Here we introduce an optomechanical architecture consisting of a silicon nitride membrane coupled to a three-dimensional superconducting microwave cavity. Exploiting their large quality factors, we achieve an optomechanical cooperativity of 146,000 and perform sideband cooling of the kilohertz-frequency membrane motion to 34$\pm$5 $\mu$K, the lowest mechanical mode temperature reported to date. The achieved cooling is limited only by classical noise of the signal generator, and should extend deep into the ground state with superconducting filters. Our results suggest that this realization of optomechanics has the potential to reach the regimes of ultra-large cooperativity and single-photon strong coupling, opening up a new generation of experiments.
- We investigate theoretically in detail the non-linear effects in the response of an optical/microwave cavity coupled to a Duffing mechanical resonator. The cavity is driven by a laser at a red or blue mechanical subband, and a probe laser measures the reflection close to the cavity resonance. Under these conditions, we find that the cavity exhibits optomechanically induced reflection (OMIR) or absorption (OMIA) and investigate the optomechanical response in the limit of non-linear driving of the mechanics. Similar to linear mechanical drive, an overcoupled cavity the red-sideband drive may lead to both OMIA and OMIR depending on the strength of the drive, whereas the blue-sideband drive only leads to OMIR. The dynamics of the phase of the mechanical resonator leads to the difference between the shapes of the response of the cavity and the amplitude response of the driven Duffing oscillator, for example, at weak red-sideband drive the OMIA dip has no inflection point. We also verify that mechanical non-linearities beyond Duffing model have little effect on the size of the OMIA dip though they affect the width of the dip.
- The quantum behaviour of mechanical resonators is a new and emerging field driven by recent experiments reaching the quantum ground state. The high frequency, small mass, and large quality-factor of carbon nanotube resonators make them attractive for quantum nanomechanical applications. A common element in experiments achieving the resonator ground state is a second quantum system, such as coherent photons or superconducting device, coupled to the resonators motion. For nanotubes, however, this is a challenge due to their small size. Here, we couple a carbon nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) device to a superconducting circuit. Suspended carbon nanotubes act as both superconducting junctions and moving elements in a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). We observe a strong modulation of the flux through the SQUID from displacements of the nanotube. Incorporating this SQUID into superconducting resonators and qubits should enable the detection and manipulation of nanotube mechanical quantum states at the single-phonon level.