results for au:Smith_S in:physics

- May 25 2017 physics.acc-ph arXiv:1705.08783v1A conceptual design is presented of a novel ERL facility for the development and application of the energy recovery technique to linear electron accelerators in the multi-turn, large current and large energy regime. The main characteristics of the powerful energy recovery linac experiment facility (PERLE) are derived from the design of the Large Hadron electron Collider, an electron beam upgrade under study for the LHC, for which it would be the key demonstrator. PERLE is thus projected as a facility to investigate efficient, high current (> 10 mA) ERL operation with three re-circulation passages through newly designed SCRF cavities, at 801.58 MHz frequency, and following deceleration over another three re-circulations. In its fully equipped configuration, PERLE provides an electron beam of approximately 1 GeV energy. A physics programme possibly associated with PERLE is sketched, consisting of high precision elastic electron-proton scattering experiments, as well as photo-nuclear reactions of unprecedented intensities with up to 30 MeV photon beam energy as may be obtained using Fabry-Perot cavities. The facility has further applications as a general technology test bed that can investigate and validate novel superconducting magnets (beam induced quench tests) and superconducting RF structures (structure tests with high current beams, beam loading and transients). Besides a chapter on operation aspects, the report contains detailed considerations on the choices for the SCRF structure, optics and lattice design, solutions for arc magnets, source and injector and on further essential components. A suitable configuration derived from the here presented design concept may next be moved forward to a technical design and possibly be built by an international collaboration which is being established.
- Mar 21 2017 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1703.06165v1A long-term energy option that is just approaching the horizon after decades of struggle, is fusion. Recent developments allow us to apply techniques from spin physics to advance its viability. The cross section for the primary fusion fuel in a tokamak reactor, D+T=>alpha+n, would be increased by a factor of 1.5 if the fuels were polarized. Simulations predict further non-linear power gains in large-scale machines such as ITER, due to increased alpha heating. These are significant enhancements that could lower the requirements needed to reach ignition and could be used to extend useful reactor life by compensating for neutron degradation. The potential realization rests on the survival of spin polarization for periods comparable to the energy containment time. Interest in polarized fuel options had an initial peak of activity in the 1980s, where calculations predicted that polarizations could in fact survive a plasma. However, concerns were raised regarding the cumulative impacts of fuel recycling from the reactor walls. In addition, the technical challenges of preparing and handling polarized materials prevented direct tests. Over the last several decades, this situation has changed dramatically. Detailed simulations of the ITER plasma have projected negligible wall recycling in a high power reactor. In addition, a combination of advances in three areas - polarized material technologies, polymer pellets developed for Inertial Confinement, and cryogenic injection guns developed for delivering fuel into the core of tokamaks - have matured to the point where a direct it in situ measurement is possible. A Jefferson Lab - DIII-D/General Atomics - University of Virginia collaboration is developing designs for a proof-of-principle polarization survival experiment using the isospin mirror reaction, D+3He=>alpha+p, at the DIII-D tokamak in San Diego.
- Mar 17 2017 physics.flu-dyn nlin.CD arXiv:1703.05374v1In chaotic deterministic systems, seemingly stochastic behavior is generated by relatively simple, though hidden, organizing rules and structures. Prominent among the tools used to characterize this complexity in 1D and 2D systems are techniques which exploit the topology of dynamically invariant structures. However, the path to extending many such topological techniques to three dimensions is filled with roadblocks that prevent their application to a wider variety of physical systems. Here, we overcome these roadblocks and successfully analyze a realistic model of 3D fluid advection, by extending the homotopic lobe dynamics (HLD) technique, previously developed for 2D area-preserving dynamics, to 3D volume-preserving dynamics. We start with numerically-generated finite-time chaotic-scattering data for particles entrained in a spherical fluid vortex, and use this data to build a symbolic representation of the dynamics. We then use this symbolic representation to explain and predict the self-similar fractal structure of the scattering data, to compute bounds on the topological entropy, a fundamental measure of mixing, and to discover two different mixing mechanisms, which stretch 2D material surfaces and 1D material curves in distinct ways.
- Nov 07 2016 physics.space-ph arXiv:1611.01468v1We test the utility of the OII 83.4 nm emission feature as a measure of ionospheric parameters. Observed with the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph on the International Space Station (ISS), limb profiles of 83.4 nm emissions are compared to predicted dayglow emission profiles from a theoretical model incorporating ground-based electron density profiles measured by the Millstone Hill radar and parameterized by a best-fit Chapman-\alpha function. Observations and models are compared for periods of conjunction between Millstone Hill and the RAIDS fields-of-view. These RAIDS observations show distinct differences in topside morphology between two days, 15 January and 10 March 2010, closely matching the forward model morphology and demonstrating that 83.4 nm emission is sensitive to changes in the ionospheric density profile from the 340 km altitude of the ISS during solar minimum. We find no significant difference between 83.4 nm emission profiles modeled assuming a constant scale height Chapman-\alpha best-fit to the ISR measurements and those assuming varying scale height.
- Sep 06 2016 physics.data-an arXiv:1609.00871v1When performing large-scale, high-performance computations of multi-physics applications, it is common to limit the complexity of physics sub-models comprising the simulation. For a hierarchical system of coal boiler simulations a scale-bridging model is constructed to capture characteristics appropriate for the application-scale from a detailed coal devolatilization model. Such scale-bridging allows full descriptions of scale-applicable physics, while functioning at reasonable computational costs. This study presents a variation on multi-fidelity modeling with a detailed physics model, the chemical percolation devolatilization model, being used to calibrate a scale-briding model for the application of interest. The application space provides essential context for designing the scale-bridging model by defining scales, determining requirements and weighting desired characteristics. A single kinetic reaction equation with functional yield model and distributed activation energy is implemented to act as the scale-bridging model-form. Consistency constraints are used to locate regions of the scale-bridging model's parameter-space that are consistent with the uncertainty identified within the detailed model. Ultimately, the performance of the scale-bridging model with consistent parameter-sets was assessed against desired characteristics of the detailed model and found to perform satisfactorily in capturing thermodynamic trends and kinetic timescales for the desired application-scale. Framing the process of model-form selection within the context of calibration and uncertainty quantification allows the credibility of the model to be established.
- Jun 27 2016 hep-ex physics.ins-det arXiv:1606.07538v1Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as 3.49 MeV. Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308+-0.020(stat.) + 0.039-0.040(syst.)) x 106/(cm2sec) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6+-1.6(stat.)+-0.6(syst.))%. The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2 theta_12 = 0.327+0.026-0.031, all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SKIV) measures this angle to be sin2 theta_12 = 0.334+0.027-0.023, the determined mass-squared splitting is Delta m2_21 = 4.8+1.5-0.8 x10-5 eV2.
- May 31 2016 physics.chem-ph cond-mat.soft arXiv:1605.08866v1Brownian dynamics simulations are an increasingly popular tool for understanding spatially-distributed biochemical reaction systems. Recent improvements in our understanding of the cellular environment show that volume exclusion effects are fundamental to reaction networks inside cells. These systems are frequently studied by incorporating inert hard spheres (crowders) into three-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations, however these methods are extremely slow owing to the sheer number of possible collisions between particles. Here we propose a rigorous "crowder-free" method to dramatically increase simulation speed for crowded biochemical reaction systems by eliminating the need to explicitly simulate the crowders. We consider both the case where the reactive particles are point particles, and where they themselves occupy a volume. We use simulations of simple chemical reaction networks to confirm that our simplification is just as accurate as the original algorithm, and that it corresponds to a large speed increase.
- Topological chaos has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate fluid mixing. While this theory can guarantee a lower bound on the stretching rate of certain material lines, it does not indicate what fraction of the fluid actually participates in this minimally mandated mixing. Indeed, the area in which effective mixing takes place depends on physical parameters such as the Reynolds number. To help clarify this dependency, we numerically simulate the effects of a batch stirring device on a 2D incompressible Newtonian fluid in the laminar regime. In particular, we calculate the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for three different stirring protocols, one topologically complex (pseudo-Anosov) and two simple (finite-order), over a range of viscosities. After extracting appropriate measures indicative of both the amount of mixing and the area of effective mixing from the FTLE field, we see a clearly defined Reynolds number range in which the relative efficacy of the pseudo-Anosov protocol over the finite-order protocols justifies the application of topological chaos. More unexpectedly, we see that while the measures of effective mixing area increase with increasing Reynolds number for the finite-order protocols, they actually exhibit non-monotonic behavior for the pseudo-Anosov protocol.
- Feb 09 2016 physics.acc-ph arXiv:1602.02689v2Q0 determinations based on RF power measurements are subject to at least three potentially large systematic effects that have not been previously appreciated. Instrumental factors that can systematically bias RF based measurements of Q0 are quantified and steps that can be taken to improve the determination of Q0 are discussed.
- Jan 14 2016 physics.chem-ph q-bio.MN arXiv:1601.03064v1The chemical master equation (CME) is the exact mathematical formulation of chemical reactions occurring in a dilute and well-mixed volume. The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a stochastic description of reaction-diffusion processes on a spatial lattice, assuming well-mixing only on the length scale of the lattice. It is clear that, for the sake of consistency, the solution of the RDME of a chemical system should converge to the solution of the CME of the same system in the limit of fast diffusion: indeed, this has been tacitly assumed in most literature concerning the RDME. We show that, in the limit of fast diffusion, the RDME indeed converges to a master equation, but not necessarily the CME. We introduce a class of propensity functions, such that if the RDME has propensities exclusively of this class then the RDME converges to the CME of the same system; while if the RDME has propensities not in this class then convergence is not guaranteed. These are revealed to be elementary and non-elementary propensities respectively. We also show that independent of the type of propensity, the RDME converges to the CME in the simultaneous limit of fast diffusion and large volumes. We illustrate our results with some simple example systems, and argue that the RDME cannot be an accurate description of systems with non-elementary rates.
- A comprehensive study on the atmospheric neutrino flux in the energy region from sub-GeV up to several TeV using the Super-Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector is presented in this paper. The energy and azimuthal spectra of the atmospheric ${\nu}_e+{\bar{\nu}}_e$ and ${\nu}_{\mu}+{\bar{\nu}}_{\mu}$ fluxes are measured. The energy spectra are obtained using an iterative unfolding method by combining various event topologies with differing energy responses. The azimuthal spectra depending on energy and zenith angle, and their modulation by geomagnetic effects, are also studied. A predicted east-west asymmetry is observed in both the ${\nu}_e$ and ${\nu}_{\mu}$ samples at 8.0 \sigma and 6.0 \sigma significance, respectively, and an indication that the asymmetry dipole angle changes depending on the zenith angle was seen at the 2.2 \sigma level. The measured energy and azimuthal spectra are consistent with the current flux models within the estimated systematic uncertainties. A study of the long-term correlation between the atmospheric neutrino flux and the solar magnetic activity cycle is also performed, and a weak indication of a correlation was seen at the 1.1 \sigma level, using SK I-IV data spanning a 20 year period. For particularly strong solar activity periods known as Forbush decreases, no theoretical prediction is available, but a deviation below the typical neutrino event rate is seen at the 2.4 \sigma level.
- The motion of point vortices constitutes an especially simple class of solutions to Euler's equation for two dimensional, inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational fluids. In addition to their intrinsic mathematical importance, these solutions are also physically relevant. Rotating superfluid helium can support rectilinear quantized line vortices, which in certain regimes are accurately modeled by point vortices. Depending on the number of vortices, it is possible to have either regular integrable motion or chaotic motion. Thus, the point vortex model is one of the simplest and most tractable fluid models which exhibits some of the attributes of weak turbulence. The primary aim of this work is to find and classify periodic orbits, a special class of solutions to the point vortex problem. To achieve this goal, we introduce a number of algorithms: Lie transforms which ensure that the equations of motion are accurately solved; constrained optimization which reduces close return orbits to true periodic orbits; object-oriented representations of the braid group which allow for the topological comparison of periodic orbits. By applying these ideas, we accumulate a large data set of periodic orbits and their associated attributes. To render this set tractable, we introduce a topological classification scheme based on a natural decomposition of mapping classes. Finally, we consider some of the intriguing patterns which emerge in the distribution of periodic orbits in phase space. Perhaps the most enduring theme which arises from this investigation is the interplay between topology and geometry. The topological properties of a periodic orbit will often force it to have certain geometric properties.
- Oct 14 2015 cond-mat.stat-mech physics.chem-ph arXiv:1510.03690v2The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a standard modelling approach for understanding stochastic and spatial chemical kinetics. An inherent assumption is that molecules are point-like. Here we introduce the crowded reaction-diffusion master equation (cRDME) which takes into account volume exclusion effects on stochastic kinetics due to a finite molecular radius. We obtain an exact closed form solution of the RDME and of the cRDME for a general chemical system in equilibrium conditions. The difference between the two solutions increases with the ratio of molecular diameter to the compartment length scale. We show that an increase in molecular crowding can (i) lead to deviations from the classical inverse square root law for the noise-strength; (ii) flip the skewness of the probability distribution from right to left-skewed; (iii) shift the equilibrium of bimolecular reactions so that more product molecules are formed; (iv) strongly modulate the Fano factors and coefficients of variation. These crowding-induced effects are found to be particularly pronounced for chemical species not involved in chemical conservation laws.Finally we show that statistics obtained using the vRDME are in good agreement with those obtained from Brownian dynamics with excluded volume interactions.
- Jul 15 2014 physics.acc-ph arXiv:1407.3669v1The machine described in this document is an advanced Source of up to 20 MeV Gamma Rays based on Compton back-scattering, i.e. collision of an intense high power laser beam and a high brightness electron beam with maximum kinetic energy of about 720 MeV. Fully equipped with collimation and characterization systems, in order to generate, form and fully measure the physical characteristics of the produced Gamma Ray beam. The quality, i.e. phase space density, of the two colliding beams will be such that the emitted Gamma ray beam is characterized by energy tunability, spectral density, bandwidth, polarization, divergence and brilliance compatible with the requested performances of the ELI-NP user facility, to be built in Romania as the Nuclear Physics oriented Pillar of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure. This document illustrates the Technical Design finally produced by the EuroGammaS Collaboration, after a thorough investigation of the machine expected performances within the constraints imposed by the ELI-NP tender for the Gamma Beam System (ELI-NP-GBS), in terms of available budget, deadlines for machine completion and performance achievement, compatibility with lay-out and characteristics of the planned civil engineering.
- Jun 05 2014 physics.flu-dyn arXiv:1406.1103v1A novel mechanism for the transport of microscale particles in viscous fluids is demonstrated. The mechanism exploits the trapping of such particles by rotational streaming cells established in the vicinity of an oscillating cylinder, recently analyzed in previous work. The present work explores a strategy of transporting particles between the trapping points established by multiple cylinders undergoing oscillations in sequential intervals. It is demonstrated that, by controlling the sequence of oscillation intervals, an inertial particle is effectively and predictably transported between the stable trapping points. Arrays of cylinders in various arrangements are investigated, revealing a quite general technique for constructing arbitrary particle trajectories. The timescales for transport are also discussed.
- May 09 2014 physics.flu-dyn nlin.CD arXiv:1405.2022v1Lagrangian transport structures for three-dimensional and time-dependent fluid flows are of great interest in numerous applications, particularly for geophysical or oceanic flows. In such flows, chaotic transport and mixing can play important environmental and ecological roles, for examples in pollution spills or plankton migration. In such flows, where simulations or observations are typically available only over a short time, understanding the difference between short-time and long-time transport structures is critical. In this paper, we use a set of classical (i.e. PoincarĂ© section, Lyapunov exponent) and alternative (i.e. finite time Lyapunov exponent, Lagrangian coherent structures) tools from dynamical systems theory that analyze chaotic transport both qualitatively and quantitatively. With this set of tools we are able to reveal, identify and highlight differences between short- and long-time transport structures inside a flow composed of a primary horizontal contra-rotating vortex chain, small lateral oscillations and a weak Ekman pumping. The difference is mainly the existence of regular or extremely slowly developing chaotic regions that are only present at short time.
- A novel unified Bayesian framework for network detection is developed, under which a detection algorithm is derived based on random walks on graphs. The algorithm detects threat networks using partial observations of their activity, and is proved to be optimum in the Neyman-Pearson sense. The algorithm is defined by a graph, at least one observation, and a diffusion model for threat. A link to well-known spectral detection methods is provided, and the equivalence of the random walk and harmonic solutions to the Bayesian formulation is proven. A general diffusion model is introduced that utilizes spatio-temporal relationships between vertices, and is used for a specific space-time formulation that leads to significant performance improvements on coordinated covert networks. This performance is demonstrated using a new hybrid mixed-membership blockmodel introduced to simulate random covert networks with realistic properties.
- Oct 04 2013 physics.ins-det hep-ex arXiv:1310.1062v1The ATLAS detector is currently being upgraded with a new layer of pixel based charged particle tracking and a new arrangement of the services for the pixel detector. These upgrades require the replacement of the opto-boards previously used by the pixel detector. In this report we give details on the design and production of the new opto-boards.
- Oct 03 2013 physics.acc-ph arXiv:1310.0804v1The next generation of lepton flavor violation experiments need high intensity and high quality muon beams. Production of such beams requires sending a short, high intensity proton pulse to the pion production target, capturing pions and collecting the resulting muons in the large acceptance transport system. The substantial increase of beam quality can be obtained by applying the RF phase rotation on the muon beam in the dedicated FFAG ring, which was proposed for the PRISM project.This allows to reduce the momentum spread of the beam and to purify from the unwanted components like pions or secondary protons. A PRISM Task Force is addressing the accelerator and detector issues that need to be solved in order to realize the PRISM experiment. The parameters of the required proton beam, the principles of the PRISM experiment and the baseline FFAG design are introduced. The spectrum of alternative designs for the PRISM FFAG ring are shown. Progress on ring main systems like injection and RF are presented. The current status of the study and its future directions are discussed.
- Procedures and results on hardware level detector calibration in Super-Kamiokande (SK) are presented in this paper. In particular, we report improvements made in our calibration methods for the experimental phase IV in which new readout electronics have been operating since 2008. The topics are separated into two parts. The first part describes the determination of constants needed to interpret the digitized output of our electronics so that we can obtain physical numbers such as photon counts and their arrival times for each photomultiplier tube (PMT). In this context, we developed an in-situ procedure to determine high-voltage settings for PMTs in large detectors like SK, as well as a new method for measuring PMT quantum efficiency and gain in such a detector. The second part describes the modeling of the detector in our Monte Carlo simulation, including in particular the optical properties of its water target and their variability over time. Detailed studies on the water quality are also presented. As a result of this work, we achieved a precision sufficient for physics analysis over a wide energy range (from a few MeV to above a TeV). For example, the charge determination was understood at the 1% level, and the timing resolution was 2.1 nsec at the one-photoelectron charge level and 0.5 nsec at the 100-photoelectron charge level.
- Gaussian beams describe the amplitude and phase of rays and are widely used to model acoustic propagation. This paper describes four new results in the theory of Gaussian beams. (1) A new version of the ÄŒervenĂ½ equations for the amplitude and phase of Gaussian beams is developed by applying the equivalence of Hamilton-Jacobi theory with Jacobi's equation that connects Riemannian curvature to geodesic flow. Thus the paper makes a fundamental connection between Gaussian beams and an acoustic channel's so-called intrinsic Gaussian curvature from differential geometry. (2) A new formula $\pi(c/c")^{1/2}$ for the distance between convergence zones is derived and applied to several well-known profiles. (3) A class of "model spaces" are introduced that connect the acoustics of ducting/divergence zones with the channel's Gaussian curvature $K=cc"-(c')^2$. The "model" SSPs yield constant Gaussian curvature in which the geometry of ducts corresponds to great circles on a sphere and convergence zones correspond to antipodes. The distance between caustics $\pi(c/c")^{1/2}$ is equated with an ideal hyperbolic cosine SSP duct. (4) An "intrinsic" version of ÄŒervenĂ½'s formulae for the amplitude and phase of Gaussian beams is derived that does not depend on an "extrinsic" arbitrary choice of coordinates such as range and depth. Direct comparisons are made between the computational frameworks used by the three different approaches to Gaussian beams: Snell's law, the extrinsic Frenet-Serret formulae, and the intrinsic Jacobi methods presented here. The relationship of Gaussian beams to Riemannian curvature is explained with an overview of the modern covariant geometric methods that provide a general framework for application to other special cases.
- Network detection is an important capability in many areas of applied research in which data can be represented as a graph of entities and relationships. Oftentimes the object of interest is a relatively small subgraph in an enormous, potentially uninteresting background. This aspect characterizes network detection as a "big data" problem. Graph partitioning and network discovery have been major research areas over the last ten years, driven by interest in internet search, cyber security, social networks, and criminal or terrorist activities. The specific problem of network discovery is addressed as a special case of graph partitioning in which membership in a small subgraph of interest must be determined. Algebraic graph theory is used as the basis to analyze and compare different network detection methods. A new Bayesian network detection framework is introduced that partitions the graph based on prior information and direct observations. The new approach, called space-time threat propagation, is proved to maximize the probability of detection and is therefore optimum in the Neyman-Pearson sense. This optimality criterion is compared to spectral community detection approaches which divide the global graph into subsets or communities with optimal connectivity properties. We also explore a new generative stochastic model for covert networks and analyze using receiver operating characteristics the detection performance of both classes of optimal detection techniques.
- Nov 13 2012 physics.optics stat.AP arXiv:1211.2332v1The result of 2-dimensional Gaussian lattice fit to a speckle intensity pattern based on a linear model that includes nearest-neighbor interactions is presented. We also include a Monte Carlo simulation of the same spatial speckle pattern that takes the nearest-neighbor interactions into account. These nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spatial variance structure on the lattice. The resulting spatial pattern fluctuates in value from point to point in a manner characteristic of a stationary stochastic process. The value at a lattice point in the simulation is interpreted as an inten-sity level and the difference in values in neighboring cells produces a fluctuating intensity pattern on the lattice. Changing the size of the mesh changes the relative size of the speckles. Increasing the mesh size tends to average out the intensity in the direction of the mean of the stationary process.
- Jul 03 2012 physics.soc-ph physics.med-ph arXiv:1207.0029v1Recommended clinical preventive services are not being delivered despite well-documented benefits. Here we show that transferring simple and repetitive preventive services to nurse-staffed retail clinics provides an opportunity for dramatically improving their delivery. For each of 35 high-benefit, cost-effective preventive services, we identify required training, number of repetitions, and time and cost for full coverage in the US. We determine that full delivery through physician-based practices would require an unrealistic 400,000 full-time personnel. We estimate the efficiency gains from implementation at nurse-staffed clinics at retail locations for 28 services. Widespread adoption would result in a five-fold reduction in variable costs and three-fold reduction in personnel. By elevating the benefit-to-cost ratio, retail implementation can expedite widespread prevention coverage and help transform US healthcare.
- Linear models have found widespread use in statistical investigations. For every linear model there exists a matrix representation for which the ReML (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) can be constructed from the elements of the corresponding matrix. This method works in the standard manner when the covariance structure is non-singular. It can also be used in the case where the covariance structure is singular, because the method identifies particular non-stochastic linear combinations of the observations which must be constrained to zero. In order to use this method, the Cholesky decomposition has to be generalized to symmetric and indefinite matrices using complex arithmetic methods. This method is applied to the problem of determining the spatial size (vertex) for the Higgs Boson decay in the Higgs -> 4 lepton channel. A comparison based on the Chi-Square variable from the vertex fit for Higgs signal and t-tbar background is presented and shows that the background can be greatly suppressed using the Chi-Square variable. One of the major advantages of this novel method over the currently adopted technique of b-tagging is that it is not affected by multiple interactions (pile up).
- We have recently shown that normal-metal/superconductor (N/S) bilayer TESs (superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors) exhibit weak-link behavior.1 Here we extend our understanding to include TESs with added noise-mitigating normal-metal structures (N structures). We find TESs with added Au structures also exhibit weak-link behavior as evidenced by exponential temperature dependence of the critical current and Josephson-like oscillations of the critical current with applied magnetic field. We explain our results in terms of an effect converse to the longitudinal proximity effect (LoPE)1, the lateral inverse proximity effect (LaiPE), for which the order parameter in the N/S bilayer is reduced due to the neighboring N structures. Resistance and critical current measurements are presented as a function of temperature and magnetic field taken on square Mo/Au bilayer TESs with lengths ranging from 8 to 130 \mum with and without added N structures. We observe the inverse proximity effect on the bilayer over in-plane distances many tens of microns and find the transition shifts to lower temperatures scale approximately as the inverse square of the in- plane N-structure separation distance, without appreciable broadening of the transition width. We also present evidence for nonequilbrium superconductivity and estimate a quasiparticle lifetime of 1.8 \times 10-10 s for the bilayer. The LoPE model is also used to explain the increased conductivity at temperatures above the bilayer's steep resistive transition.
- Apr 16 2011 physics.optics arXiv:1104.2945v1We demonstrate thin-film metamaterials with resonances in the mid-infrared wavelength range. Our structures are numerically modeled and experimentally characterized by reflection and angularly-resolved thermal emission spectroscopy. We demonstrate strong and controllable absorption resonances across the mid-infrared wavelength range. In addition, the polarized thermal emission from these samples is shown to be highly selective and largely independent of emission angles from normal to 45 degrees. Experimental results are compared to numerical models with excellent agreement. Such structures hold promise for large-area, low-cost metamaterial coatings for control of gray- or black-body thermal signatures, as well as for possible mid-IR sensing applications.
- The venerable 2D point-vortex model plays an important role as a simplified version of many disparate physical systems, including superfluids, Bose-Einstein condensates, certain plasma configurations, and inviscid turbulence. This system is also a veritable mathematical playground, touching upon many different disciplines from topology to dynamic systems theory. Point-vortex dynamics are described by a relatively simple system of nonlinear ODEs which can easily be integrated numerically using an appropriate adaptive time stepping method. As the separation between a pair of vortices relative to all other inter-vortex length scales decreases, however, the computational time required diverges. Accuracy is usually the most discouraging casualty when trying to account for such vortex motion, though the varying energy of this ostensibly Hamiltonian system is a potentially more serious problem. We solve these problems by a series of coordinate transformations: We first transform to action-angle coordinates, which, to lowest order, treat the close pair as a single vortex amongst all others with an internal degree of freedom. We next, and most importantly, apply Lie transform perturbation theory to remove the higher-order correction terms in succession. The overall transformation drastically increases the numerical efficiency and ensures that the total energy remains constant to high accuracy.
- Oct 07 2010 physics.bio-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1010.1188v1Accurate knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of nucleic acids is crucial to predicting their structure and stability. To date most measurements of base-pair free energies in DNA are obtained in thermal denaturation experiments, which depend on several assumptions. Here we report measurements of the DNA base-pair free energies based on a simplified system, the mechanical unzipping of single DNA molecules. By combining experimental data with a physical model and an optimization algorithm for analysis, we measure the 10 unique nearest-neighbor base-pair free energies with 0.1 kcal mol-1 precision over two orders of magnitude of monovalent salt concentration. We find an improved set of standard energy values compared with Unified Oligonucleotide energies and a unique set of 10 base-pair-specific salt-correction values. The latter are found to be strongest for AA/TT and weakest for CC/GG. Our new energy values and salt corrections improve predictions of DNA unzipping forces and are fully compatible with melting temperatures for oligos. The method should make it possible to obtain free energies, enthalpies and entropies in conditions not accessible by bulk methodologies.
- Jun 17 2009 physics.flu-dyn physics.bio-ph arXiv:0906.2804v1The influence of the bending rigidity of a flexible heaving wing on its propulsive performance in a two-dimensional imposed parallel flow is investigated in the inviscid limit. Potential flow theory is used to describe the flow over the flapping wing. The vortical wake of the wing is accounted for by the shedding of point vortices with unsteady intensity from the wing's trailing edge. The trailing-edge flapping amplitude is shown to be maximal for a discrete set of values of the rigidity, at which a resonance occurs between the forcing frequency and a natural frequency of the system. A quantitative comparison of the position of these resonances with linear stability analysis results is presented. Such resonances induce maximum values of the mean developed thrust and power input. The flapping efficiency is also shown to be greatly enhanced by flexibility.
- Apr 15 2009 physics.acc-ph nlin.SI arXiv:0904.2088v1Non scaling Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerators have an unprecedented potential for muon acceleration, as well as for medical purposes based on carbon and proton hadron therapy. They also represent a possible active element for an Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR). Starting from first principle the Hamiltonian formalism for the description of the dynamics of particles in non scaling FFAG machines has been developed. The stationary reference (closed) orbit has been found within the Hamiltonian framework. The dependence of the path length on the energy deviation has been described in terms of higher order dispersion functions. The latter have been used subsequently to specify the longitudinal part of the Hamiltonian. It has been shown that higher order phase slip coefficients should be taken into account to adequately describe the acceleration in non scaling FFAG accelerators. A complete theory of the fast (serpentine) acceleration in non scaling FFAGs has been developed. An example of the theory is presented for the parameters of the Electron Machine with Many Applications (EMMA), a prototype electron non scaling FFAG to be hosted at Daresbury Laboratory.
- Oct 14 2008 physics.ins-det arXiv:0810.2080v2Diamond has been developed as a material for the detection of charged particles by ionization. Its radiation hardness makes it an attractive material for detectors operated in a harsh radiation environment e.g. close to a particle beam as is the case for beam monitoring and for pixel vertex detectors. Poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond has been studied as strip and pixel detectors so far. We report on a first-time characterization of a single-crystal diamond pixel detector in a 100 GeV particle beam at CERN. The detectors are made from irregularly shaped single crystal sensors, 395mm thick, mated by bump bonding to a front-end readout IC as used in the ATLAS pixel detector with pixel sizes of 50 x 400 mm2. The diamond sensors show excellent charge collection properties: full collection over the entire detector volume, clean and narrow signal charge distributions with a S/N value of >100 and a hit detection efficiency of (99.9 +- 0.1)%. The measured spatial resolution for particles under normal incidence in the shorter pixel direction is (8.9 +- 0.1) um.
- Oct 02 2007 physics.acc-ph arXiv:0710.0308v1Studies of the electron beam dynamics for the 4GLS design are presented. 4GLS will provide three different electron bunch trains to a variety of user synchrotron sources. The 1 kHz XUV-FEL and 100 mA High Average Current branches share a common 540 MeV linac, whilst the 13 MHz IR-FEL must be well-synchronised to them. An overview of the injector designs, electron transport, and energy recovery is given, including ongoing studies of coherent synchrotron radiation, beam break-up and wakefields. This work is being pursued for the forthcoming Technical Design Report due in 2008.
- Experimental variables of optical tweezers instrumentation that affect RNA folding/unfolding kinetics were investigated. A model RNA hairpin, P5ab, was attached to two micron-sized beads through hybrid RNA/DNA handles; one bead was trapped by dual-beam lasers and the other was held by a micropipette. Several experimental variables were changed while measuring the unfolding/refolding kinetics, including handle lengths, trap stiffness, and modes of force applied to the molecule. In constant-force mode where the tension applied to the RNA was maintained through feedback control, the measured rate coefficients varied within 40% when the handle lengths were changed by 10 fold (1.1 to 10.2 Kbp); they increased by two- to three-fold when the trap stiffness was lowered to one third (from 0.1 to 0.035 pN/nm). In the passive mode, without feedback control and where the force applied to the RNA varied in response to the end-to-end distance change of the tether, the RNA hopped between a high-force folded-state and a low-force unfolded-state. In this mode, the rates increased up to two-fold with longer handles or softer traps. Overall, the measured rates remained with the same order-of-magnitude over the wide range of conditions studied. In the companion paper (1), we analyze how the measured kinetics parameters differ from the intrinsic molecular rates of the RNA, and thus how to obtain the molecular rates.
- By exerting mechanical force it is possible to unfold/refold RNA molecules one at a time. In a small range of forces, an RNA molecule can hop between the folded and the unfolded state with force-dependent kinetic rates. Here, we introduce a mesoscopic model to analyze the hopping kinetics of RNA hairpins in an optical tweezers setup. The model includes different elements of the experimental setup (beads, handles and RNA sequence) and limitations of the instrument (time lag of the force-feedback mechanism and finite bandwidth of data acquisition). We investigated the influence of the instrument on the measured hopping rates. Results from the model are in good agreement with the experiments reported in the companion article (1). The comparison between theory and experiments allowed us to infer the values of the intrinsic molecular rates of the RNA hairpin alone and to search for the optimal experimental conditions to do the measurements. We conclude that long handles and soft laser traps represent the best conditions to extract rate estimates that are closest to the intrinsic molecular rates. The methodology and rationale presented here can be applied to other experimental setups and other molecules.
- When mixed together, DNA and polyaminoamide (PAMAM) dendrimers form fibers that condense into a compact structure. We use optical tweezers to pull condensed fibers and investigate the decondensation transition by measuring force-extension curves (FECs). A characteristic plateau force (around 10 pN) and hysteresis between the pulling and relaxation cycles are observed for different dendrimer sizes, indicating the existence of a first-order transition between two phases (condensed and extended) of the fiber. The fact that we can reproduce the same FECs in the absence of additional dendrimers in the buffer medium indicates that dendrimers remain irreversibly bound to the DNA backbone. Upon salt variation FECs change noticeably confirming that electrostatic forces drive the condensation transition. Finally, we propose a simple model for the decondensing transition that qualitatively reproduces the FECs and which is confirmed by AFM images.
- May 25 2005 physics.ins-det arXiv:physics/0505171v1The SLAC Linac can deliver damped bunches with ILC parameters for bunch charge and bunch length to End Station A. A 10Hz beam at 28.5 GeV energy can be delivered there, parasitic with PEP-II operation. We plan to use this facility to test prototype components of the Beam Delivery System and Interaction Region. We discuss our plans for this ILC Test Facility and preparations for carrying out experiments related to collimator wakefields and energy spectrometers. We also plan an interaction region mockup to investigate effects from backgrounds and beam-induced electromagnetic interference.
- We have developed two radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector at the LHC at CERN: a driver chip for a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diode for 80 Mbit/s data transmission from the detector, and a Bi-Phase Mark decoder chip to recover the control data and 40 MHz clock received optically by a PIN diode. We have successfully implemented both ASICs in 0.25 micron CMOS technology using enclosed layout transistors and guard rings for increased radiation hardness. We present results of the performance of these chips, including irradiation with 24 GeV protons up to 61 Mrad (2.3 x 10e15 p/cm^2).
- Dec 15 1999 physics.ao-ph arXiv:physics/9912030v1The radiation from the mixed layer into the interior of the ocean of near-inertial oscillations excited by a passing storm in the presence of the beta effect is reconsidered as an initial-value problem. Making use of the fact that the mixed layer depth is much smaller than the total depth of the ocean, the solution is obtained in the limit of an ocean that is effectively infinitely deep. For a uniform initial condition, analytical results for the velocity, horizontal kinetic energy density and fluxes are obtained. The resulting decay of near-inertial mixed layer energy in the presence of the beta effect occurs on a timescale similar to that observed.
- Aug 17 1999 physics.atom-ph arXiv:physics/9908029v1We demonstrate the guiding of neutral atoms by the magnetic fields due to microfabricated current-carrying wires on a chip. Atoms are guided along a magnetic field minimum parallel to and above the current-carrying wires. Two waveguide configurations are demonstrated: one using two wires with an external magnetic field, and a second using four wires without an external field. These waveguide geometries can be extended to integrated atom optics circuits, including beamsplitters.
- We propose a dipole-force linear waveguide which confines neutral atoms up to lambda/2 above a microfabricated single-mode dielectric optical guide. The optical guide carries far blue-detuned light in the horizontally-polarized TE mode and far red-detuned light in the vertically-polarized TM mode, with both modes close to optical cut-off. A trapping minimum in the transverse plane is formed above the optical guide due to the differing evanescent decay lengths of the two modes. This design allows manufacture of mechanically stable atom-optical elements on a substrate. We calculate the full vector bound modes for an arbitrary guide shape using two-dimensional non-uniform finite elements in the frequency-domain, allowing us to optimize atom waveguide properties. We find that a rectangular optical guide of 0.8um by 0.2um carrying 6mW of total laser power (detuning +-15nm about the D2 line) gives a trap depth of 200uK for cesium atoms (m_F = 0), transverse oscillation frequencies of f_x = 40kHz and f_y = 160kHz, collection area ~ 1um^2 and coherence time of 9ms. We discuss the effects of non-zero m_F, surface interactions, heating rate, the substrate refractive index, and the limits on waveguide bending radius.
- In this paper we develop new Newton and conjugate gradient algorithms on the Grassmann and Stiefel manifolds. These manifolds represent the constraints that arise in such areas as the symmetric eigenvalue problem, nonlinear eigenvalue problems, electronic structures computations, and signal processing. In addition to the new algorithms, we show how the geometrical framework gives penetrating new insights allowing us to create, understand, and compare algorithms. The theory proposed here provides a taxonomy for numerical linear algebra algorithms that provide a top level mathematical view of previously unrelated algorithms. It is our hope that developers of new algorithms and perturbation theories will benefit from the theory, methods, and examples in this paper.