In this paper, a quantum Stern-Gerlach thought experiment is introduced where, in addition to the intrinsic angular momentum of an atom, the magnetic field is also treated quantum mechanically. A freely falling spin polarised Bose-Einstein condensate passes close to a flux-qubit and interacts with the quantum superimposed magnetic field of the flux-qubit. Such an interaction results a macroscopic quantum entanglement of the path of a Bose-Einstein condensate with the magnetic flux quantum state of the flux-qubit. In this paper, three regimes of coupling between the flux-qubit and a freely falling Bose-Einstein condensate are discussed. The decoherence time limit required to achieve a strong coupling regime is also estimated. This paper also explores, how to produce a path entangled Bose-Einstein condensate where, the condensate can be located at physically distinct locations simultaneously. Paper provides new fundamental insights about the foundations of the quantum Stern-Gerlach experiment.
We demonstrate accurate phase measurement from low photon level interference data using a constrained optimization method that takes into account the expected redundancy in the unknown phase function. This approach is shown to have significant noise advantage over traditional methods such as balanced homodyning or phase shifting that treat individual pixels in the interference data as independent of each other. Our interference experiments comparing the optimization method with the traditional phase shifting method show that when the same photon resources are used, the optimization method provides phase recoveries with tighter error bars. In particular, RMS phase error performance of the optimization method for low photon number data (10 photons per pixel) shows $>$ 5X noise gain over the phase shifting method. In our experiments where a laser light source is used for illumination, the results imply phase measurement with accuracy better than the conventional single pixel based shot noise limit (SNL) that assumes independent phases at individual pixels. The constrained optimization approach presented here is independent of the nature of light source and may further enhance the accuracy of phase detection when a nonclassical light source is used.
In this paper a macroscopic quantum oscillator is introduced that consists of a flux qubit in the form of a cantilever. The magnetic flux linked to the flux qubit and the mechanical degrees of freedom of the cantilever are naturally coupled. The coupling is controlled through an external magnetic field. The ground state of the introduced flux-qubit-cantilever corresponds to a quantum entanglement between magnetic flux and the cantilever displacement.
We report on the realization of Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium-4. After exciting helium to its metastable state in a novel pulse-tube cryostat source, the atomic beam is collimated and slowed. We then trap several 10^8 atoms in a magneto-optical trap. For subsequent evaporative cooling, the atoms are transferred into a magnetic trap. Degeneracy is achieved with typically a few 10^6 atoms. For detection of atomic correlations with high resolution, an ultrafast delay-line detector has been installed. Consisting of four quadrants with independent readout electronics that allow for true simultaneous detection of atoms, the detector is especially suited for quantum correlation experiments that require the detection of correlated subsystems. We expect our setup to allow for the direct demonstration of momentum entanglement in a scenario equivalent to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken experiment. This will pave the way to matter-wave experiments exploiting the peculiarities of quantum correlations.
We study theoretically the dipole-dipole interaction and energy transfer in a hybrid system consisting of a quantum dot and graphene nanodisk embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal. In our model a probe laser field is applied to measure the energy transfer between the quantum dot and graphene nanodisk while a control field manipulates the energy transfer process. These fields create excitons in the quantum dot and surface plasmon polaritons in the graphene nanodisk which interact via the dipole-dipole interaction. Here the nonlinear photonic crystal acts as a tunable photonic reservoir for the quantum dot, and is used to control the energy transfer. We have found that the spectrum of power absorption in the quantum dot has two peaks due to the creation of two dressed excitons in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. The energy transfer rate spectrum of the graphene nanodisk also has two peaks due to the absorption of these two dressed excitons. Additionally, energy transfer between the quantum dot and the graphene nanodisk can be switched on and off by applying a pump laser to the photonic crystal or by adjusting the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction. We show that the intensity and frequencies of the peaks in the energy transfer rate spectra can be modified by changing the number of graphene monolayers in the nanodisk or the separation between the quantum dot and graphene. Our results agree with existing experiments on a qualitative basis. The principle of our system can be employed to fabricate nano-biosensors, optical nano-switches, and energy transfer devices.
We propose an experiment which can demonstrate quantum correlations in a physical scenario as discussed in the seminal work of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. Momentum-entangled massive particles are produced via the four-wave mixing process of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates. The particles' quantum correlations can be shown in a double double-slit experiment or via ghost interference.
We report on an experimental study of the dynamics of the reflection of ultracold atoms from a periodic one-dimensional magnetic lattice potential. The magnetic lattice potential of period 10 \textmu m is generated by applying a uniform bias magnetic field to a microfabricated periodic structure on a silicon wafer coated with a multilayered TbGdFeCo/Cr magneto-optical film. The effective thickness of the magnetic film is about 960 nm. A detailed study of the profile of the reflected atoms as a function of externally induced periodic corrugation in the potential is described. The effect of angle of incidence is investigated in detail. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations.
We theoretically study macroscopic entanglement between a magnetically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate and a superconducting loop. We treat the superconducting loop in a quantum superposition of two different flux states coupling with the magnetic trap to generate macroscopic entanglement. The scheme also provides a platform to investigate interferometry with an entangled Bose Einstein condensate and to explore physics at the quantum-classical interface.
We propose and analyse a practically implementable scheme to generate macroscopic entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a micro-magnetic trap magnetically coupled to a superconducting loop. We treat the superconducting loop in a quantum superposition of two different flux states coupled with the magnetic trap to generate macroscopic entanglement. Our scheme also provides a platform to realise interferometry of entangled atoms through the Bose-Einstein condensate and to explore physics at the quantum-classical interface.
Aug 25 1998 quant-ph
Macroscopic quantum coherence oscillations in mesoscopic antiferromagnets may appear when the anisotropy potential creates a barrier between the antiferromagnetic states with opposite orientations of the Neel vector. This phenomenon is studied for the physical situation of the nuclear spin system of eight Xe atoms arranged on a magnetic surface along a chain. The oscillation period is calculated as a function of the chain constant. The environmental decoherence effects at finite temperature are accounted assuming a dipole coupling between the spin chain and the fluctuating magnetic field of the surface. The numerical calculations indicate that the oscillations are damped by a rate $\sim (N-1)/ \tau$, where $N$ is the number of spins and $\tau$ is the relaxation time of a single spin.