results for au:Simon_C in:quant-ph

- Feb 12 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.03354v2Efficient and reversible optical to microwave coherent transducers are required to enable entanglement transfer between superconducting qubits and light for quantum networks. Rare-earth-doped crystals that possess narrow optical and spin transitions are a promising way to implement these devices. Current approaches use ground-state electron spin transitions that have coherence lifetimes ($T_2$) often limited by spin flip-flop processes and/or spectral diffusion, even at very low temperatures. Here, we investigate spin coherence in an optically excited state of an Er$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal at temperatures from 1.6 to 3.5 K and under a weak 8.7 mT magnetic field. Spin coherence and population lifetimes of up to 1.6 $\mu$s and 1.2 ms, respectively, are measured by 2- and 3-pulse optically-detected spin echo experiments. Analysis of the dephasing processes suggest that ms $T_2$ can be reached at lower temperatures for the excited-state spins, whereas ground-state spin states could be limited to a few $\mu$s due to resonant interactions with the other Er$^{3+}$ spins in the lattice (spin diffusion). We propose a quantum transducer scheme with the potential for close to unit efficiency that exploits the specific advantages offered by the spin states of optically excited electronic energy levels.
- We present a quantum repeater scheme that is based on individual Erbium and Europium ions. Erbium ions are attractive because they emit photons at telecommunication wavelength, while Europium ions offer exceptional spin coherence for long-term storage. Entanglement between distant Erbium ions is created by photon detection. The photon emission rate of each Erbium ion is enhanced by a microcavity with high Purcell factor, as has recently been demonstrated. Entanglement is then transferred to nearby Europium ions for storage. Gate operations between nearby ions are performed using electric-dipole coupling. These gate operations allow entanglement swapping to be employed in order to extend the distance over which entanglement is distributed. The deterministic character of the gate operations allows improved entanglement distribution rates in comparison to atomic ensemble-based protocols. We also propose an approach that utilizes multiplexing in order to enhance the entanglement distribution rate.
- The implementation of quantum networks involving quantum memories and photonic channels without the need for cryogenics would be a major technological breakthrough. Nitrogen-vacancy centers have excellent spin properties even at room temperature, but phonon-induced broadening makes it challenging to interface these spins with photons at non-cryogenic temperatures. Inspired by recent progress in achieving ultra-high mechanical quality factors, we propose that this challenge can be overcome by spin-opto-mechanical transduction. We quantify the coherence of the interface by calculating the indistinguishability of the emitted photons and describe promising paths towards experimental implementation.
- Nov 01 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.other physics.atom-ph physics.optics arXiv:1710.11585v1The creation of a global quantum network is within reach combining satellite links and quantum memory based approaches. Applications will range from secure communication and fundamental physics experiments to a future quantum internet.
- Efficient sources of indistinguishable single photons that can operate at room temperature would be highly beneficial for many applications in quantum technology. We show that the implementation of such sources is a realistic goal using solid-state emitters and ultra-small mode volume cavities. We derive and analyze an expression for photon indistinguishability that accounts for plasmon quenching and discuss the general cavity and emitter conditions required to achieve efficient indistinguishable photon emission. Using these conditions, we propose that a nanodiamond negatively-charged silicon-vacancy center combined with a plasmonic-Fabry-Perot hybrid cavity is an excellent candidate system.
- Despite great progress in neuroscience, there are still fundamental unanswered questions about the brain, including the origin of subjective experience and consciousness. Some answers might rely on new physical mechanisms. Given that biophotons have been discovered in the brain, it is interesting to explore if neurons use photonic communication in addition to the well-studied electro-chemical signals. Such photonic communication in the brain would require waveguides. Here we review recent work [S. Kumar, K. Boone, J. Tuszynski, P. Barclay, and C. Simon, Scientific Reports 6, 36508 (2016)] suggesting that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides. The light transmission in the myelinated axon was modeled, taking into account its realistic imperfections, and experiments were proposed both in-vivo and in-vitro to test this hypothesis. Potential implications for quantum biology are discussed.
- In this paper, we discuss biological effects of electromagnetic (EM) fields in the context of cancer biology. In particular, we review the nanomechanical properties of microtubules (MTs), the latter being one of the most successful targets for cancer therapy. We propose an investigation on the coupling of electromagnetic radiation to mechanical vibrations of MTs as an important basis for biological and medical applications. In our opinion optomechanical methods can accurately monitor and control the mechanical properties of isolated MTs in a liquid environment. Consequently, studying nanomechanical properties of MTs may give useful information for future applications to diagnostic and therapeutic technologies involving non-invasive externally applied physical fields. For example, electromagnetic fields or high intensity ultrasound can be used therapeutically avoiding harmful side effects of chemotherapeutic agents or classical radiation therapy.
- Chimera patterns, characterized by coexisting regions of phase coherence and incoherence, have so far been studied in non-conservative systems with dissipation. Here, we show that the formation of chimera patterns can also be observed in conservative Hamiltonian systems with nonlocal hopping in which both energy and particle number are conserved. Effective nonlocality can be realized in a physical system with only local coupling if different time scales exist, which can be illustrated by a minimal conservative model with an additional mediating channel. Finally, we show that the patterns should be observable in ultracold atomic systems. Nonlocal spatial hopping over up to tens of lattice sites with independently tunable hopping strength and on-site nonlinearity can be implemented in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with a spin-dependent optical lattice, where the untrapped component serves as the matter-wave mediating field. The present work highlights the connections between chimera patterns, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter, and ultracold atoms.
- Jun 28 2017 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1706.08633v2The distance between two point light sources is difficult to estimate if that distance is below the diffraction (Rayleigh's) resolution limit of the imaging device. A recently proposed technique enhances the precision of this estimation by exploiting the source-separation-dependent coupling of light into higher-order $\rm{TEM}$ modes, particularly the $\rm{TEM}_{01}$ mode of the image. We theoretically analyze the estimation of the source separation by means of homodyne or heterodyne detection with a local oscillator in the $\rm{TEM}_{01}$ mode, which is maximally sensitive to the separation in the sub-Rayleigh regime. We calculate the per-photon Fisher information associated with this estimation and compare it with direct imaging. For thermal sources, the per-photon Fisher information depends on the average photon number per thermal mode of the image; it surpasses the Fisher information for direct imaging (in the interesting sub-Rayleigh regime) when the average photon number exceeds two for homodyne detection and four for heterodyne detection.
- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1703.05938v2We construct a decomposition procedure for converting split-step quantum walks into ordinary quantum walks with alternating coins, and we show that this decomposition enables a feasible linear optical realization of split-step quantum walks by eliminating quantum-control requirements. As salient applications, we show how our scheme will simulate Majorana modes and edge states.
- We create a multi-partite entangled state by storing a single photon in a crystal that contains many large atomic ensembles with distinct resonance frequencies. The photon is re-emitted at a well-defined time due to an interference effect analogous to multi-slit diffraction. We derive a lower bound for the number of entangled ensembles based on the contrast of the interference and the single-photon character of the input, and we experimentally demonstrate entanglement between over two hundred ensembles, each containing a billion atoms. In addition, we illustrate the fact that each individual ensemble contains further entanglement. Our results are the first demonstration of entanglement between many macroscopic systems in a solid and open the door to creating even more complex entangled states.
- Feb 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.01213v1We propose to implement a new kind of solid-state single-photon source based on the recently observed Rydberg blockade effect for excitons in cuprous oxide. The strong interaction between excitons in levels with high principal quantum numbers prevents the creation of more than one exciton in a small crystal. The resulting effective two-level system is a good single-photon source. Our quantitative estimates suggest that GHz rates and values of the second-order correlation function $g_2(0)$ below the percent level should be simultaneously achievable.
- Dec 22 2016 quant-ph physics.bio-ph arXiv:1612.07061v1The possible disruption of a microtubule during mitosis can control the duplication of a cancer cell. Cancer detection and treatment may be possible based on the detection and control of microtubule mechanical oscillations in cells through external fields (e.g. electromagnetic or ultrasound). However, little is known about the dynamic (high-frequency) mechanical properties of microtubules. Here we propose to control the vibrations of a doubly clamped microtubule by tip electrodes and to detect its motion via the optomechanical coupling between the vibrational modes of the microtubule and an optical cavity. In the presence of a red-detuned strong pump laser, this coupling leads to optomechanical induced transparency of an optical probe field, which can be detected with state-of the art technology. The center frequency and linewidth of the transparency peak give the resonance frequency and damping rate of the microtubule respectively, while the height of the peak reveals information about the microtubule-cavity field coupling. Our method should yield new knowledge about the physical properties of microtubules, which will enhance our capability to design physical cancer treatment protocols as alternatives to chemotherapeutic drugs.
- Aug 25 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.06679v1We study the possibility of using single rare-earth ions coupled to a photonic cavity with high cooperativity for performing non-destructive measurements of photons, which would be useful for global quantum networks and photonic quantum computing. We calculate the achievable fidelity as a function of the parameters of the rare-earth ion and photonic cavity, which include the ion's optical and spin dephasing rates, the cavity linewidth, the single photon coupling to the cavity, and the detection efficiency. We suggest a promising experimental realization using current state of the art technology in Nd:YVO$_4$.
- Given that many fundamental questions in neuroscience are still open, it seems pertinent to explore whether the brain might use other physical modalities than the ones that have been discovered so far. In particular it is well established that neurons can emit photons, which prompts the question whether these biophotons could serve as signals between neurons, in addition to the well-known electro-chemical signals. For such communication to be targeted, the photons would need to travel in waveguides. Here we show, based on detailed theoretical modeling, that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides, taking into account realistic optical imperfections. We propose experiments, both \textitin vivo and \textitin vitro, to test our hypothesis. We discuss the implications of our results, including the question whether photons could mediate long-range quantum entanglement in the brain.
- Jun 09 2016 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1606.02662v2The Rayleigh limit has so far applied to all microscopy techniques that rely on linear optical interaction and detection in the far field. Here we demonstrate that detecting the light emitted by an object in higher-order transverse electromagnetic modes (TEMs) can help achieving sub-Rayleigh precision for a variety of microscopy-related tasks. Using optical heterodyne detection in TEM01, we measure the position of coherently and incoherently emitting objects to within 0.0015 and 0.012 of the Rayleigh limit, respectively, and determine the distance between two incoherently emitting slits positioned within 0.28 of the Rayleigh limit with a precision of 0.019 of the Rayleigh limit. Extending our technique to higher-order TEMs enables full imaging with resolution significantly below the Rayleigh limit in a way that is reminiscent of quantum tomography of optical states.
- May 25 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1605.07539v2Cat states are coherent quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states and are useful for understanding the boundary between the classical and the quantum world. Due to their macroscopic nature, cat states are difficult to prepare in physical systems. We propose a method to create cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states of the walker. Since the quantum walks can be performed on any quantum system, our proposal enables a platform-independent realization of the cat states. We further show that the linear dispersion relation of the effective quantum walk Hamiltonian, which governs the dynamics of the delocalized states, is responsible for the formation of the cat states. We analyze the robustness of these states against environmental interactions and present methods to control and manipulate the cat states in the photonic implementation of quantum walks.
- Oct 06 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.01164v1Non-destructive detection of photonic qubits is an enabling technology for quantum information processing and quantum communication. For practical applications such as quantum repeaters and networks, it is desirable to implement such detection in a way that allows some form of multiplexing as well as easy integration with other components such as solid-state quantum memories. Here we propose an approach to non-destructive photonic qubit detection that promises to have all the mentioned features. Mediated by an impurity-doped crystal, a signal photon in an arbitrary time-bin qubit state modulates the phase of an intense probe pulse that is stored during the interaction. Using a thulium-doped waveguide in LiNbO$_3$, we perform a proof-of-principle experiment with macroscopic signal pulses, demonstrating the expected cross-phase modulation as well as the ability to preserve the coherence between temporal modes. Our findings open the path to a new key component of quantum photonics based on rare-earth-ion doped crystals.
- Sep 07 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.01303v3We propose to create superposition states of over 100 Strontium atoms being in a ground state or metastable optical clock state, using the Kerr-type interaction due to Rydberg state dressing in an optical lattice. The two components of the superposition can differ by of order 300 eV in energy, allowing tests of energy decoherence models with greatly improved sensitivity. We take into account the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, spatial inhomogeneity of the interaction, decay from the Rydberg state, collective many-body decoherence, atomic motion, molecular formation and diminishing Rydberg level separation for increasing principal number.
- Sep 02 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.00088v2We compare the standard 50%-efficient single beam splitter method for Bell-state measurement to a proposed 75%-efficient auxiliary-photon-enhanced scheme [W. P. Grice, Phys. Rev. A 84, 042331 (2011)] in light of realistic conditions. The two schemes are compared with consideration for high input state photon loss, auxiliary state photon loss, detector inefficiency and coupling loss, detector dark counts, and non-number-resolving detectors. We also analyze the two schemes when multiplexed arrays of non-number-resolving detectors are used. Furthermore, we explore the possibility of utilizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion as the auxiliary photon pair source required by the enhanced scheme. In these different cases, we determine the bounds on the detector parameters at which the enhanced scheme becomes superior to the standard scheme and describe the impact of the different imperfections on measurement success rate and discrimination fidelity. This is done using a combination of numeric and analytic techniques. For many of the cases discussed, the size of the Hilbert space and the number of measurement outcomes can be very large, which makes direct numerical solutions computationally costly. To alleviate this problem, all of our numerical computations are performed using pure states. This requires tracking the loss modes until measurement and treating dark counts as variations on measurement outcomes rather than modifications to the state itself. In addition, we provide approximate analytic expressions that illustrate the effect of different imperfections on the Bell-state analyzer quality.
- May 14 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.03470v1Conventional wisdom suggests that realistic quantum repeaters will require quasi-deterministic sources of entangled photon pairs. In contrast, we here study a quantum repeater architecture that uses simple parametric down-conversion sources, as well as frequency-multiplexed multimode quantum memories and photon-number resolving detectors. We show that this approach can significantly extend quantum communication distances compared to direct transmission. This shows that important trade-offs are possible between the different components of quantum repeater architectures.
- Apr 13 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.02754v1Quantum memories are essential for quantum information processing and long-distance quantum communication. The field has recently seen a lot of progress, and the present focus issue offers a glimpse of these developments, showing both experimental and theoretical results from many of the leading groups around the world. On the experimental side, it shows work on cold gases, warm vapors, rare-earth ion doped crystals and single atoms. On the theoretical side there are in-depth studies of existing memory protocols, proposals for new protocols including approaches based on quantum error correction, and proposals for new applications of quantum storage. Looking forward, we anticipate many more exciting results in this area.
- Dec 10 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1412.3090v1We study the entanglement generated by a weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity between two initial coherent states, one of which has an amplitude close to the single-photon level, while the other one is macroscopic. We show that strong micro-macro entanglement is possible for weak phase shifts by choosing the amplitude of the macroscopic beam sufficiently large. We analyze the effects of loss and discuss possible experimental demonstrations of the micro-macro entanglement based on homodyne tomography and on a new entanglement witness.
- Oct 21 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1410.5384v1We study entanglement creation over global distances based on a quantum repeater architecture that uses low-earth orbit satellites equipped with entangled photon sources, as well as ground stations equipped with quantum non-demolition detectors and quantum memories. We show that this approach allows entanglement creation at viable rates over distances that are inaccessible via direct transmission through optical fibers or even from very distant satellites.
- Jul 29 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1407.7510v1We propose a scheme for a deterministic controlled-phase gate between two photons based on the strong interaction between two stationary collective Rydberg excitations in an atomic ensemble. The distance-dependent character of the interaction causes both a momentum displacement of the collective excitations and unwanted entanglement between them. We show that these effects can be overcome by swapping the collective excitations in space and by optimizing the geometry, resulting in a photon-photon gate with high fidelity and efficiency.
- Apr 30 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1404.7183v5We analyze an entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) architecture that uses a linear chain of quantum repeaters employing photon-pair sources, spectral-multiplexing, linear-optic Bell-state measurements, multi-mode quantum memories and classical-only error correction. Assuming perfect sources, we find an exact expression for the secret-key rate, and an analytical description of how errors propagate through the repeater chain, as a function of various loss and noise parameters of the devices. We show via an explicit analytical calculation, which separately addresses the effects of the principle non-idealities, that this scheme achieves a secret key rate that surpasses the TGW bound---a recently-found fundamental limit to the rate-vs.-loss scaling achievable by any QKD protocol over a direct optical link---thereby providing one of the first rigorous proofs of the efficacy of a repeater protocol. We explicitly calculate the end-to-end shared noisy quantum state generated by the repeater chain, which could be useful for analyzing the performance of other non-QKD quantum protocols that require establishing long-distance entanglement. We evaluate that shared state's fidelity and the achievable entanglement distillation rate, as a function of the number of repeater nodes, total range, and various loss and noise parameters of the system. We extend our theoretical analysis to encompass sources with non-zero two-pair-emission probability, using an efficient exact numerical evaluation of the quantum state propagation and measurements. We expect our results to spur formal rate-loss analysis of other repeater protocols, and also to provide useful abstractions to seed analyses of quantum networks of complex topologies.
- We propose a method to create "spin cat states", i.e. macroscopic superpositions of coherent spin states, in Bose-Einstein condensates using the Kerr nonlinearity due to atomic collisions. Based on a detailed study of atom loss, we conclude that cat sizes of hundreds of atoms should be realistic. The existence of the spin cat states can be demonstrated by optical readout. Our analysis also includes the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, atom number fluctuations, and limited readout efficiency.
- Jan 13 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1401.2356v1We propose to create and detect opto-mechanical entanglement by storing one component of an entangled state of light in a mechanical resonator and then retrieving it. Using micro-macro entanglement of light as recently demonstrated experimentally, one can then create opto-mechanical entangled states where the components of the superposition are macroscopically different. We apply this general approach to two-mode squeezed states where one mode has undergone a large displacement. Based on an analysis of the relevant experimental imperfections, the scheme appears feasible with current technology.
- Jan 09 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1401.1540v2We study the interaction of two photons in a Rydberg atomic ensemble under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency, combining a semi-classical approach for pulse propagation and a complete quantum treatment for quantum state evolution. We find that the blockade regime is not suitable for implementing photon-photon cross-phase modulation due to pulse absorption and dispersion. However, approximately ideal cross-phase modulation can be realized based on relatively weak interactions, with counter-propagating and transversely separated pulses.
- Dec 20 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1312.5342v1We propose a scheme to realize optical quantum memories in an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond that are coupled to a micro-cavity. The scheme is based on off-resonant Raman coupling, which allows one to circumvent optical inhomogeneous broadening and store optical photons in the electronic spin coherence. This approach promises a storage time of order one second and a time-bandwidth product of order 10$^7$. We include all possible optical transitions in a 9-level configuration, numerically evaluate the efficiencies and discuss the requirements for achieving high efficiency and fidelity.
- Sep 13 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1309.3202v3Future multi-photon applications of quantum optics and quantum information science require quantum memories that simultaneously store many photon states, each encoded into a different optical mode, and enable one to select the mapping between any input and a specific retrieved mode during storage. Here we show, with the example of a quantum repeater, how to employ spectrally-multiplexed states and memories with fixed storage times that allow such mapping between spectral modes. Furthermore, using a Ti:Tm:LiNbO3 waveguide cooled to 3 Kelvin, a phase modulator, and a spectral filter, we demonstrate storage followed by the required feed-forward-controlled frequency manipulation with time-bin qubits encoded into up to 26 multiplexed spectral modes and 97% fidelity.
- Aug 28 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.5932v3The radiation pressure induced coupling between an optical cavity field and a mechanical oscillator can create entanglement between them. In previous works this entanglement was treated as that of the quantum fluctuations of the cavity and mechanical modes around their classical mean values. Here we provide a fully quantum approach to optomechanical entanglement, which goes beyond the approximation of classical mean motion plus quantum fluctuation, and applies to arbitrary cavity drive. We illustrate the real-time evolution of optomechanical entanglement under drive of arbitrary detuning to show the existence of high, robust and stable entanglement in blue detuned regime, and highlight the quantum noise effects that can cause entanglement sudden death and revival.
- Jul 03 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1307.0732v1It has recently been conjectured that detecting quantum effects such as superposition or entanglement for macroscopic systems always requires high measurement precision. Analyzing an apparent counter-example involving macroscopic coherent states and Kerr non-linearities, we find that while measurements with coarse outcomes can be sufficient, the phase control precision of the necessary non-linear operations has to increase with the size of the system. This suggests a refined conjecture that either the \it outcome precision or the \it control precision of the measurements has to increase with system size.
- Jul 01 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.6904v1An optical quantum memory can be broadly defined as a system capable of storing a useful quantum state through interaction with light at optical frequencies. During the last decade, intense research was devoted to their development, mostly with the aim of fulfilling the requirements of their first two applications, namely quantum repeaters and linear-optical quantum computation. A better understanding of those requirements then motivated several different experimental approaches. Along the way, other exciting applications emerged, such as as quantum metrology, single-photon detection, tests of the foundations of quantum physics, device-independent quantum information processing and nonlinear processing of quantum information. Here we review several prospective applications of optical quantum memories with a focus on recent experimental achievements pertaining to these applications. This review highlights that optical quantum memories have become essential for the development of optical quantum information processing.
- Apr 12 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1304.3166v1We propose a quantum memory protocol based on dynamically changing the resonance frequency of an ensemble of two-level atoms. By sweeping the atomic frequency in an adiabatic fashion, photons are reversibly transferred into atomic coherences. We present a polaritonic description for this type of storage, which shares some similarities with Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) based quantum memories. On the other hand the proposed memory is also linked to the Gradient Echo Memory (GEM) due to the effective spatial gradient that pulses experience in the medium. We discuss a possible implementation of the protocol in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.
- Mar 06 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1303.0865v2In the well-studied cryptographic primitive 1-out-of-N oblivious transfer, a user retrieves a single element from a database of size N without the database learning which element was retrieved. While it has previously been shown that a secure implementation of 1-out-of-N oblivious transfer is impossible against arbitrarily powerful adversaries, recent research has revealed an interesting class of private query protocols based on quantum mechanics in a cheat sensitive model. Specifically, a practical protocol does not need to guarantee that database cannot learn what element was retrieved if doing so carries the risk of detection. The latter is sufficient motivation to keep a database provider honest. However, none of the previously proposed protocols could cope with noisy channels. Here we present a fault-tolerant private query protocol, in which the novel error correction procedure is integral to the security of the protocol. Furthermore, we present a proof-of-concept demonstration of the protocol over a deployed fibre.
- Dec 18 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1212.3713v2Schroedinger's famous thought experiment involves a (macroscopic) cat whose quantum state becomes entangled with that of a (microscopic) decaying nucleus. The creation of such micro-macro entanglement is currently being pursued in several fields, including atomic ensembles, superconducting circuits, electro-mechanical and opto-mechanical systems. For purely optical systems, there have been several proposals to create micro-macro entanglement by greatly amplifying one half of an initial microscopic entangled state of light, but experimental attempts have so far been inconclusive. Here we experimentally demonstrate micro-macro entanglement of light. The macro system involves over a hundred million photons, while the micro system is at the single-photon level. We show that microscopic differences (in field quadrature measurements) on one side are correlated with macroscopic differences (in the photon number variance) on the other side. On the other hand, we demonstrate entanglement by bringing the macroscopic state back to the single-photon level and performing full quantum state tomography of the final state. Our results show that it is possible to create and demonstrate micro-macro entanglement for unexpectedly large photon numbers. Schroedinger's thought experiment was originally intended to convey the absurdity of applying quantum mechanics to macroscopic objects. Today many quantum physicists believe that quantum principles in fact apply on all scales. By combining the present approach with other (e.g. mechanical) systems, or by applying its basic ideas in different contexts, it may be possible to bring quantum effects ever closer to our everyday experience.
- This book chapter reports on theoretical protocols for generating nonclassical states of light and mechanics. Nonclassical states are understood as squeezed states, entangled states or states with negative Wigner function, and the nonclassicality can refer either to light, to mechanics, or to both, light and mechanics. In all protocols nonclassicallity arises from a strong optomechanical coupling. Some protocols rely in addition on homodyne detection or photon counting of light.
- Oct 05 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1210.1514v1We propose a scheme for the observation of micro-macro entanglement in photon number based on amplifying and de-amplifying a single-photon entangled state in combination with homodyne quantum state tomography. The created micro-macro entangled state, which exists between the amplification and de-amplification steps, is a superposition of two components with mean photon numbers that differ by approximately a factor of three. We show that for reasonable values of photon loss it should be possible to detect micro-macro photon-number entanglement where the macro system has a mean number of one hundred photons or more.
- Jul 13 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1207.2794v1Bohmian mechanics reproduces all statistical predictions of quantum mechanics, which ensures that entanglement cannot be used for superluminal signaling. However, individual Bohmian particles can experience superluminal influences. We propose to illustrate this point using a double double-slit setup with path-entangled photons. The Bohmian velocity field for one of the photons can be measured using a recently demonstrated weak-measurement technique. The found velocities strongly depend on the value of a phase shift that is applied to the other photon, potentially at spacelike separation.
- Jul 10 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1207.1946v1Recently there has been much interest in optomechanical devices for the production of macroscopic quantum states. Here we focus on a proposed scheme for achieving macroscopic superpositions via nested interferometry. We consider the effects of finite temperature on the superposition produced. We also investigate in detail the scheme's feasibility for probing various novel decoherence mechanisms.
- Physical theories are developed to describe phenomena in particular regimes, and generally are valid only within a limited range of scales. For example, general relativity provides an effective description of the Universe at large length scales, and has been tested from the cosmic scale down to distances as small as 10 meters. In contrast, quantum theory provides an effective description of physics at small length scales. Direct tests of quantum theory have been performed at the smallest probeable scales at the Large Hadron Collider, ${\sim} 10^{-20}$ meters, up to that of hundreds of kilometers. Yet, such tests fall short of the scales required to investigate potentially significant physics that arises at the intersection of quantum and relativistic regimes. We propose to push direct tests of quantum theory to larger and larger length scales, approaching that of the radius of curvature of spacetime, where we begin to probe the interaction between gravity and quantum phenomena. In particular, we review a wide variety of potential tests of fundamental physics that are conceivable with artificial satellites in Earth orbit and elsewhere in the solar system, and attempt to sketch the magnitudes of potentially observable effects. The tests have the potential to determine the applicability of quantum theory at larger length scales, eliminate various alternative physical theories, and place bounds on phenomenological models motivated by ideas about spacetime microstructure from quantum gravity. From a more pragmatic perspective, as quantum communication technologies such as quantum key distribution advance into Space towards large distances, some of the fundamental physical effects discussed here may need to be taken into account to make such schemes viable.
- Jun 19 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1206.3673v1Entangled coherent states, which can in principle be created using strong Kerr non-linearities, allow the violation of Bell inequalities for very coarse-grained measurements. This seems to contradict a recent conjecture that observing quantum effects in macroscopic systems generally requires very precise measurements. However, here we show that both the creation of the required states and the required measurements rely on being able to control the phase of the necessary Kerr-nonlinearity based unitary operations with extreme precision. This lends support to the idea that there is a general principle that makes macroscopic quantum effects difficult to observe, even in the absence of decoherence.
- May 24 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1205.5258v1We present a quantum memory protocol that allows to store light in ensembles of two-level atoms, e.g. rare-earth ions doped into a crystal, by modulating the refractive index of the host medium of the atoms linearly in time. We show that under certain conditions the resulting dynamics is equivalent to that underlying the gradient echo memory protocol, which relies on a spatial gradient of the atomic resonance frequencies. We discuss the prospects for an experimental implementation.
- Mar 29 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1203.6315v1Entangled quantum particles have correlations stronger than those allowed by classical physics. These correlations are the focus of of the deepest issues in quantum mechanics [1-3] and are the basis of many quantum technologies. The entanglement of discrete particle properties has been studied extensively in the context of quantum computing [4], cryptography [5], and quantum repeaters [6] while entanglement between the continuous properties of particles may play a critical role in improving the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors [7,8], atomic clocks [9], and other high precision instruments. The attributes of three or more entangled particles are fundamentally different from those of two entangled particles [10-14]. While the discrete variables of up to 14 ions [15] and the continuous variables between three intense optical beams [16, 17] have been entangled, it has remained an open challenge to entangle the continuous properties of more than two individual particles. Here we experimentally demonstrate genuine tripartite continuous-variable entanglement between three separated particles. In our setup the three particles are photons created directly from a single input photon; the creation process leads to quantum correlations between the colours, or energies, and emission times of the photons. The entanglement between our three photons is the three-party generalization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) [1] correlations for continuous variables, and allows for new fundamental tests of quantum mechanics to be carried out. Our scheme can be extended to carry out multi-particle Franson interferometry [18,19], and opens the possibility of using additional degrees of freedom in our photons to simultaneously engineer discrete and continuous-variable hyper-entangled states that could serve as a valuable resource in a wide variety of quantum information tasks.
- Dec 01 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1111.7283v2We propose an experiment where a photon is first cloned by stimulated parametric down-conversion, making many (imperfect) copies, and then the cloning transformation is inverted, regenerating the original photon while destroying the copies. Focusing on the case where the initial photon is entangled with another photon, we study the conditions under which entanglement can be proven in the final state. The proposed experiment would provide a clear demonstration that quantum information is preserved in quantum cloning. It would furthermore allow a definitive experimental proof for micro-macro entanglement in the intermediate multiphoton state, which is still an outstanding challenge. Finally, it might provide a quantum detection technique for small differences in transmission (e.g., in biological samples), whose sensitivity scales better with the number of photons used than a classical transmission measurement.
- Nov 25 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1111.5672v2We present a scheme for achieving macroscopic quantum superpositions in optomechanical systems by using single photon postselection and detecting them with nested interferometers. This method relieves many of the challenges associated with previous optical schemes for measuring macroscopic superpositions, and only requires the devices to be in the weak coupling regime. It requires only small improvements on currently achievable device parameters, and allows observation of decoherence on a timescale unconstrained by the system's optical decay time. Prospects for observing novel decoherence mechanisms are discussed.
- Aug 11 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1108.2065v2Observing quantum effects such as superpositions and entanglement in macroscopic systems requires not only a system that is well protected against environmental decoherence, but also sufficient measurement precision. Motivated by recent experiments, we study the effects of coarse-graining in photon number measurements on the observability of micro-macro entanglement that is created by greatly amplifying one photon from an entangled pair. We compare the results obtained for a unitary quantum cloner, which generates micro-macro entanglement, and for a measure-and-prepare cloner, which produces a separable micro-macro state. We show that the distance between the probability distributions of results for the two cloners approaches zero for a fixed moderate amount of coarse-graining. Proving the presence of micro-macro entanglement therefore becomes progressively harder as the system size increases.
- Jul 15 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1107.2828v1We propose a simple heralded amplification scheme for small rotations of the collective spin of an ensemble of particles. Our protocol makes use of two basic primitives for quantum memories, namely partial mapping of light onto an ensemble, and conversion of a collective spin excitation into light. The proposed scheme should be realizable with current technology, with potential applications to atomic clocks and magnetometry.
- Jun 20 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1106.3513v2We present a quantum memory protocol for photons that is based on the direct control of the transition dipole moment. We focus on the case where the light-matter interaction is enhanced by a cavity. We show that the optimal write process (maximizing the storage efficiency) is related to the optimal read process by a reversal of the \it effective time $\tau=\int dt g^2(t)/\kappa$, where $g(t)$ is the time-dependent coupling and $\kappa$ is the cavity decay rate. We discuss the implementation of the protocol in a rare-earth ion doped crystal, where an optical transition can be turned on and off by switching a magnetic field.
- Jun 07 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1106.0788v2We study the simplest optomechanical system in the presence of laser phase noise using the covariance matrix formalism. We show that the destructive effect of the phase noise is especially strong in the bistable regime. This explains why ground state cooling is still possible in the presence of phase noise, as it happens far away from the bistable regime. On the other hand, the optomechanical entanglement is strongly affected by phase noise.
- Apr 22 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1104.4145v2We study the simplest optomechanical system with a focus on the bistable regime. The covariance matrix formalism allows us to study both cooling and entanglement in a unified framework. We identify two key factors governing entanglement, namely the bistability parameter, i.e. the distance from the end of a stable branch in the bistable regime, and the effective detuning, and we describe the optimum regime where entanglement is greatest. We also show that in general entanglement is a non-monotonic function of optomechanical coupling. This is especially important in understanding the optomechanical entanglement of the second stable branch.
- Feb 21 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1102.3724v2Weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities between single photons and coherent states are the basis for many applications in quantum information processing. These nonlinearities have so far mainly been discussed in terms of highly idealized single-mode models. We develop a general theory of the interaction between continuous-mode photonic pulses and apply it to the case of a single photon interacting with a coherent state. We quantitatively study the validity of the usual single-mode approximation using the concepts of fidelity and conditional phase. We show that high fidelities, non-zero conditional phases and high photon numbers are compatible, under conditions where the pulses fully pass through each other and where unwanted transverse-mode effects are suppressed.
- Dec 03 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1012.0544v1Spin echo techniques are essential for achieving long coherence times in solid-state quantum memories for light because of inhomogeneous broadening of the spin transitions. It has been suggested that unrealistic levels of precision for the radio frequency control pulses would be necessary for successful decoherence control at the quantum level. Here we study the effects of pulse imperfections in detail, using both a semi-classical and a fully quantum-mechanical approach. Our results show that high efficiencies and low noise-to-signal ratios can be achieved for the quantum memories in the single-photon regime for realistic levels of control pulse precision. We also analyze errors due to imperfect initial state preparation (optical pumping), showing that they are likely to be more important than control pulse errors in many practical circumstances. These results are crucial for future developments of solid-state quantum memories.
- Oct 19 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1010.3695v1Weak measurements in combination with post-selection can give rise to a striking amplification effect (related to a large "weak value"). We show that this effect can be understood by viewing the initial state of the pointer as the ground state of a fictional harmonic oscillator, helping us to clarify the transition from the weak-value regime to conventional dark-port interferometry. We then describe how to implement fully quantum weak-value measurements combining photons and atomic ensembles.
- Oct 02 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1010.0037v1It has recently been shown that light can be stored in Bose-Einstein condensates for over a second. Here we propose a method for realizing a controlled phase gate between two stored photons. The photons are both stored in the ground state of the effective trapping potential inside the condensate. The collision-induced interaction is enhanced by adiabatically increasing the trapping frequency and by using a Feshbach resonance. A controlled phase shift of $\pi$ can be achieved in one second.
- Jul 29 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1007.5028v1We propose a temporally multiplexed version of the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) quantum repeater protocol using controlled inhomogeneous spin broadening in atomic gases. A first analysis suggests that the advantage of multiplexing is negated by noise due to spin wave excitations corresponding to unobserved directions of Stokes photon emission. However, this problem can be overcome with the help of a moderate-finesse cavity which is in resonance with Stokes photons, but invisible to the anti-Stokes photons. Our proposal promises greatly enhanced quantum repeater performance with atomic gases.
- Jul 19 2010 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1007.2808v1The energy states in semiconductor quantum dots are discrete as in atoms, and quantum states can be coherently controlled with resonant laser pulses. Long coherence times allow the observation of Rabi-flopping of a single dipole transition in a solid state device, for which occupancy of the upper state depends sensitively on the dipole moment and the excitation laser power. We report on the robust preparation of a quantum state using an optical technique that exploits rapid adiabatic passage from the ground to an excited state through excitation with laser pulses whose frequency is swept through the resonance. This observation in photoluminescence experiments is made possible by introducing a novel optical detection scheme for the resonant electron hole pair (exciton) generation.
- Jun 24 2010 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1006.4585v2We report a coherence-preserving photon frequency down-conversion experiment based on difference-frequency generation in a periodically poled Lithium niobate waveguide, at the single-photon level. The coherence of the process has been demonstrated by measuring the phase coherence of pseudo single-photon time-bin qubits after frequency conversion with an interference visibility of > 96 %. This interface could be of interest for quantum repeater based hybrid networks.
- Jun 21 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1006.3584v2The multi-mode character of quantum fields imposes constraints on the implementation of high-fidelity quantum gates between individual photons. So far this has only been studied for the longitudinal degree of freedom. Here we show that effects due to the transverse degrees of freedom significantly affect quantum gate performance. We also discuss potential solutions, in particular separating the two photons in the transverse direction.
- May 28 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1005.5083v1By amplifying photonic qubits it is possible to produce states that contain enough photons to be seen with a human eye, potentially bringing quantum effects to macroscopic scales [1]. In this paper we theoretically study quantum states obtained by amplifying one side of an entangled photon pair with different types of optical cloning machines for photonic qubits. We propose a detection scheme that involves lossy threshold detectors (such as human eye) on the amplified side and conventional photon detectors on the other side. We show that correlations obtained with such coarse-grained measurements prove the entanglement of the initial photon pair and do not prove the entanglement of the amplified state. We emphasize the importance of the detection loophole in Bell violation experiments by giving a simple preparation technique for separable states that violate a Bell inequality without closing this loophole. Finally we analyze the genuine entanglement of the amplified states and its robustness to losses before, during and after amplification.
- Apr 15 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1004.2469v1We consider an atomic frequency comb based quantum memory inside an asymmetric optical cavity. In this configuration it is possible to absorb the input light completely in a system with an effective optical depth of one, provided that the absorption per cavity round trip exactly matches the transmission of the coupling mirror ("impedance matching"). We show that the impedance matching results in a readout efficiency only limited by irreversible atomic dephasing, whose effect can be made very small in systems with large inhomogeneous broadening. Our proposal opens up an attractive route towards quantum memories with close to unit efficiency.
- Mar 12 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1003.2353v1We propose a scheme for realizing quantum repeaters with Rydberg-blockade coupled atomic ensembles, based on a recently proposed collective encoding strategy. Rydberg-blockade mediated two-qubit gates and efficient cooperative photon emission are employed to create ensemble-photon entanglement. Thanks to deterministic entanglement swapping operations via Rydberg-based two-qubit gates, and to the suppression of multi-excitation errors by the blockade effect, the entanglement distribution rate of the present scheme is higher by orders of magnitude than the rates achieved by other ensemble-based repeaters. We also show how to realize temporal multiplexing with this system, which offers an additional speedup in entanglement distribution.
- Mar 05 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1003.1107v1We perform a review of various approaches to the implementation of quantum memories, with an emphasis on activities within the quantum memory sub-project of the EU Integrated Project "Qubit Applications". We begin with a brief overview over different applications for quantum memories and different types of quantum memories. We discuss the most important criteria for assessing quantum memory performance and the most important physical requirements. Then we review the different approaches represented in "Qubit Applications" in some detail. They include solid-state atomic ensembles, NV centers, quantum dots, single atoms, atomic gases and optical phonons in diamond. We compare the different approaches using the discussed criteria.
- Mar 01 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1002.5022v1The three-pulse photon echo is a well-known technique to store intense light pulses in an inhomogeneously broadened atomic ensemble. This protocol is attractive because it is relatively simple and it is well suited for the storage of multiple temporal modes. Furthermore, it offers very long storage times, greater than the phase relaxation time. Here, we consider the three-pulse photon echo in both two- and three-level systems as a potential technique for the storage of light at the single-photon level. By explicit calculations, we show that the ratio between the echo signal corresponding to a single-photon input and the noise is smaller than one. This severely limits the achievable fidelity of the quantum state storage, making the three-pulse photon echo unsuitable for single-photon quantum memory.
- Feb 24 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1002.4360v2Private queries allow a user Alice to learn an element of a database held by a provider Bob without revealing which element she was interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum key distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical post-processing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss-tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved, relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both user and database. We think that there is scope for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.
- Jan 26 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1001.4449v1Single-photon entanglement is a simple form of entanglement that exists between two spatial modes sharing a single photon. Despite its elementary form, it provides a resource as useful as polarization-entangled photons and it can be used for quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping operations. Here, we report the first experiment where single-photon entanglement is purified with a simple linear-optics based protocol. Besides its conceptual interest, this result might find applications in long distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters.
- Dec 22 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0912.3871v1Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.
- Nov 27 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0911.5139v2Recently, weak measurements were used to measure small effects that are transverse to the propagation direction of a light beam. Here we address the question whether weak measurements are also useful for measuring small longitudinal phase shifts. We show that standard interferometry greatly outperforms weak measurements in a scenario involving a purely real weak value. However, we also present an interferometric scheme based on a purely imaginary weak value, combined with a frequency-domain analysis, which may have potential to outperform standard interferometry by several orders of magnitude.
- Aug 18 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0908.2309v2We present a light-storage experiment in a praseodymium-doped crystal where the light is mapped onto an inhomogeneously broadened optical transition shaped into an atomic frequency comb. After absorption of the light the optical excitation is converted into a spin-wave excitation by a control pulse. A second control pulse reads the memory (on-demand) by reconverting the spin-wave excitation to an optical one, where the comb structure causes a photon-echo type rephasing of the dipole moments and directional retrieval of the light. This combination of photon echo and spin-wave storage allows us to store sub-microsecond (450ns) pulses for up to 20 microseconds. The scheme has a high potential for storing multiple temporal modes in the single photon regime, which is an important resource for future long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters.