results for au:Shiozaki_K in:cond-mat

- The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem dictates that a trivial symmetric insulator in lattice models is prohibited if lattice translation symmetry and $U(1)$ charge conservation are both preserved. In this paper, we generalize the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem to systems with higher-form symmetries, which act on extended objects of dimension $n > 0$. The prototypical lattice system with higher-form symmetry is the pure abelian lattice gauge theory whose action consists only of the field strength. We first construct the higher-form generalization of the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem with a proof. We then apply it to the $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory description of the quantum dimer model on bipartite lattices. Finally, using the continuum field theory description in the vicinity of the Rokhsar-Kivelson point of the quantum dimer model, we diagnose and compute the mixed 't Hooft anomaly corresponding to the higher-form Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem.
- We study the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence (AHSS) for equivariant K-theory in the context of band theory. Various notions in the band theory such as irreducible representations at high-symmetric points, the compatibility relation, topological gapless and singular points naturally fits into the AHSS. As an application of the AHSS, we get the complete list of topological invariants for 230 space groups without time-reversal or particle-hole invariance. We find that a lot of torsion topological invariants appear even for symmorphic space groups.
- Understanding the interplay between the topological nature and the symmetry property of interacting systems has been a central matter of condensed matter physics in recent years. In this Letter, we establish nonperturbative constraints on the quantized Hall conductance of many-body systems with arbitrary interactions. Our results allow one to readily determine the many-body Chern number modulo a certain integer without performing any integrations, solely based on the rotation eigenvalues and the average particle density of the many-body ground state.
- Oct 16 2017 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1710.04730v1We analyze $2+1d$ and $3+1d$ Bosonic Symmetry Protected Topological (SPT) phases of matter protected by onsite symmetry group $G$ by using dual bulk and boundary approaches. In the bulk we study an effective field theory which upon coupling to a background flat $G$ gauge field furnishes a purely topological response theory. The response action evaluated on certain manifolds, with appropriate choice of background gauge field, defines a set of SPT topological invariants. Further, SPTs can be gauged by summing over all isomorphism classes of flat $G$ gauge fields to obtain Dijkgraaf-Witten topological $G$ gauge theories. These topological gauge theories can be ungauged by first introducing and then proliferating defects that spoils the gauge symmetry. This mechanism is related to anyon condensation in $2+1d$ and condensing bosonic gauge charges in $3+1d$. In the dual boundary approach, we study $1+1d$ and $2+1d$ quantum field theories that have $G$ 't-Hooft anomalies that can be precisely cancelled by (the response theory of) the corresponding bulk SPT. We show how to construct/compute topological invariants for the bulk SPTs directly from the boundary theories. Further we sum over boundary partition functions with different background gauge fields to construct $G$-characters that generate topological data for the bulk topological gauge theory. Finally, we study a $2+1d$ quantum field theory with a mixed $\mathbb{Z}_2^{T/R} \times U(1)$ anomaly where $\mathbb{Z}_2^{T/R}$ is time-reversal/reflection symmetry, and the $U(1)$ could be a 0-form or 1-form symmetry depending on the choice of time reversal/reflection action. We briefly discuss the bulk effective action and topological response for a theory in $3+1d$ that cancels this anomaly. This signals the existence of SPTs in $3+1d$ protected by 0,1-form $U(1)\times \mathbb{Z}_{2}^{T,R}$.
- We present a fully many-body formulation of topological invariants for various topological phases of fermions protected by antiunitary symmetry, which does not refer to single particle wave functions. For example, we construct the many-body $\mathbb{Z}_2$ topological invariant for time-reversal symmetric topological insulators in two spatial dimensions, which is a many-body counterpart of the Kane-Mele $\mathbb{Z}_2$ invariant written in terms of single-particle Bloch wave functions. We show that an important ingredient for the construction of the many-body topological invariants is a fermionic partial transpose which is basically the standard partial transpose equipped with a sign structure to account for anti-commuting property of fermion operators. We also report some basic results on various kinds of pin structures -- a key concept behind our strategy for constructing many-body topological invariants -- such as the obstructions, isomorphism classes, and Dirac quantization conditions.
- Intensive studies for more than three decades have elucidated multiple superconducting phases and odd-parity Cooper pairs in a heavy fermion superconductor UPt$_3$. We identify a time-reversal invariant superconducting phase of UPt$_3$ as a recently proposed topological nonsymmorphic superconductivity. Combining the band structure of UPt$_3$, order parameter of $E_{\rm 2u}$ representation allowed by $P6_3/mmc$ space group symmetry, and topological classification by $K$-theory, we demonstrate the nontrivial $Z_2$-invariant of three-dimensional DIII class enriched by glide symmetry. Correspondingly, double Majorana cone surface states appear at the surface Brillouin zone boundary. Furthermore, we show a variety of surface states and clarify the topological protection by crystal symmetry. Majorana arcs corresponding to tunable Weyl points appear in the time-reversal symmetry broken B-phase. Majorana cone protected by mirror Chern number and Majorana flat band by glide-winding number are also revealed.
- We formulate topological crystalline materials on the basis of the twisted equivariant $K$-theory. Basic ideas of the twisted equivariant $K$-theory is explained with application to topological phases protected by crystalline symmetries in mind, and systematic methods of topological classification for crystalline materials are presented. Our formulation is applicable to bulk gapful topological crystalline insulators/superconductors and their gapless boundary and defect states, as well as bulk gapless topological materials such as Weyl and Dirac semimetals, and nodal superconductors. As an application of our formulation, we present a complete classification of topological crystalline surface states, in the absence of time-reversal invariance. The classification works for gapless surface states of three-dimensional insulators, as well as full gapped two-dimensional insulators. Such surface states and two-dimensional insulators are classified in a unified way by 17 wallpaper groups, together with the presence or the absence of (sublattice) chiral symmetry. We identify the topological numbers and their representations under the wallpaper group operation. We also exemplify the usefulness of our formulation in the classification of bulk gapless phases. We present a new class of Weyl semimetals and Weyl superconductors that are topologically protected by inversion symmetry.
- The partial transpose of density matrices in many-body quantum systems, in which one takes the transpose only for a subsystem of the full Hilbert space, has been recognized as a useful tool to diagnose quantum entanglement. It can be used, for example, to define the (logarithmic) negativity. For fermionic systems, it has been known that the partial transpose of Gaussian fermionic density matrices is not Gaussian. In this work, we propose to use partial time-reversal transformation to define (an analog of) the entanglement negativity and related quantities. We demonstrate that for the symmetry-protected topological phase realized in the Kitaev chain the conventional definition of the partial transpose (and hence the entanglement negativity) fails to capture the formation of the edge Majorana fermions, while the partial time-reversal computes the quantum dimension of the Majorana fermions. Furthermore, we show that the partial time-reversal of fermionic density matrices is Gaussian and can be computed efficiently. Various results (both numerical and analytical) for the entanglement negativity using the partial-time reversal are presented for (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theories, and also for fermionic disordered systems (random single phases).
- Sep 21 2016 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1609.05970v2We propose the definitions of many-body topological invariants to detect symmetry-protected topological phases protected by point group symmetry, using partial point group transformations on a given short-range entangled quantum ground state. Partial point group transformations $g_D$ are defined by point group transformations restricted to a spatial subregion $D$, which is closed under the point group transformations and sufficiently larger than the bulk correlation length $\xi$. By analytical and numerical calculations,we find that the ground state expectation value of the partial point group transformations behaves generically as $\langle GS | g_D | GS \rangle \sim \exp \Big[ i \theta+ \gamma - \alpha \frac{{\rm Area}(\partial D)}{\xi^{d-1}} \Big]$. Here, ${\rm Area}(\partial D)$ is the area of the boundary of the subregion $D$, and $\alpha$ is a dimensionless constant. The complex phase of the expectation value $\theta$ is quantized and serves as the topological invariant, and $\gamma$ is a scale-independent topological contribution to the amplitude. The examples we consider include the $\mathbb{Z}_8$ and $\mathbb{Z}_{16}$ invariants of topological superconductors protected by inversion symmetry in $(1+1)$ and $(3+1)$ dimensions, respectively, and the lens space topological invariants in $(2+1)$-dimensional fermionic topological phases. Connections to topological quantum field theories and cobordism classification of symmetry-protected topological phases are discussed.
- Jul 25 2016 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1607.06504v4Matrix Product States (MPSs) provide a powerful framework to study and classify gapped quantum phases --symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in particular--defined in one dimensional lattices. On the other hand, it is natural to expect that gapped quantum phases in the limit of zero correlation length are described by topological quantum field theories (TFTs or TQFTs). In this paper, for (1+1)-dimensional bosonic SPT phases protected by symmetry $G$, we bridge their descriptions in terms of MPSs, and those in terms of $G$-equivariant TFTs. In particular, for various topological invariants (SPT invariants) constructed previously using MPSs, we provide derivations from the point of view of (1+1) TFTs. We also discuss the connection between boundary degrees of freedom, which appear when one introduces a physical boundary in SPT phases, and "open" TFTs, which are TFTs defined on spacetimes with boundaries.
- We define and compute many-body topological invariants of interacting fermionic symmetry-protected topological phases, protected by an orientation-reversing symmetry, such as time-reversal or reflection symmetry. The topological invariants are given by partition functions obtained by a path integral on unoriented spacetime which, as we show, can be computed for a given ground state wave function by considering a non-local operation, "partial" reflection or transpose. As an application of our scheme, we study the $\mathbb{Z}_8$ and $\mathbb{Z}_{16}$ classification of topological superconductors in one and three dimensions.
- Jun 22 2016 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1606.06402v1Quantum phase transitions out of a symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase in (1+1) dimensions into an adjacent, topologically distinct SPT phase protected by the same symmetry or a trivial gapped phase, are typically described by a conformal field theory (CFT). At the same time, the low-lying entanglement spectrum of a gapped phase close to such a quantum critical point is known(Cho et al., arXiv:1603.04016), very generally, to be universal and described by (gapless) boundary conformal field theory. Using this connection we show that symmetry properties of the boundary conditions in boundary CFT can be used to characterize the symmetry-protected degeneracies of the entanglement spectrum, a hallmark of non-trivial symmetry-protected topological phases. Specifically, we show that the relevant boundary CFT is the orbifold of the quantum critical point with respect to the symmetry group defining the SPT, and that the boundary states of this orbifold carry a quantum anomaly that determines the topological class of the SPT. We illustrate this connection using various characteristic examples such as the time-reversal breaking "Kitaev chain" superconductor (symmetry class D), the Haldane phase, and the $\mathbb{Z}_8$ classification of interacting topological superconductors in symmetry class BDI in (1+1) dimensions.
- Topological classification in our previous paper [K. Shiozaki and M. Sato, Phys. Rev. B ${\bf 90}$, 165114 (2014)] is extended to nonsymmorphic crystalline insulators and superconductors. Using the twisted equivariant $K$-theory, we complete the classification of topological crystalline insulators and superconductors in the presence of additional order-two nonsymmorphic space group symmetries. The order-two nonsymmorphic space groups include half lattice translation with $Z_2$ flip, glide, two-fold screw, and their magnetic space groups. We find that the topological periodic table shows modulo-2 periodicity in the number of flipped coordinates under the order-two nonsymmorphic space group. It is pointed out that the nonsymmorphic space groups allow $\mathbb{Z}_2$ topological phases even in the absence of time-reversal and/or particle-hole symmetries. Furthermore, the coexistence of the nonsymmorphic space group with the time-reversal and/or particle-hole symmetries provides novel $\mathbb{Z}_4$ topological phases, which have not been realized in ordinary topological insulators and superconductors. We present model Hamiltonians of these new topological phases and the analytic expression of the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ and $\mathbb{Z}_4$ topological invariants. The half lattice translation with $Z_2$ spin flip and glide symmetry are compatible with the existence of the boundary, leading to topological surface gapless modes protected by such order-two nonsymmorphic symmetries. We also discuss unique features of these gapless surface modes.
- Mar 12 2015 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1503.03136v1The superfluid $^3$He formed by spin-triplet $p$-wave Cooper pairs is a typical topological superfluid. In the superfluid $^3$He B-phase, several kinds of vortices classified by spatial symmetries $P_1$, $P_2$, and $P_3$ are produced, where $P_1$ is inversion symmetry, $P_2$ is magnetic reflection symmetry, and $P_3$ is magnetic $\pi$-rotation symmetry. We have calculated the vortex bound states by the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory and the quasiclassical Eilenberger theory, and also clarified symmetry protection of the low energy excitations by the spatial symmetries. On the symmetry protection, $P_3$ symmetry plays a key role which gives two-fold degenerate Majorana zero modes. Then, the bound states in the most symmetric $o$ vortex with $P_1$, $P_2$, and $P_3$ symmetries and in $w$ vortex with $P_3$ symmetry have the symmetry protected degenerate Majorana zero modes. On the other hand, zero energy modes in $v$ vortex, which is believed to be realized in the actual B-phase, are not protected, and in consequence become gapped by breaking axial symmetry. The excitation gap may have been observed as the variation of critical velocity. We have also suggested an experimental setup to create $o$ vortex with Majorana zero modes by a confinement and a magnetic field.
- From the group theoretical ground, the Blount's theorem prohibits the existence of line nodes for odd-parity superconductors (SCs) in the presence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We study the topological stability of line nodes under inversion symmetry. From the topological point of view, we renovate the stability condition of line nodes, in which we not only generalize the original statement, but also establish the relation to zero-energy surface flat dispersions. The topological instability of line nodes in odd-parity SCs implies not the absence of bulk line nodes but the disappearance of the corresponding zero-energy surface flat dispersions due to surface Rashba SOC, which gives an experimental means to distinguish line nodes in odd-parity SCs from those in other SCs.
- We complete a classification of topological phases and their topological defects in crystalline insulators and superconductors. We consider topological phases and defects described by non-interacting Bloch and Bogoliubov de Gennes Hamiltonians that support additional order-two spatial symmetry, besides any of ten classes of symmetries defined by time-reversal symmetry and particle-hole symmetry. The additional order-two spatial symmetry we consider is general and it includes $Z_2$ global symmetry, mirror reflection, two-fold rotation, inversion, and their magnetic point group symmetries. We find that the topological periodic table shows a novel periodicity in the number of flipped coordinates under the order-two spatial symmetry, in addition to the Bott-periodicity in the space dimensions. Various symmetry protected topological phases and gapless modes will be identified and discussed in a unified framework. We also present topological classification of symmetry protected Fermi points. The bulk classification and the surface Fermi point classification provide a novel realization of the bulk-boundary correspondence in terms of the K-theory.
- Oct 21 2013 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1310.4982v2We consider dynamical axion phenomena in topological superconductors and superfluids in three spatial dimensions in terms of the gravitoelectromagnetic topological action, in which the axion field couples with mechanical rotation under finite temperature gradient. The dynamical axion is induced by relative phase fluctuations between topological and s-wave superconducting orders. We show that an antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction which induces parity-mixing of Cooper pairs enlarges the parameter region in which the dynamical axion fluctuation appears as a low-energy excitation. We propose that the dynamical axion increases the moment of inertia, and in the case of ac mechanical rotation, i.e. a shaking motion with a finite frequency $\omega$, as $\omega$ approaches the dynamical axion fluctuation mass, the observation of this effect becomes feasible.
- Oct 11 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1210.2825v2The relation between bulk topological invariants and experimentally observable physical quantities is a fundamental property of topological insulators and superconductors. In the case of chiral symmetric systems in odd spatial dimensions such as time-reversal invariant topological superconductors and topological insulators with sublattice symmetry, this relation has not been well understood. We clarify that the winding number which characterizes the bulk Z non-triviality of these systems can appear in electromagnetic and thermal responses in a certain class of heterostructure systems. It is also found that the Z non-triviality can be detected in the bulk "chiral polarization", which is induced by magnetoelectric effects.
- Jun 21 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1206.4410v2We explore the bulk-edge correspondence for topological insulators (superconductors) without time-reversal symmetry from the point of view of the index theorem for open spaces. We assume generic Hamiltonians not only with a linear dispersion but also with higher order derivatives arising from generic band structures. Using a generalized index theorem valid for such systems, we show the equivalence between the spectral flow of the edge states and the Chern numbers specifying the bulk systems.
- Mar 12 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1203.2086v3We apply the Niemi-Semenoff index theorem to an s-wave superconductor junction system attached with a magnetic insulator on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We find that the total number of the Majorana zero energy bound states is governed not only by the gapless helical mode but also by the massive modes localized at the junction interface. The result implies that the topological protection for Majorana zero modes in class D heterostructure junctions may be broken down under a particular but realistic condition.
- Nov 08 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1111.1685v2Defects which appear in heterostructure junctions involving topological insulators are sources of gapless modes governing the low energy properties of the systems, as recently elucidated by Teo and Kane [Physical Review B82, 115120 (2010)]. A standard approach for the calculation of topological invariants associated with defects is to deal with the spatial inhomogeneity raised by defects within a semiclassical approximation. In this paper, we propose a full quantum formulation for the topological invariants characterizing line defects in three-dimensional insulators with no symmetry by using the Green's function method. On the basis of the full quantum treatment, we demonstrate the existence of a nontrivial topological invariant in the topological insulator-ferromagnet tri-junction systems, for which a semiclassical approximation fails to describe the topological phase. Also, our approach enables us to study effects of electron-electron interactions and impurity scattering on topological insulators with spatial inhomogeneity which gives rise to the Axion electrodynamics responses.