This paper presents a novel algorithm for recovering missing data of phasor measurement units (PMUs). Due to the low-rank property of PMU data, missing measurement recovery can be formulated as a low-rank matrix-completion problem. Based on maximum-margin matrix factorization, we propose an efficient algorithm based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for solving the matrix completion problem. Comparing to existing approaches, the proposed ADMM based algorithm does not need to estimate the rank of the target data matrix and provides better performance in computation complexity. In addition, we consider the case of measurements missing from all PMU channels and provide a strategy of reshaping the matrix which contains the received PMU data for recovery. Numerical results using PMU measurements from IEEE 68-bus power system model illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approaches.
An exhaustive study on neural network language modeling (NNLM) is performed in this paper. Different architectures of basic neural network language models are described and examined. A number of different improvements over basic neural network language models, including importance sampling, word classes, caching and bidirectional recurrent neural network (BiRNN), are studied separately, and the advantages and disadvantages of every technique are evaluated. Then, the limits of neural network language modeling are explored from the aspects of model architecture and knowledge representation. Part of the statistical information from a word sequence will loss when it is processed word by word in a certain order, and the mechanism of training neural network by updating weight matrixes and vectors imposes severe restrictions on any significant enhancement of NNLM. For knowledge representation, the knowledge represented by neural network language models is the approximate probabilistic distribution of word sequences from a certain training data set rather than the knowledge of a language itself or the information conveyed by word sequences in a natural language. Finally, some directions for improving neural network language modeling further is discussed.
Aug 23 2017 cs.SY
Controlled islanding is considered to be the last countermeasure to prevent system-wide blackouts in case of cascading failures. It splits the system into self-sustained islands to maintain transient stability at the expense of possible loss of load. Generator coherence identification is critical to controlled islanding scheme as it helps identify the optimal cut-set to maintain system transient stability. This paper presents a novel approach for online generator coherency identification using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data and dynamic time warping (DTW). Results from the coherence identification are used to further cluster non-generator buses using spectral clustering with the objective of minimizing power flow disruption. The proposed approach is validated and compared to existing methods on the IEEE 39-bus system, through which its advantages are demonstrated.
Aug 01 2017 cs.SY
The insulin sensitivity (IS) of the human body changes with a circadian rhythm. This adds to the time-varying feature of the glucose metabolism process and places challenges on the blood glucose (BG) control of patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. This paper presents a Model Predictive Controller that takes the periodic IS into account, in order to enhance BG control. The future effect of the IS is predicted using a machine learning technique, namely, a customized Gaussian Process (GP), based on historical training data. The training data for the GP is continuously updated during closed-loop control, which enables the control scheme to learn and adapt to intra-individual and inter-individual changes of the circadian IS rhythm. The necessary state information is provided by an Unscented Kalman Filter. The closed-loop performance of the proposed control scheme is evaluated for different scenarios (including fasting, announced meals and skipped meals) through in silico studies on simulation models of Göttingen Minipigs.
Jun 20 2017 cs.SY
One critical value microgrids bring to power systems is resilience, the capability of being able to island from the main grid under certain conditions and connect back when necessary. Once islanded, a microgrid must be synchronized to the main grid before reconnection to prevent severe consequences. In general, synchronization of a single machine with the grid can be easily achieved using a synchronizer. The problem becomes more challenging when it comes to a multi-bus microgrid with multiple distributed generators (DGs) and dispersed loads. All distributed generators need to be properly controlled in a coordinated way to achieve synchronization. This paper presents a novel bi-level distributed cooperative control framework for a multi-bus microgrid. In this framework, DGs work collaboratively in a distributed manner using the minimum and sparse communication. The topology of the communication network can be flexible which supports the plug-and-play feature of microgrids. Fast and deterministic synchronization can be achieved with tolerance to communication latency. Experimental results obtained from Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Jun 20 2017 cs.SY
Accurate knowledge of transmission line (TL) impedance parameters helps to improve accuracy in relay settings and power flow modeling. To improve TL parameter estimates, various algorithms have been proposed in the past to identify TL parameters based on measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). These methods are based on the positive sequence TL models and can generate accurate positive sequence impedance parameters for a fully-transposed TL when measurement noise is absent; however these methods may generate erroneous parameters when the TLs are not fully transposed or when measurement noise is present. PMU field-measure data are often corrupted with noise and this noise is problematic for all parameter identification algorithms, particularly so when applied to short transmission lines. This paper analyzes the limitations of the positive sequence TL model when used for parameter estimation of TLs that are untransposed and proposes a novel method using linear estimation theory to identify TL parameters more reliably. This method can be used for the most general case: short or long lines that are fully transposed or untransposed and have balanced or unbalance loads. Besides the positive or negative sequence impedance parameters, the proposed method can also be used to estimate the zero sequence parameters and the mutual impedances between different sequences. This paper also examines the influence of noise in the PMU data on the calculation of TL parameters. Several case studies are conducted based on simulated data from ATP to validate the effectiveness of the new method. Through comparison of the results generated by this novel method and several other methods, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated.
Jun 15 2017 cs.SY
An online PMU-assisted Power System Parameter Calibration System (PSPCS) was recently developed and implemented at State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Company (JEPC). PSPCS leverages high-resolution PMU data and data mining techniques to perform online screening of the EMS and Production Management System (PMS) databases for data cleaning, model validation, and parameter calibration. PSPCS calculates transmission line and generator parameters on a regular real-time basis and compares the results with databases to identify record(s) with significant discrepancy, if any. Once consistent discrepancy is observed, the system will raise a flag and further investigation will be initiated, including a novel density-based spatial clustering procedure for parameter/data calibration. A novel metric is proposed to quantify the credibility of PMU-based parameter identification. This paper discusses the proposed methodologies, challenges, as well as implementation issues identified during the development and deployment of PSPCS.
Jun 06 2017 cs.SY
A new method of solving the power-flow problem, the holomorphically embedded load-flow method (HELM) is theoretically guaranteed to find the high-voltage solution, if one exists, up to the saddle-node bifurcation point (SNBP), provided sufficient precision is used and the conditions of Stahls theorem are satisfied. Sigma indices, have been proposed as estimators of the distance from the present operating point to the SNBP, and indicators of the weak buses in a system. In this paper, it is shown that the sigma condition proposed in  will not produce reliable results and that a modified requirement can be used to produce a tight upper bound on the SNBP. Introduced is an approach to estimate the weak buses in the system using the HEM power series with numerical results compared to traditional modal analysis for a 14-bus system.
May 12 2017 cs.SY
Data quality of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) is receiving increasing attention as it has been identified as one of the limiting factors that affect many wide-area measurement system (WAMS) based applications. In general, existing PMU calibration methods include offline testing and model based approaches. However, in practice, the effectiveness of both is limited due to the very strong assumptions employed. This paper presents a novel framework for online bias error detection and calibration of PMU measurement using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) based on much relaxed assumptions. With a new problem formulation, the proposed data mining based methodology is applicable across a wide spectrum of practical conditions and one side-product of it is more accurate transmission line parameters for EMS database and protective relay settings. Case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
In topological data analysis, a point cloud data P extracted from a metric space is often analyzed by computing the persistence diagram or barcodes of a sequence of Rips complexes built on $P$ indexed by a scale parameter. Unfortunately, even for input of moderate size, the size of the Rips complex may become prohibitively large as the scale parameter increases. Starting with the Sparse Rips filtration introduced by Sheehy, some existing methods aim to reduce the size of the complex so as to improve the time efficiency as well. However, as we demonstrate, existing approaches still fall short of scaling well, especially for high dimensional data. In this paper, we investigate the advantages and limitations of existing approaches. Based on insights gained from the experiments, we propose an efficient new algorithm, called SimBa, for approximating the persistent homology of Rips filtrations with quality guarantees. Our new algorithm leverages a batch collapse strategy as well as a new sparse Rips-like filtration. We experiment on a variety of low and high dimensional data sets. We show that our strategy presents a significant size reduction, and our algorithm for approximating Rips filtration persistence is order of magnitude faster than existing methods in practice.
Congruence theory has many applications in physical, social, biological and technological systems. Congruence arithmetic has been a fundamental tool for data security and computer algebra. However, much less attention was devoted to the topological features of congruence relations among natural numbers. Here, we explore the congruence relations in the setting of a multiplex network and unveil some unique and outstanding properties of the multiplex congruence network. Analytical results show that every layer therein is a sparse and heterogeneous subnetwork with a scale-free topology. Counterintuitively, every layer has an extremely strong controllability in spite of its scale-free structure that is usually difficult to control. Another amazing feature is that the controllability is robust against targeted attacks to critical nodes but vulnerable to random failures, which also differs from normal scale-free networks. The multi-chain structure with a small number of chain roots arising from each layer accounts for the strong controllability and the abnormal feature. The multiplex congruence network offers a graphical solution to the simultaneous congruences problem, which may have implication in cryptography based on simultaneous congruences. Our work also gains insight into the design of networks integrating advantages of both heterogeneous and homogeneous networks without inheriting their limitations.
Mar 26 2015 cs.CG
Metric graphs are ubiquitous in science and engineering. For example, many data are drawn from hidden spaces that are graph-like, such as the cosmic web. A metric graph offers one of the simplest yet still meaningful ways to represent the non-linear structure hidden behind the data. In this paper, we propose a new distance between two finite metric graphs, called the persistence-distortion distance, which draws upon a topological idea. This topological perspective along with the metric space viewpoint provide a new angle to the graph matching problem. Our persistence-distortion distance has two properties not shared by previous methods: First, it is stable against the perturbations of the input graph metrics. Second, it is a continuous distance measure, in the sense that it is defined on an alignment of the underlying spaces of input graphs, instead of merely their nodes. This makes our persistence-distortion distance robust against, for example, different discretizations of the same underlying graph. Despite considering the input graphs as continuous spaces, that is, taking all points into account, we show that we can compute the persistence-distortion distance in polynomial time. The time complexity for the discrete case where only graph nodes are considered is much faster. We also provide some preliminary experimental results to demonstrate the use of the new distance measure.
Mar 18 2015 cs.SY
The problem of quickest change detection with communication rate constraints is studied. A network of wireless sensors with limited computation capability monitors the environment and sends observations to a fusion center via wireless channels. At an unknown time instant, the distributions of observations at all the sensor nodes change simultaneously. Due to limited energy, the sensors cannot transmit at all the time instants. The objective is to detect the change at the fusion center as quickly as possible, subject to constraints on false detection and average communication rate between the sensors and the fusion center. A minimax formulation is proposed. The cumulative sum (CuSum) algorithm is used at the fusion center and censoring strategies are used at the sensor nodes. The censoring strategies, which are adaptive to the CuSum statistic, are fed back by the fusion center. The sensors only send observations that fall into prescribed sets to the fusion center. This CuSum adaptive censoring (CuSum-AC) algorithm is proved to be an equalizer rule and to be globally asymptotically optimal for any positive communication rate constraint, as the average run length to false alarm goes to infinity. It is also shown, by numerical examples, that the CuSum-AC algorithm provides a suitable trade-off between the detection performance and the communication rate.
In this work, depreciated effect of the public goods is considered in the public goods games, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r of each group as r' = r(nc/G)^beta (beat>= 0). It is assumed that each individual enjoys the full profit of the public goods if all the players of this group are cooperators, otherwise, the value of the public goods is reduced to r'. It is found that compared with the original version (beta = 0), emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for beta > 0, and there exit optimal values of beta inducing the best cooperation. Moreover, the optimal plat of beta broadens as r increases. Furthermore, effect of noise on the evolution of cooperation is studied, it is presented that variation of cooperator density with the noise is dependent of the value of beta and r, and cooperation dominates over most of the range of noise at an intermediate value of beta = 1.0. We study the initial distribution of the multiplication factor at beta = 1.0, and find that all the distributions can be described as Gauss distribution.
In this Letter, we show that the explosive percolation is a novel continuous phase transition. The order-parameter-distribution histogram at the percolation threshold is studied in Erdős-Rényi networks, scale-free networks, and square lattice. In finite system, two well-defined Gaussian-like peaks coexist, and the valley between the two peaks is suppressed with the system size increasing. This finite-size effect always appears in typical first-order phase transition. However, both of the two peaks shift to zero point in a power law manner, which indicates the explosive percolation is continuous in the thermodynamic limit. The nature of explosive percolation in all the three structures belongs to this novel continuous phase transition. Various scaling exponents concerning the order-parameter-distribution are obtained.