Quantum mechanics (QM) has been criticized for its violation of locality and reality since it was put forward. A series of hidden variable theories (HVTs) were evolved to ensure reality. In this paper, a new method to distinguish QM and HVTs is proposed. The angle between two decay planes is introduced as the observable and the distribution of it under two conditions is deduced. The feasibility to test it on BESIII experiment is discussed.
We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between the Earth and Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is that we can perform Bell test with human supply the random measurement settings and record the results while still maintaining space-like intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of the Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for the ultimate test of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
Since the 1990s, there has been a dramatic interest in quantum communication. Free-space quantum communication is being developed to ultra-long distance quantum experiment, which requires higher electronics performance, such as time measurement precision, data-transfer rate, and system integration density. As part of the ground station of quantum experiment satellite that will be launched in 2016, we specifically designed a compact PCI-based multi-channel electronics system with high time-resolution, high data-transfer-rate. The electronics performance of this system was tested. The time bin size is 23.9ps and the time precision root-mean-square (RMS) is less than 24ps for 16 channels. The dead time is 30ns. The data transfer rate to local computer is up to 35 MBps, and the count rate is up to 30M/s. The system has been proven to perform well and operate stably through a test of free space quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment.
Quantum key distribution (QKD), provides the only intrinsically unconditional secure method for communication based on principle of quantum mechanics. Compared with fiber-based demonstrations-, free-space links could provide the most appealing solution for much larger distance. Despite of significant efforts, so far all realizations rely on stationary sites. Justifications are therefore extremely crucial for applications via a typical Low Earth Orbit Satellite (LEOS). To achieve direct and full-scale verifications, we demonstrate here three independent experiments with a decoy-state QKD system overcoming all the demanding conditions. The system is operated in a moving platform through a turntable, a floating platform through a hot-air balloon, and a huge loss channel, respectively, for substantiating performances under rapid motion, attitude change, vibration, random movement of satellites and in high-loss regime. The experiments cover expanded ranges for all the leading parameters of LEOS. Our results pave the way towards ground-satellite QKD and global quantum communication network.
We introduce an adiabatic long-range quantum communication proposal based on a quantum dot array. By adiabatically varying the external gate voltage applied on the system, the quantum information encoded in the electron can be transported from one end dot to another. We numerically solve the Schrödinger equation for a system with a given number of quantum dots. It is shown that this scheme is a simple and efficient protocol to coherently manipulate the population transfer under suitable gate pulses. The dependence of the energy gap and the transfer time on system parameters is analyzed and shown numerically. We also investigate the adiabatic passage in a more realistic system in the presence of inevitable fabrication imperfections. This method provides guidance for future realizations of adiabatic quantum state transfer in experiments.
Based on the standard transfer matrix, a formally exact quantization condition for arbitrary potentials, which outflanks and unifies the historical approaches, is derived. It can be used to find the exact bound-state energy eigenvalues of the quantum system without solving an equation of motion for the system wave functions.