results for au:Seidel_E in:gr-qc

- Mar 01 2018 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1802.10194v2The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually-unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically-polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy-densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to $\Omega^T_0 < 5.6 \times 10^{-8}$, $\Omega^V_0 < 6.4\times 10^{-8}$, and $\Omega^S_0 < 1.1\times 10^{-7}$ at a reference frequency $f_0 = 25$ Hz.
- Feb 15 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1802.05241v1We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0e-8, +1e-9] Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h_0 is 4e-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3e-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ~1.5e-25.
- Dec 05 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1712.01168v2Cosmic strings are topological defects which can be formed in GUT-scale phase transitions in the early universe. They are also predicted to form in the context of string theory. The main mechanism for a network of Nambu-Goto cosmic strings to lose energy is through the production of loops and the subsequent emission of gravitational waves, thus offering an experimental signature for the existence of cosmic strings. Here we report on the analysis conducted to specifically search for gravitational-wave bursts from cosmic string loops in the data of Advanced LIGO 2015-2016 observing run (O1). No evidence of such signals was found in the data, and as a result we set upper limits on the cosmic string parameters for three recent loop distribution models. In this paper, we initially derive constraints on the string tension $G\mu$ and the intercommutation probability, using not only the burst analysis performed on the O1 data set, but also results from the previously published LIGO stochastic O1 analysis, pulsar timing arrays, cosmic microwave background and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis experiments. We show that these data sets are complementary in that they probe gravitational waves produced by cosmic string loops during very different epochs. Finally, we show that the data sets exclude large parts of the parameter space of the three loop distribution models we consider.
- Nov 16 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1711.05578v1On June 8, 2017 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced LIGO detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses $12^{+7}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ and $7^{+2}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowing us to compare black holes detected through gravitational waves with electromagnetic observations. The source's luminosity distance is $340^{+140}_{-140}$ Mpc, corresponding to redshift $0.07^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$. We verify that the signal waveform is consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
- Oct 26 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1710.09320v1The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole or a neutron star (NS), with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a black hole. Here, we present a search for gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short ($\lesssim1$ s) and intermediate-duration ($\lesssim 500$ s) signals, which includes gravitational-wave emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain emitted from 1--4 kHz is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=2.1\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=8.4\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a millisecond magnetar model, and $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=5.9\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
- Oct 17 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1710.05837v1The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7} \times 10^{-9}$ with $90\%$ confidence, compared with $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2} \times 10^{-9}$ from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
- Oct 09 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1710.02327v2Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, \it narrow-band analyses methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of eleven pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched: in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1709.09203v1We present results from the first directed search for nontensorial gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for tensorial (plus and cross) modes only, a generic metric theory may, in principle, predict waves with up to six different polarizations. This analysis is sensitive to continuous signals of scalar, vector or tensor polarizations, and does not rely on any specific theory of gravity. After searching data from the first observation run of the advanced LIGO detectors for signals at twice the rotational frequency of 200 known pulsars, we find no evidence of gravitational waves of any polarization. We report the first upper limits for scalar and vector strains, finding values comparable in magnitude to previously-published limits for tensor strain. Our results may be translated into constraints on specific alternative theories of gravity.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1709.09660v3On August 14, 2017 at 10:30:43 UTC, the Advanced Virgo detector and the two Advanced LIGO detectors coherently observed a transient gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar mass black holes, with a false-alarm-rate of $\lesssim$ 1 in 27000 years. The signal was observed with a three-detector network matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 18. The inferred masses of the initial black holes are $30.5_{-3.0}^{+5.7}$ Msun and $25.3_{-4.2}^{+2.8}$ Msun (at the 90% credible level). The luminosity distance of the source is $540_{-210}^{+130}~\mathrm{Mpc}$, corresponding to a redshift of $z=0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.03}$. A network of three detectors improves the sky localization of the source, reducing the area of the 90% credible region from 1160 deg$^2$ using only the two LIGO detectors to 60 deg$^2$ using all three detectors. For the first time, we can test the nature of gravitational wave polarizations from the antenna response of the LIGO-Virgo network, thus enabling a new class of phenomenological tests of gravity.
- Jul 11 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.IM arXiv:1707.02667v2We report on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 20-475 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0, +0.1]e-8 Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run, O1. No periodic gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. The lowest upper limits on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 are 4e-25 near 170 Hz. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limits obtained are 1.5e-25. These upper limits refer to all sky locations and the entire range of frequency derivative values. For a population-averaged ensemble of sky locations and stellar orientations, the lowest upper limits obtained for the strain amplitude are 2.5e-25.
- Jul 11 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1707.02669v2We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO. The search was made possible by the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home project. We find no significant signal candidate and set the most stringent upper limits to date on the amplitude of gravitational wave signals from the target population, corresponding to a sensitivity depth of 48.7 [1/$\sqrt{{\textrm{Hz}}}$]. At the frequency of best strain sensitivity, near 100 Hz, we set 90% confidence upper limits of $1.8 \times 10^{-25}$. At the low end of our frequency range, 20 Hz, we achieve upper limits of $3.9 \times 10^{-24}$. At 55 Hz we can exclude sources with ellipticities greater than $10^{-5}$ within 100 pc of Earth with fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of $10^{38} \textrm{kg m}^2$.
- Jun 13 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1706.03119v3We present the results of a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1, using data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search method uses details of the modelled, parametrized continuous signal to combine coherently data separated by less than a specified coherence time, which can be adjusted to trade off sensitivity against computational cost. A search was conducted over the frequency range from 25 Hz to 2000 Hz, spanning the current observationally-constrained range of the binary orbital parameters. No significant detection candidates were found, and frequency-dependent upper limits were set using a combination of sensitivity estimates and simulated signal injections. The most stringent upper limit was set at 175 Hz, with comparable limits set across the most sensitive frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz. At this frequency, the 95 pct upper limit on signal amplitude h0 is 2.3e-25 marginalized over the unknown inclination angle of the neutron star's spin, and 8.03e-26 assuming the best orientation (which results in circularly polarized gravitational waves). These limits are a factor of 3-4 stronger than those set by other analyses of the same data, and a factor of about 7 stronger than the best upper limits set using initial LIGO data. In the vicinity of 100 Hz, the limits are a factor of between 1.2 and 3.5 above the predictions of the torque balance model, depending on inclination angle, if the most likely inclination angle of 44 degrees is assumed, they are within a factor of 1.7.
- Jun 07 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1706.01812v1We describe the observation of GW170104, a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of a pair of stellar-mass black holes. The signal was measured on January 4, 2017 at 10:11:58.6 UTC by the twin advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory during their second observing run, with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a false alarm rate less than 1 in 70,000 years. The inferred component black hole masses are $31.2^{+8.4}_{-6.0}\,M_\odot$ and $19.4^{+5.3}_{-5.9}\,M_\odot$ (at the 90% credible level). The black hole spins are best constrained through measurement of the effective inspiral spin parameter, a mass-weighted combination of the spin components perpendicular to the orbital plane, $\chi_\mathrm{eff} = -0.12^{+0.21}_{-0.30}.$ This result implies that spin configurations with both component spins positively aligned with the orbital angular momentum are disfavored. The source luminosity distance is $880^{+450}_{-390}~\mathrm{Mpc}$ corresponding to a redshift of $z = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.07}$. We constrain the magnitude of modifications to the gravitational-wave dispersion relation and perform null tests of general relativity. Assuming that gravitons are dispersed in vacuum like massive particles, we bound the graviton mass to $m_g \le 7.7 \times 10^{-23}~\mathrm{eV}/c^2$. In all cases, we find that GW170104 is consistent with general relativity.
- Apr 18 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.04628v4During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals and GW151226, produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves (GWs) from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHBs). The combined results from two independent search techniques were used in this study: the first employs a matched-filter algorithm that uses a bank of filters covering the GW signal parameter space, while the second is a generic search for GW transients (bursts). No GWs from IMBHBs were detected, therefore, we constrain the rate of several classes of IMBHB mergers. The most stringent limit is obtained for black holes of individual mass $100\,M_\odot$, with spins aligned with the binary orbital angular momentum. For such systems, the merger rate is constrained to be less than $0.93~\mathrm{Gpc^{-3}\,yr}^{-1}$ in comoving units at the $90\%$ confidence level, an improvement of nearly 2 orders of magnitude over previous upper limits.
- Apr 13 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.03719v3Results are presented from a semi-coherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, using data collected during the first Advanced LIGO observing run (O1). The search combines a frequency domain matched filter (Bessel-weighted $\mathcal{F}$-statistic) with a hidden Markov model to track wandering of the neutron star spin frequency. No evidence of gravitational waves is found in the frequency range 60-650 Hz. Frequentist 95% confidence strain upper limits, $h_0^{95\%} = 4.0\times10^{-25}$, $8.3\times10^{-25}$, and $3.0\times10^{-25}$ for electromagnetically restricted source orientation, unknown polarization, and circular polarization, respectively, are reported at 106 Hz. They are $\leq 10$ times higher than the theoretical torque-balance limit at 106 Hz.
- Jan 08 2007 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0701038v2When simulating the inspiral and coalescence of a binary black-hole system, special care needs to be taken in handling the singularities. Two main techniques are used in numerical-relativity simulations: A first and more traditional one ``excises'' a spatial neighbourhood of the singularity from the numerical grid on each spacelike hypersurface. A second and more recent one, instead, begins with a ``puncture'' solution and then evolves the full 3-metric, including the singular point. In the continuum limit, excision is justified by the light-cone structure of the Einstein equations and, in practice, can give accurate numerical solutions when suitable discretizations are used. However, because the field variables are non-differentiable at the puncture, there is no proof that the moving-punctures technique is correct, particularly in the discrete case. To investigate this question we use both techniques to evolve a binary system of equal-mass non-spinning black holes. We compare the evolution of two curvature 4-scalars with proper time along the invariantly-defined worldline midway between the two black holes, using Richardson extrapolation to reduce the influence of finite-difference truncation errors. We find that the excision and moving-punctures evolutions produce the same invariants along that worldline, and thus the same spacetimes throughout that worldline's causal past. This provides convincing evidence that moving-punctures are indeed equivalent to moving black holes.
- Feb 21 2006 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0602078v2Numerical results from a study of boson stars under nonspherical perturbations using a fully general relativistic 3D code are presented together with the analysis of emitted gravitational radiation. We have constructed a simulation code suitable for the study of scalar fields in space-times of general symmetry by bringing together components for addressing the initial value problem, the full evolution system and the detection and analysis of gravitational waves. Within a series of numerical simulations, we explicitly extract the Zerilli and Newman-Penrose scalar $\Psi_4$ gravitational waveforms when the stars are subjected to different types of perturbations. Boson star systems have rapidly decaying nonradial quasinormal modes and thus the complete gravitational waveform could be extracted for all configurations studied. The gravitational waves emitted from stable, critical, and unstable boson star configurations are analyzed and the numerically observed quasinormal mode frequencies are compared with known linear perturbation results. The superposition of the high frequency nonspherical modes on the lower frequency spherical modes was observed in the metric oscillations when perturbations with radial and nonradial components were applied. The collapse of unstable boson stars to black holes was simulated. The apparent horizons were observed to be slightly nonspherical when initially detected and became spherical as the system evolved. The application of nonradial perturbations proportional to spherical harmonics is observed not to affect the collapse time. An unstable star subjected to a large perturbation was observed to migrate to a stable configuration.
- Dec 20 2005 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0512108v1We present a detailed analysis of binary black hole evolutions in the last orbit, and demonstrate consistent and convergent results for the trajectories of the individual bodies. The gauge choice can significantly affect the overall accuracy of the evolution. It is possible to reconcile certain gauge dependent discrepancies by examining the convergence limit. We illustrate these results using an initial data set recently evolved by Bruegmann (Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 211101). For our highest resolution and most accurate gauge, we estimate the duration of this data set's last orbit to be approximately $59 M_{ADM}$.
- Dec 01 2004 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0411149v2We study the fully nonlinear dynamical evolution of binary black hole data, whose orbital parameters are specified via the effective potential method for determining quasi-circular orbits. The cases studied range from the Cook-Baumgarte innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) to significantly beyond that separation. In all cases we find the black holes to coalesce (as determined by the appearance of a common apparent horizon) in less than half an orbital period. The results of the numerical simulations indicate that the initial holes are not actually in quasi-circular orbits, but that they are in fact nearly plunging together. The dynamics of the final horizon are studied to determine physical parameters of the final black hole, such as its spin, mass, and oscillation frequency, revealing information about the inspiral process. We show that considerable resolution is required to extract accurate physical information from the final black hole formed in the merger process, and that the quasi-normal modes of the final hole are strongly excited in the merger process. For the ISCO case, by comparing physical measurements of the final black hole formed to the initial data, we estimate that less than 3% of the total energy is radiated in the merger process.
- Nov 30 2004 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0411137v1We perform both distorted black hole evolutions and binary black hole head on collisions and compare the results of using a full grid to results obtained by excising the black hole interiors. In both cases the evolutions are found to run essentially indefinitely, and produce the same, convergent waveforms. Further, since both the distorted black holes and the head-on collision of puncture initial data can be carried out without excision, they provide an excellent dynamical test-bed for excision codes. This provides a strong numerical demonstration of the validity of the excision idea, namely the event horizon can be made to "protect" the spacetime from the excision boundary and allow an accurate exterior evolution.
- We present a new three-dimensional fully general-relativistic hydrodynamics code using high-resolution shock-capturing techniques and a conformal traceless formulation of the Einstein equations. Besides presenting a thorough set of tests which the code passes with very high accuracy, we discuss its application to the study of the gravitational collapse of uniformly rotating neutron stars to Kerr black holes. The initial stellar models are modelled as relativistic polytropes which are either secularly or dynamically unstable and with angular velocities which range from slow rotation to the mass-shedding limit. We investigate the gravitational collapse by carefully studying not only the dynamics of the matter, but also that of the trapped surfaces, i.e. of both the apparent and event horizons formed during the collapse. The use of these surfaces, together with the dynamical horizon framework, allows for a precise measurement of the black-hole mass and spin. The ability to successfully perform these simulations for sufficiently long times relies on excising a region of the computational domain which includes the singularity and is within the apparent horizon. The dynamics of the collapsing matter is strongly influenced by the initial amount of angular momentum in the progenitor star and, for initial models with sufficiently high angular velocities, the collapse can lead to the formation of an unstable disc in differential rotation. All the simulations performed with uniformly rotating initial data and a polytropic or ideal-fluid equation of state show no evidence of shocks or of the presence of matter on stable orbits outside the black hole.
- May 07 2003 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0305023v1In recent years, many different numerical evolution schemes for Einstein's equations have been proposed to address stability and accuracy problems that have plagued the numerical relativity community for decades. Some of these approaches have been tested on different spacetimes, and conclusions have been drawn based on these tests. However, differences in results originate from many sources, including not only formulations of the equations, but also gauges, boundary conditions, numerical methods, and so on. We propose to build up a suite of standardized testbeds for comparing approaches to the numerical evolution of Einstein's equations that are designed to both probe their strengths and weaknesses and to separate out different effects, and their causes, seen in the results. We discuss general design principles of suitable testbeds, and we present an initial round of simple tests with periodic boundary conditions. This is a pivotal first step toward building a suite of testbeds to serve the numerical relativists and researchers from related fields who wish to assess the capabilities of numerical relativity codes. We present some examples of how these tests can be quite effective in revealing various limitations of different approaches, and illustrating their differences. The tests are presently limited to vacuum spacetimes, can be run on modest computational resources, and can be used with many different approaches used in the relativity community.
- Jun 26 2002 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0206072v2Numerical relativity has faced the problem that standard 3+1 simulations of black hole spacetimes without singularity excision and with singularity avoiding lapse and vanishing shift fail after an evolution time of around 30-40M due to the so-called slice stretching. We discuss lapse and shift conditions for the non-excision case that effectively cure slice stretching and allow run times of 1000M and more.
- Jun 25 2002 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0206070v2We present three-dimensional, \it non-axisymmetric distorted black hole initial data which generalizes the axisymmetric, distorted, non-rotating [Bernstein93a] and rotating [Brandt94a] single black hole data developed by Bernstein, Brandt, and Seidel. These initial data should be useful for studying the dynamics of fully 3D, distorted black holes, such as those created by the spiraling coalescence of two black holes. We describe the mathematical construction of several families of such data sets, and show how to construct numerical solutions. We survey quantities associated with the numerically constructed solutions, such as ADM masses, apparent horizons, measurements of the horizon distortion, and the maximum possible radiation loss ($MRL$).
- This is the second in a series of papers on the construction and validation of a three-dimensional code for the solution of the coupled system of the Einstein equations and of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations, and on the application of this code to problems in general relativistic astrophysics. In particular, we report on the accuracy of our code in the long-term dynamical evolution of relativistic stars and on some new physics results obtained in the process of code testing. The tests involve single non-rotating stars in stable equilibrium, non-rotating stars undergoing radial and quadrupolar oscillations, non-rotating stars on the unstable branch of the equilibrium configurations migrating to the stable branch, non-rotating stars undergoing gravitational collapse to a black hole, and rapidly rotating stars in stable equilibrium and undergoing quasi-radial oscillations. The numerical evolutions have been carried out in full general relativity using different types of polytropic equations of state using either the rest-mass density only, or the rest-mass density and the internal energy as independent variables. New variants of the spacetime evolution and new high resolution shock capturing (HRSC) treatments based on Riemann solvers and slope limiters have been implemented and the results compared with those obtained from previous methods. Finally, we have obtained the first eigenfrequencies of rotating stars in full general relativity and rapid rotation. A long standing problem, such frequencies have not been obtained by other methods. Overall, and to the best of our knowledge, the results presented in this paper represent the most accurate long-term three-dimensional evolutions of relativistic stars available to date.
- Oct 01 2001 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0109093v3The geometry of a two-dimensional surface in a curved space can be most easily visualized by using an isometric embedding in flat three-dimensional space. Here we present a new method for embedding surfaces with spherical topology in flat space when such a embedding exists. Our method is based on expanding the surface in spherical harmonics and minimizing for the differences between the metric on the original surface and the metric on the trial surface in the space of the expansion coefficients. We have applied this method to study the geometry of back hole horizons in the presence of strong, non-axisymmetric, gravitational waves (Brill waves). We have noticed that, in many cases, although the metric of the horizon seems to have large deviations from axisymmetry, the intrinsic geometry of the horizon is almost axisymmetric. The origin of the large apparent non-axisymmetry of the metric is the deformation of the coordinate system in which the metric was computed.
- Apr 06 2001 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0104020v2We extend previous work on 3D black hole excision to the case of distorted black holes, with a variety of dynamic gauge conditions that are able to respond naturally to the spacetime dynamics. We show that the combination of excision and gauge conditions we use is able to drive highly distorted, rotating black holes to an almost static state at late times, with well behaved metric functions, without the need for any special initial conditions or analytically prescribed gauge functions. Further, we show for the first time that one can extract accurate waveforms from these simulations, with the full machinery of excision and dynamic gauge conditions. The evolutions can be carried out for long times, far exceeding the longevity and accuracy of even better resolved 2D codes. While traditional 2D codes show errors in quantities such as apparent horizon mass of over 100% by t = 100M, and crash by t = 150M, with our new techniques the same systems can be evolved for hundreds of M's in full 3D with errors of only a few percent.
- Dec 21 2000 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0012079v2We present results for two colliding black holes (BHs), with angular momentum, spin, and unequal mass. For the first time gravitational waveforms are computed for a grazing collision from a full 3D numerical evolution. The collision can be followed through the merger to form a single BH, and through part of the ringdown period of the final BH. The apparent horizon is tracked and studied, and physical parameters, such as the mass of the final BH, are computed. The total energy radiated in gravitational waves is shown to be consistent with the total mass of the spacetime and the final BH mass. The implication of these simulations for gravitational wave astronomy is discussed.
- We study the stability of three-dimensional numerical evolutions of the Einstein equations, comparing the standard ADM formulation to variations on a family of formulations that separate out the conformal and traceless parts of the system. We develop an implementation of the conformal-traceless (CT) approach that has improved stability properties in evolving weak and strong gravitational fields, and for both vacuum and spacetimes with active coupling to matter sources. Cases studied include weak and strong gravitational wave packets, black holes, boson stars and neutron stars. We show under what conditions the CT approach gives better results in 3D numerical evolutions compared to the ADM formulation. In particular, we show that our implementation of the CT approach gives more long term stable evolutions than ADM in all the cases studied, but is less accurate in the short term for the range of resolutions used in our 3D simulations.
- We compare the fully nonlinear and perturbative evolution of nonrotating black holes with odd-parity distortions utilizing the perturbative results to interpret the nonlinear results. This introduction of the second polarization (odd-parity) mode of the system, and the systematic use of combined techniques brings us closer to the goal of studying more complicated systems like distorted, rotating black holes, such as those formed in the final inspiral stage of two black holes. The nonlinear evolutions are performed with the 3D parallel code for Numerical Relativity, Cactus, and an independent axisymmetric code, Magor. The linearized calculation is performed in two ways: (a) We treat the system as a metric perturbation on Schwarzschild, using the Regge-Wheeler equation to obtain the waveforms produced. (b) We treat the system as a curvature perturbation of a Kerr black hole (but here restricted to the case of vanishing rotation parameter a) and evolve it with the Teukolsky equation The comparisons of the waveforms obtained show an excellent agreement in all cases.
- Sep 01 1999 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9908079v2We study the stability properties of the standard ADM formulation of the 3+1 evolution equations of general relativity through linear perturbations of flat spacetime. We focus attention on modes with zero speed of propagation and conjecture that they are responsible for instabilities encountered in numerical evolutions of the ADM formulation. These zero speed modes are of two kinds: pure gauge modes and constraint violating modes. We show how the decoupling of the gauge by a conformal rescaling can eliminate the problem with the gauge modes. The zero speed constraint violating modes can be dealt with by using the momentum constraints to give them a finite speed of propagation. This analysis sheds some light on the question of why some recent reformulations of the 3+1 evolution equations have better stability properties than the standard ADM formulation.
- Aug 05 1999 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9908012v1We present a new technique for the numerical simulation of axisymmetric systems. This technique avoids the coordinate singularities which often arise when cylindrical or polar-spherical coordinate finite difference grids are used, particularly in simulating tensor partial differential equations like those of 3+1 numerical relativity. For a system axisymmetric about the z axis, the basic idea is to use a 3-dimensional Cartesian (x,y,z) coordinate grid which covers (say) the y=0 plane, but is only one finite-difference-molecule--width thick in the y direction. The field variables in the central y=0 grid plane can be updated using normal (x,y,z)--coordinate finite differencing, while those in the y ≠0 grid planes can be computed from those in the central plane by using the axisymmetry assumption and interpolation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach on a set of fully nonlinear test computations in 3+1 numerical general relativity, involving both black holes and collapsing gravitational waves.
- Apr 07 1999 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9904013v1We demonstrate that evolutions of three-dimensional, strongly non-linear gravitational waves can be followed in numerical relativity, hence allowing many interesting studies of both fundamental and observational consequences. We study the evolution of time-symmetric, axisymmetric \it and non-axisymmetric Brill waves, including waves so strong that they collapse to form black holes under their own self-gravity. The critical amplitude for black hole formation is determined. The gravitational waves emitted in the black hole formation process are compared to those emitted in the head-on collision of two Misner black holes.
- Apr 07 1999 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9904014v1The astrophysics of compact objects, which requires Einstein's theory of general relativity for understanding phenomena such as black holes and neutron stars, is attracting increasing attention. In general relativity, gravity is governed by an extremely complex set of coupled, nonlinear, hyperbolic-elliptic partial differential equations. The largest parallel supercomputers are finally approaching the speed and memory required to solve the complete set of Einstein's equations for the first time since they were written over 80 years ago, allowing one to attempt full 3D simulations of such exciting events as colliding black holes and neutron stars. In this paper we review the computational effort in this direction, and discuss a new 3D multi-purpose parallel code called ``Cactus'' for general relativistic astrophysics. Directions for further work are indicated where appropriate.
- Sep 02 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9809004v1We present a series of test beds for numerical codes designed to find apparent horizons. We consider three apparent horizon finders that use different numerical methods: one of them in axisymmetry, and two fully three-dimensional. We concentrate first on a toy model that has a simple horizon structure, and then go on to study single and multiple black hole data sets. We use our finders to look for apparent horizons in Brill wave initial data where we discover that some results published previously are not correct. For pure wave and multiple black hole spacetimes, we apply our finders to survey parameter space, mapping out properties of interesting data sets for future evolutions.
- We have developed a numerical code to study the evolution of self-gravitating matter in dynamic black hole axisymmetric spacetimes in general relativity. The matter fields are evolved with a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme that uses the characteristic information of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations to build up a linearized Riemann solver. The spacetime is evolved with an axisymmetric ADM code designed to evolve a wormhole in full general relativity. We discuss the numerical and algorithmic issues related to the effective coupling of the hydrodynamical and spacetime pieces of the code, as well as the numerical methods and gauge conditions we use to evolve such spacetimes. The code has been put through a series of tests that verify that it functions correctly. Particularly, we develop and describe a new set of testbed calculations and techniques designed to handle dynamically sliced, self-gravitating matter flows on black holes, and subject the code to these tests. We make some studies of the spherical and axisymmetric accretion onto a dynamic black hole, the fully dynamical evolution of imploding shells of dust with a black hole, the evolution of matter in rotating spacetimes, the gravitational radiation induced by the presence of the matter fields and the behavior of apparent horizons through the evolution.
- Jun 24 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9806087v1I describe approaches to the study of black hole spacetimes via numerical relativity. After a brief review of the basic formalisms and techniques used in numerical black hole simulations, I discuss a series of calculations from axisymmetry to full 3D that can be seen as stepping stones to simulations of the full 3D coalescence of two black holes. In particular, I emphasize the interplay between perturbation theory and numerical simulation that build both confidence in present results and tools to aid and to interpret results of future simulations of black hole coalescence.
- Jun 24 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9806088v1I review recent developments in numerical relativity, focussing on progress made in 3D black hole evolution. Progress in development of black hole initial data, apparent horizon boundary conditions, adaptive mesh refinement, and characteristic evolution is highlighted, as well as full 3D simulations of colliding and distorted black holes. For true 3D distorted holes, with Cauchy evolution techniques, it is now possible to extract highly accurate, nonaxisymmetric waveforms from fully nonlinear simulations, which are verified by comparison to pertubration theory, and with characteristic techniques extremely long term evolutions of 3D black holes are now possible. I also discuss a new code designed for 3D numerical relativity, called Cactus, that will be made public.
- Jun 09 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9806036v1We present the first results for Cauchy nonlinear evolution of 3D, nonaxisymmetric distorted black holes. We focus on the extraction and verification of 3D waveforms determined by numerical relativity. We show that the black hole evolution can be accurately followed through the ringdown period, and comparing with a recently developed perturbative evolution technique, we show that many waveforms in the black hole spectrum of modes, such as l=2 and l=4, including weakly excited nonaxisymmetric modes with m not zero, can be accurately evolved and extracted from the full nonlinear numerical evolution. We also identify new physics contained in higher modes, due to nonlinear effects. The implications for simulations related to gravitational wave astronomy are discussed.
- Jun 04 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9806014v2We consider a series of distorted black hole initial data sets, and develop techniques to evolve them using the linearized equations of motion for the gravitational wave perturbations on a Schwarzschild background. We apply this to 2D and 3D distorted black hole spacetimes. In 2D, waveforms for different modes of the radiation are presented, comparing full nonlinear evolutions for different axisymmetric l-modes with perturbative evolutions. We show how axisymmetric black hole codes solving the full, nonlinear Einstein equations are capable of very accurate evolutions, and also how these techniques aid in studying nonlinear effects. In 3D we show how the initial data for the perturbation equations can be computed, and we compare with analytic solutions given from a perturbative expansion of the initial value problem. In addition to exploring the physics of these distorted black hole data sets, in particular allowing an exploration of linear, nonlinear, and mode mixing effects, this approach provides an important testbed for any fully nonlinear numerical code designed to evolve black hole spacetimes in 2D or 3D.
- May 29 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9805099v1We consider the numerical evolution of black hole initial data sets, consisting of single black holes distorted by strong gravitational waves, with a full 3D, nonlinear evolution code. These data sets mimic the late stages of coalescing black holes. We compare various aspects of the evolution of axisymmetric initial data sets, obtained with this 3D code, to results obtained from a well established axisymmetric code. In both codes we examine and compare the behavior of metric functions, apparent horizon properties, and waveforms, and show that these dynamic black holes can be accurately evolved in 3D. In particular we show that with present computational resources and techniques, the process of excitation and ringdown of the black hole can be evolved, and one can now extract accurately the gravitational waves emitted from the 3D Cartesian metric functions, even when they carry away only a small fraction ($<< 1%$) of the rest mass energy of the system. Waveforms for both the $\ell=2$ and the much more difficult $\ell=4$ and $\ell=6$ modes are computed and compared with axisymmetric calculations. In addition to exploring the physics of distorted black hole data sets, and showing the extent to which the waves can be accurately extracted, these results also provide important testbeds for all fully nonlinear numerical codes designed to evolve black hole spacetimes in 3D, whether they use singularity avoiding slicings, apparent horizon boundary conditions, or other evolution methods.
- Apr 24 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9804059v1We present techniques and methods for analyzing the dynamics of event horizons in numerically constructed spacetimes. There are three classes of analytical tools we have investigated. The first class consists of proper geometrical measures of the horizon which allow us comparison with perturbation theory and powerful global theorems. The second class involves the location and study of horizon generators. The third class includes the induced horizon 2-metric in the generator comoving coordinates and a set of membrane-paradigm like quantities. Applications to several distorted, rotating, and colliding black hole spacetimes are provided as examples of these techniques.
- Apr 23 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9804052v2We discuss a successful three-dimensional cartesian implementation of the Bona-Massó hyperbolic formulation of the 3+1 Einstein evolution equations in numerical relativity. The numerical code, which we call ``Cactus,'' provides a general framework for 3D numerical relativity, and can include various formulations of the evolution equations, initial data sets, and analysis modules. We show important code tests, including dynamically sliced flat space, wave spacetimes, and black hole spacetimes. We discuss the numerical convergence of each spacetime, and also compare results with previously tested codes based on other formalisms, including the traditional ADM formalism. This is the first time that a hyperbolic reformulation of Einstein's equations has been shown appropriate for three-dimensional numerical relativity in a wide variety of spacetimes.
- Mar 02 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9802069v1We construct a class of linear partial differential equations describing general perturbations of non-rotating black holes in 3D Cartesian coordinates. In contrast to the usual approach, a single equation treats all radiative $\ell -m$ modes simultaneously, allowing the study of wave perturbations of black holes with arbitrary 3D structure, as would be present when studying the full set of nonlinear Einstein equations describing a perturbed black hole. This class of equations forms an excellent testbed to explore the computational issues of simulating black spacetimes using a three dimensional adaptive mesh refinement code. Using this code, we present results from the first fully resolved 3D solution of the equations describing perturbed black holes. We discuss both fixed and adaptive mesh refinement, refinement criteria, and the computational savings provided by adaptive techniques in 3D for such model problems of distorted black holes.
- Jan 22 1998 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9801069v1We report new results which establish that the accurate 3-dimensional numerical simulation of generic single-black-hole spacetimes has been achieved by characteristic evolution with unlimited long term stability. Our results cover a selection of distorted, moving and spinning single black holes, with evolution times up to 60,000M.
- Dec 16 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9712064v1The dynamical evolution of self-gravitating scalar field configurations in numerical relativity is studied. The previous analysis on ground state boson stars of non-interacting fields is extended to excited states and to fields with self couplings. Self couplings can significantly change the physical dimensions of boson stars, making them much more astrophysically interesting (e.g., having mass of order 0.1 solar mass). The stable ($S$) and unstable ($U$) branches of equilibrium configurations of boson stars of self-interacting fields are studied; their behavior under perturbations and their quasi-normal oscillation frequencies are determined and compared to the non-interacting case. Excited states of boson stars with and without self-couplings are studied and compared. Excited states also have equilibrium configurations with $S$ and $U$ branch structures; both branches are intrinsically unstable under a generic perturbation but have very different instability time scales. We carried out a detailed study of the instability time scales of these configurations. It is found that highly excited states spontaneously decay through a cascade of intermediate states similar to atomic transitions.
- Nov 27 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9711078v1Binary black hole interactions provide potentially the strongest source of gravitational radiation for detectors currently under development. We present some results from the Binary Black Hole Grand Challenge Alliance three- dimensional Cauchy evolution module. These constitute essential steps towards modeling such interactions and predicting gravitational radiation waveforms. We report on single black hole evolutions and the first successful demonstration of a black hole moving freely through a three-dimensional computational grid via a Cauchy evolution: a hole moving ~6M at 0.1c during a total evolution of duration ~60M.
- Nov 07 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9711016v2We present a new class of 3D black hole initial data sets for numerical relativity. These data sets go beyond the axisymmetric, ``gravity wave plus rotating black hole'' single black hole data sets by creating a dynamic, distorted hole with adjustable distortion parameters in 3D. These data sets extend our existing test beds for 3D numerical relativity, representing the late stages of binary black hole collisions resulting from on-axis collision or 3D spiralling coalescence, and should provide insight into the physics of such systems. We describe the construction of these sets, the properties for a number of example cases, and report on progress evolving them.
- Oct 01 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9709082v1We present a method for extracting gravitational radiation from a three-dimensional numerical relativity simulation and, using the extracted data, to provide outer boundary conditions. The method treats dynamical gravitational variables as nonspherical perturbations of Schwarzschild geometry. We discuss a code which implements this method and present results of tests which have been performed with a three dimensional numerical relativity code.
- Sep 30 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9709075v1We consider the numerical evolution of dynamic black hole initial data sets with a full 3D, nonlinear evolution code. These data sets consist of single black holes distorted by strong gravitational waves, and mimic the late stages of coalescing black holes. Through comparison with results from well established axisymmetric codes, we show that these dynamic black holes can be accurately evolved. In particular, we show that with present computational resources and techniques, the process of excitation and ringdown of the black hole can be evolved, and one can now extract accurately the gravitational waves emitted from the 3D Cartesian metric functions, even though they may be buried in the metric at levels on the order of $10^{-3}$ and below. Waveforms for both the $\ell=2$ and the much more difficult $\ell=4$ modes are computed and compared with axisymmetric calculations. In addition to exploring the physics of distorted black hole data sets, and showing the extent to which the waves can be accurately extracted, these results also provide important testbeds for all fully nonlinear numerical codes designed to evolve black hole spacetimes in 3D, whether they use singularity avoiding slicings, apparent horizon boundary conditions, or other evolution methods.
- Sep 09 1997 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9709016v1The causal structure of Einstein's evolution equations is considered. We show that in general they can be written as a first order system of balance laws for any choice of slicing or shift. We also show how certain terms in the evolution equations, that can lead to numerical inaccuracies, can be eliminated by using the Hamiltonian constraint. Furthermore, we show that the entire system is hyperbolic when the time coordinate is chosen in an invariant algebraic way, and for any fixed choice of the shift. This is achieved by using the momentum constraints in such as way that no additional space or time derivatives of the equations need to be computed. The slicings that allow hyperbolicity in this formulation belong to a large class, including harmonic, maximal, and many others that have been commonly used in numerical relativity. We provide details of some of the advanced numerical methods that this formulation of the equations allows, and we also discuss certain advantages that a hyperbolic formulation provides when treating boundary conditions.
- Oct 25 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9610057v1The dynamics of gravitational waves is investigated in full 3+1 dimensional numerical relativity, emphasizing the difficulties that one might encounter in numerical evolutions, particularly those arising from non-linearities and gauge degrees of freedom. Using gravitational waves with amplitudes low enough that one has a good understanding of the physics involved, but large enough to enable non-linear effects to emerge, we study the coupling between numerical errors, coordinate effects, and the nonlinearities of the theory. We discuss the various strategies used in identifying specific features of the evolution. We show the importance of the flexibility of being able to use different numerical schemes, different slicing conditions, different formulations of the Einstein equations (standard ADM vs. first order hyperbolic), and different sets of equations (linearized vs. full Einstein equations). A non-linear scalar field equation is presented which captures some properties of the full Einstein equations, and has been useful in our understanding of the coupling between finite differencing errors and non-linearites. We present a set of monitoring devices which have been crucial in our studying of the waves, including Riemann invariants, pseudo-energy momentum tensor, hamiltonian constraint violation, and fourier spectrum analysis.
- Sep 26 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9609059v3We have developed a general method for finding apparent horizons in 3D numerical relativity. Instead of solving for the partial differential equation describing the location of the apparent horizons, we expand the closed 2D surfaces in terms of symmetric trace--free tensors and solve for the expansion coefficients using a minimization procedure. Our method is applied to a number of different spacetimes, including numerically constructed spacetimes containing highly distorted axisymmetric black holes in spherical coordinates, and 3D rotating, and colliding black holes in Cartesian coordinates.
- Aug 29 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9608064v1We study the radiation from a collision of black holes with equal and opposite linear momenta. Results are presented from a full numerical relativity treatment and are compared with the results from a ``close-slow'' approximation. The agreement is remarkable, and suggests several insights about the generation of gravitational radiation in black hole collisions.
- Jan 18 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9601026v2We report on a systematic study of the dynamics of gravitational waves in full 3D numerical relativity. We find that there exists an interesting regime in the parameter space of the wave configurations: a near-linear regime in which the amplitude of the wave is low enough that one expects the geometric deviation from flat spacetime to be negligible, but nevertheless where nonlinearities can excite unstable modes of the Einstein evolution equations causing the metric functions to evolve out of control. The implications of this for numerical relativity are discussed.
- Jan 18 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9601027v1We put forth a few ideas on coordinate conditions and their implementation in numerical relativity. Coordinate conditions are important for the long time scale simulations of relativistic systems, e.g., for the determination of gravitational waveforms from astrophysical events to be measured by LIGO/VIRGO. We demonstrate the importance of, and propose methods for, the \it active enforcement of coordinate properties. In particular, the constancy of the determinant of the spatial 3-metric is investigated as such a property. We propose an exceedingly simple but powerful idea for implementing elliptic coordinate conditions that not only makes possible the use of complicated elliptic conditions, but is also \it orders of magnitude more efficient than existing methods for large scale 3D simulations.
- Jan 10 1996 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9601010v1In this paper we study a new family of black hole initial data sets corresponding to distorted ``Kerr'' black holes with moderate rotation parameters, and distorted Schwarzschild black holes with even- and odd-parity radiation. These data sets build on the earlier rotating black holes of Bowen and York and the distorted Brill wave plus black hole data sets. We describe the construction of this large family of rotating black holes. We present a systematic study of important properties of these data sets, such as the size and shape of their apparent horizons, and the maximum amount of radiation that can leave the system during evolution. These data sets should be a very useful starting point for studying the evolution of highly dynamical black holes and can easily be extended to 3D.
- May 25 1995 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9505042v1A benchmark problem for numerical relativity has been the head-on collision of two black holes starting from the ``Misner initial data,'' a closed form momentarily stationary solution to the constraint equations with an adjustable closeness parameter $\mu_0$. We show here how an eclectic mixture of approximation methods can provide both an efficient means of determining the time development of the initial data and a good understanding of the physics of the problem. When the Misner data is chosen to correspond to holes initially very close together, a common horizon surrounds both holes and the geometry exterior to the horizon can be treated as a non-spherical perturbation of a single Schwarzschild hole. When the holes are initially well separated the problem can be treated with a different approximation scheme, ``the particle-membrane method.'' For all initial separations, numerical relativity is in principle applicable, but is costly and of uncertain accuracy. We present here a comparison of the different approaches. We compare waveforms, for $\ell=2$ and $\ell=4$ radiation, for different values of $\mu_0$, from the three different approaches to the problem.
- Mar 16 1995 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9503025v1We report on a new 3D numerical code designed to solve the Einstein equations for general vacuum spacetimes. This code is based on the standard 3+1 approach using cartesian coordinates. We discuss the numerical techniques used in developing this code, and its performance on massively parallel and vector supercomputers. As a test case, we present evolutions for the first 3D black hole spacetimes. We identify a number of difficulties in evolving 3D black holes and suggest approaches to overcome them. We show how special treatment of the conformal factor can lead to more accurate evolution, and discuss techniques we developed to handle black hole spacetimes in the absence of symmetries. Many different slicing conditions are tested, including geodesic, maximal, and various algebraic conditions on the lapse. With current resolutions, limited by computer memory sizes, we show that with certain lapse conditions we can evolve the black hole to about $t=50M$, where $M$ is the black hole mass. Comparisons are made with results obtained by evolving spherical initial black hole data sets with a 1D spherically symmetric code. We also demonstrate that an ``apparent horizon locking shift'' can be used to prevent the development of large gradients in the metric functions that result from singularity avoiding time slicings. We compute the mass of the apparent horizon in these spacetimes, and find that in many cases it can be conserved to within about 5\% throughout the evolution with our techniques and current resolution.
- Dec 23 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412073v1We have developed a numerical code to study the evolution of distorted, rotating black holes. This code is used to evolve a new family of black hole initial data sets corresponding to distorted ``Kerr'' holes with a wide range of rotation parameters, and distorted Schwarzschild black holes with odd-parity radiation. Rotating black holes with rotation parameters as high as $a/m=0.87$ are evolved and analyzed in this paper. The evolutions are generally carried out to about $t=100M$, where $M$ is the ADM mass. We have extracted both the even- and odd-parity gravitational waveforms, and find the quasinormal modes of the holes to be excited in all cases. We also track the apparent horizons of the black holes, and find them to be a useful tool for interpreting the numerical results. We are able to compute the masses of the black holes from the measurements of their apparent horizons, as well as the total energy radiated and find their sum to be in excellent agreement with the ADM mass.
- Dec 23 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412068v1This is the first paper in a series on event horizons in numerical relativity. In this paper we present methods for obtaining the location of an event horizon in a numerically generated spacetime. The location of an event horizon is determined based on two key ideas: (1) integrating backward in time, and (2) integrating the whole horizon surface. The accuracy and efficiency of the methods are examined with various sample spacetimes, including both analytic (Schwarzschild and Kerr) and numerically generated black holes. The numerically evolved spacetimes contain highly distorted black holes, rotating black holes, and colliding black holes. In all cases studied, our methods can find event horizons to within a very small fraction of a grid zone.
- Dec 23 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412069v1It was recently shown that spacetime singularities in numerical relativity could be avoided by excising a region inside the apparent horizon in numerical evolutions. In this paper we report on the details of the implementation of this scheme. The scheme is based on using (1)~a horizon locking coordinate which locks the coordinate system to the geometry, and (2)~a finite differencing scheme which respects the causal structure of the spacetime. We show that the horizon locking coordinate can be affected by a number of shift conditions, such as a ``distance freezing'' shift, an ``area freezing'' shift, an ``expansion freezing'' shift, or the minimal distortion shift. The causal differencing scheme is illustrated with the evolution of scalar fields, and its use in evolving the Einstein equations is studied. We compare the results of numerical evolutions with and without the use of this horizon boundary condition scheme for spherical black hole spacetimes. With the boundary condition a black hole can be evolved accurately well beyond $t=1000 M$, where $M$ is the black hole mass.
- Dec 23 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412071v2We present a new formulation of the Einstein equations that casts them in an explicitly first order, flux-conservative, hyperbolic form. We show that this now can be done for a wide class of time slicing conditions, including maximal slicing, making it potentially very useful for numerical relativity. This development permits the application to the Einstein equations of advanced numerical methods developed to solve the fluid dynamic equations, \em without overly restricting the time slicing, for the first time. The full set of characteristic fields and speeds is explicitly given.
- Dec 23 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412072v1We have developed a new numerical code to study the evolution of distorted, rotating black holes. We discuss the numerical methods and gauge conditions we developed to evolve such spacetimes. The code has been put through a series of tests, and we report on (a) results of comparisons with codes designed to evolve non-rotating holes, (b) evolution of Kerr spacetimes for which analytic properties are known, and (c) the evolution of distorted rotating holes. The code accurately reproduces results of the previous NCSA non-rotating code and passes convergence tests. New features of the evolution of rotating black holes not seen in non-rotating holes are identified. With this code we can evolve rotating black holes up to about $t=100M$, depending on the resolution and angular momentum. We also describe a new family of black hole initial data sets which represent rotating holes with a wide range of distortion parameters, and distorted non-rotating black holes with odd-parity radiation. Finally, we study the limiting slices for a maximally sliced rotating black hole and find good agreement with theoretical predictions.
- Dec 22 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412059v1Numerical relativity is finally coming of age with the development of massively parallel computers. 3D problems, which were completely intractable several years ago due to limited computer power, can now be performed with grid sizes of about $200^3$. We report on several new codes developed for solving the full 3D Einstein equations, and present results of using them to evolve black holes and gravitational waves.
- Dec 22 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412061v1Using the momentum constraint, the standard evolution system is written in a fully first order form. The class of first order invariant algebraic slicing conditions is considered. The full set of characteristic fields is explicitly given. Characteristic speeds associated to the gauge dependent eigenfields (gauge speeds) are related to light speed.
- Dec 22 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412055v1Spacetime singularities in numerical relativity can be avoided by excising a region of the computational domain from inside the apparent horizon. We report on results of such a scheme that is based on using (\it i) a horizon locking coordinate which locks the coordinate system to the geometry, and (\it ii) a finite differencing scheme which respects the causal structure of the spacetime. With this technique a black hole can be evolved accurately well beyond $t=1000M$, where $M$ is the black hole mass.
- Dec 22 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412062v1We showed that compact bosonic objects can be formed through a process we called gravitational cooling. A central issue in the subject of boson star is whether a classical field configuration, \it e.g., one described by the Klein-Gordon equation, can collapse to form a compact star-like object, as there is apparently no dissipation in the Klein-Gordon equation. We demonstrated that there IS an efficient cooling mechanism to get rid of the kinetic energy for the formation of a compact object purely through the gravitational coupling, a mechanism universal to all self-graviting fields. Implications of this mechanism are discussed, including the abundance of bosonic stars in the universe, and the possibility of ruling out the axion as a dark matter condidate.
- Dec 22 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412056v1We have developed a powerful and efficient method for locating the event horizon of a black hole spacetime, making possible the study of the dynamics of event horizons in numerical relativity. We describe the method and apply it to a colliding black hole spacetime.
- Dec 22 1994 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9412057v1We discuss the use of Adaptative Mesh Refinement (AMR) techniques in dynamical black hole spacetimes. We compare results between traditional fixed grid methods and a new AMR application for the 1-D Schwarzschild case.