May 16 2018 cs.AI
The curse of dimensionality in the realm of association rules is twofold. Firstly, we have the well known exponential increase in computational complexity with increasing item set size. Secondly, there is a \emphrelated curse concerned with the distribution of (spare) data itself in high dimension. The former problem is often coped with by projection, i.e., feature selection, whereas the best known strategy for the latter is avoidance. This work summarizes the first attempt to provide a computationally feasible method for measuring the extent of dimension curse present in a data set with respect to a particular class machine of learning procedures. This recent development enables the application of various other methods from geometric analysis to be investigated and applied in machine learning procedures in the presence of high dimension.
Geometric analysis is a very capable theory to understand the influence of the high dimensionality of the input data in machine learning (ML) and knowledge discovery (KD). With our approach we can assess how far the application of a specific KD/ML-algorithm to a concrete data set is prone to the curse of dimensionality. To this end we extend V.~Pestov's axiomatic approach to the instrinsic dimension of data sets, based on the seminal work by M.~Gromov on concentration phenomena, and provide an adaptable and computationally feasible model for studying observable geometric invariants associated to features that are natural to both the data and the learning procedure. In detail, we investigate data represented by formal contexts and give first theoretical as well as experimental insights into the intrinsic dimension of a concept lattice. Because of the correspondence between formal concepts and maximal cliques in graphs, applications to social network analysis are at hand.
Finite Frobenius rings have been characterized as precisely those finite rings satisfying the MacWilliams extension property, by work of Wood. In the present note we offer a generalization of this remarkable result to the realm of Artinian rings. Namely, we prove that a left Artinian ring has the left MacWilliams property if and only if it is left pseudo-injective and its finitary left socle embeds into the semisimple quotient. Providing a topological perspective on the MacWilliams property, we also show that the finitary left socle of a left Artinian ring embeds into the semisimple quotient if and only if it admits a finitarily left torsion-free character, if and only if the Pontryagin dual of the regular left module is almost monothetic. In conclusion, an Artinian ring has the MacWilliams property if and only if it is finitarily Frobenius, i.e., it is quasi-Frobenius and its finitary socle embeds into the semisimple quotient.
Motifs are a fundamental building block and distinguishing feature of networks. While characteristic motif distribution have been found in many networks, very little is known today about the evolution of network motifs. This paper studies the most important motifs in social networks, triangles, and how directed triangle motifs change over time. Our chosen subject is one of the largest Online Social Networks, Google+. Google+ has two distinguishing features that make it particularly interesting: (1) it is a directed network, which yields a rich set of triangle motifs, and (2) it is a young and fast evolving network, whose role in the OSN space is still not fully understood. For the purpose of this study, we crawled the network over a time period of six weeks, collecting several snapshots. We find that some triangle types display significant dynamics, e.g., for some specific initial types, up to 20% of the instances evolve to other types. Due to the fast growth of the OSN in the observed time period, many new triangles emerge. We also observe that many triangles evolve into less-connected motifs (with less edges), suggesting that growth also comes with pruning. We complement the topological study by also considering publicly available user profile data (mostly geographic locations). The corresponding results shed some light on the semantics of the triangle motifs. Indeed, we find that users in more symmetric triangle motifs live closer together, indicating more personal relationships. In contrast, asymmetric links in motifs often point to faraway users with a high in-degree (celebrities).
Sep 24 2013 cs.DC
Paxos, Viewstamped Replication, and Zab are replication protocols that ensure high-availability in asynchronous environments with crash failures. Various claims have been made about similarities and differences between these protocols. But how does one determine whether two protocols are the same, and if not, how significant the differences are? We propose to address these questions using refinement mappings, where protocols are expressed as succinct specifications that are progressively refined to executable implementations. Doing so enables a principled understanding of the correctness of the different design decisions that went into implementing the various protocols. Additionally, it allowed us to identify key differences that have a significant impact on performance.
Online Social Networks (OSN) are among the most popular applications in today's Internet. Decentralized online social networks (DOSNs), a special class of OSNs, promise better privacy and autonomy than traditional centralized OSNs. However, ensuring availability of content when the content owner is not online remains a major challenge. In this paper, we rely on the structure of the social graphs underlying DOSN for replication. In particular, we propose that friends, who are anyhow interested in the content, are used to replicate the users content. We study the availability of such natural replication schemes via both theoretical analysis as well as simulations based on data from OSN users. We find that the availability of the content increases drastically when compared to the online time of the user, e. g., by a factor of more than 2 for 90% of the users. Thus, with these simple schemes we provide a baseline for any more complicated content replication scheme.
Sep 26 2011 cs.DC
Coordination in a distributed system is facilitated if there is a unique process, the leader, to manage the other processes. The leader creates edicts and sends them to other processes for execution or forwarding to other processes. The leader may fail, and when this occurs a leader election protocol selects a replacement. This paper describes Nerio, a class of such leader election protocols.