Machine Learning techniques are widely used by online services (e.g. Google, Apple) in order to analyze and make predictions on user data. As many of the provided services are user-centric (e.g. personal photo collections, speech recognition, personal assistance), user data generated on personal devices is key to provide the service. In order to protect the data and the privacy of the user, federated learning techniques have been proposed where the data never leaves the user's device and "only" model updates are communicated back to the server. In our work, we propose a new threat model that is not concerned with learning about the content - but rather is concerned with the linkability of users during such decentralized learning scenarios. We show that model updates are characteristic for users and therefore lend themselves to linkability attacks. We show identification and matching of users across devices in closed and open world scenarios. In our experiments, we find our attacks to be highly effective, achieving 20x-175x chance-level performance. In order to mitigate the risks of linkability attacks, we study various strategies. As adding random noise does not offer convincing operation points, we propose strategies based on using calibrated domain-specific data; we find these strategies offers substantial protection against linkability threats with little effect to utility.
Apr 24 2018 cs.CV
Multi-person pose estimation in images and videos is an important yet challenging task with many applications. Despite the large improvements in human pose estimation enabled by the development of convolutional neural networks, there still exist a lot of difficult cases where even the state-of-the-art models fail to correctly localize all body joints. This motivates the need for an additional refinement step that addresses these challenging cases and can be easily applied on top of any existing method. In this work, we introduce a pose refinement network (PoseRefiner) which takes as input both the image and a given pose estimate and learns to directly predict a refined pose by jointly reasoning about the input-output space. In order for the network to learn to refine incorrect body joint predictions, we employ a novel data augmentation scheme for training, where we model "hard" human pose cases. We evaluate our approach on four popular large-scale pose estimation benchmarks such as MPII Single- and Multi-Person Pose Estimation, PoseTrack Pose Estimation, and PoseTrack Pose Tracking, and report systematic improvement over the state of the art.
As more and more personal photos are shared and tagged in social media, avoiding privacy risks such as unintended recognition becomes increasingly challenging. We propose a new hybrid approach to obfuscate identities in photos by head replacement. Our approach combines state of the art parametric face synthesis with latest advances in Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) for data-driven image synthesis. On the one hand, the parametric part of our method gives us control over the facial parameters and allows for explicit manipulation of the identity. On the other hand, the data-driven aspects allow for adding fine details and overall realism as well as seamless blending into the scene context. In our experiments, we show highly realistic output of our system that improves over the previous state of the art in obfuscation rate while preserving a higher similarity to the original image content.
Mar 22 2018 cs.CV
Most state-of-the-art semi-supervised video object segmentation methods rely on a pixel-accurate mask of a target object provided for the first frame of a video. However, obtaining a detailed segmentation mask is expensive and time-consuming. In this work we explore an alternative way of identifying a target object, namely by employing language referring expressions. Besides being a more practical and natural way of pointing out a target object, using language specifications can help to avoid drift as well as make the system more robust to complex dynamics and appearance variations. Leveraging recent advances of language grounding models designed for images, we propose an approach to extend them to video data, ensuring temporally coherent predictions. To evaluate our method we augment the popular video object segmentation benchmarks, DAVIS'16 and DAVIS'17 with language descriptions of target objects. We show that our approach performs on par with the methods which have access to a pixel-level mask of the target object on DAVIS'16 and is competitive to methods using scribbles on the challenging DAVIS'17 dataset.
Deep models that are both effective and explainable are desirable in many settings; prior explainable models have been unimodal, offering either image-based visualization of attention weights or text-based generation of post-hoc justifications. We propose a multimodal approach to explanation, and argue that the two modalities provide complementary explanatory strengths. We collect two new datasets to define and evaluate this task, and propose a novel model which can provide joint textual rationale generation and attention visualization. Our datasets define visual and textual justifications of a classification decision for activity recognition tasks (ACT-X) and for visual question answering tasks (VQA-X). We quantitatively show that training with the textual explanations not only yields better textual justification models, but also better localizes the evidence that supports the decision. We also qualitatively show cases where visual explanation is more insightful than textual explanation, and vice versa, supporting our thesis that multimodal explanation models offer significant benefits over unimodal approaches.
Dec 08 2017 cs.CV
Generating novel, yet realistic, images of persons is a challenging task due to the complex interplay between the different image factors, such as the foreground, background and pose information. In this work, we aim at generating such images based on a novel, two-stage reconstruction pipeline that learns a disentangled representation of the aforementioned image factors and generates novel person images at the same time. First, a multi-branched reconstruction network is proposed to disentangle and encode the three factors into embedding features, which are then combined to re-compose the input image itself. Second, three corresponding mapping functions are learned in an adversarial manner in order to map Gaussian noise to the learned embedding feature space, for each factor respectively. Using the proposed framework, we can manipulate the foreground, background and pose of the input image, and also sample new embedding features to generate such targeted manipulations, that provide more control over the generation process. Experiments on Market-1501 and Deepfashion datasets show that our model does not only generate realistic person images with new foregrounds, backgrounds and poses, but also manipulates the generated factors and interpolates the in-between states. Another set of experiments on Market-1501 shows that our model can also be beneficial for the person re-identification task.
Images convey a broad spectrum of personal information. If such images are shared on social media platforms, this personal information is leaked which conflicts with the privacy of depicted persons. Therefore, we aim for automated approaches to redact such private information and thereby protect privacy of the individual. By conducting a user study we find that obfuscating the image regions related to the private information leads to privacy while retaining utility of the images. Moreover, by varying the size of the regions different privacy-utility trade-offs can be achieved. Our findings argue for a "redaction by segmentation" paradigm. Hence, we propose the first sizable dataset of private images "in the wild" annotated with pixel and instance level labels across a broad range of privacy classes. We present the first model for automatic redaction of diverse private information.
Dec 05 2017 cs.CV
Suffering from the extreme training data imbalance between seen and unseen classes, most of existing state-of-the-art approaches fail to achieve satisfactory results for the challenging generalized zero-shot learning task. To circumvent the need for labeled examples of unseen classes, we propose a novel generative adversarial network (GAN) that synthesizes CNN features conditioned on class-level semantic information, offering a shortcut directly from a semantic descriptor of a class to a class-conditional feature distribution. Our proposed approach, pairing a Wasserstein GAN with a classification loss, is able to generate sufficiently discriminative CNN features to train softmax classifiers or any multimodal embedding method. Our experimental results demonstrate a significant boost in accuracy over the state of the art on five challenging datasets -- CUB, FLO, SUN, AWA and ImageNet -- in both the zero-shot learning and generalized zero-shot learning settings.
As more and more personal photos are shared online, being able to obfuscate identities in such photos is becoming a necessity for privacy protection. People have largely resorted to blacking out or blurring head regions, but they result in poor user experience while being surprisingly ineffective against state of the art person recognizers. In this work, we propose a novel head inpainting obfuscation technique. Generating a realistic head inpainting in social media photos is challenging because subjects appear in diverse activities and head orientations. We thus split the task into two sub-tasks: (1) facial landmark generation from image context (e.g. body pose) for seamless hypothesis of sensible head pose, and (2) facial landmark conditioned head inpainting. We verify that our inpainting method generates realistic person images, while achieving superior obfuscation performance against automatic person recognizers.
Nov 27 2017 cs.CV
Progress towards advanced systems for assisted and autonomous driving is leveraging recent advances in recognition and segmentation methods. Yet, we are still facing challenges in bringing reliable driving to inner cities, as those are composed of highly dynamic scenes observed from a moving platform at considerable speeds. Anticipation becomes a key element in order to react timely and prevent accidents. In this paper we argue that it is necessary to predict at least 1 second and we thus propose a new model that jointly predicts ego motion and people trajectories over such large time horizons. We pay particular attention to modeling the uncertainty of our estimates arising from the non-deterministic nature of natural traffic scenes. Our experimental results show that it is indeed possible to predict people trajectories at the desired time horizons and that our uncertainty estimates are informative of the prediction error. We also show that both sequence modeling of trajectories as well as our novel method of long term odometry prediction are essential for best performance.
Nov 21 2017 cs.CV
Deep models are the defacto standard in visual decision problems due to their impressive performance on a wide array of visual tasks. On the other hand, their opaqueness has led to a surge of interest in explainable systems. In this work, we emphasize the importance of model explanation in various forms such as visual pointing and textual justification. The lack of data with justification annotations is one of the bottlenecks of generating multimodal explanations. Thus, we propose two large-scale datasets with annotations that visually and textually justify a classification decision for various activities, i.e. ACT-X, and for question answering, i.e. VQA-X. We also introduce a multimodal methodology for generating visual and textual explanations simultaneously. We quantitatively show that training with the textual explanations not only yields better textual justification models, but also models that better localize the evidence that support their decision.
Many deployed learned models are black boxes: given input, returns output. Internal information about the model, such as the architecture, optimisation procedure, or training data, is not disclosed explicitly as it might contain proprietary information or make the system more vulnerable. This work shows that such attributes of neural networks can be exposed from a sequence of queries. This has multiple implications. On the one hand, our work exposes the vulnerability of black-box neural networks to different types of attacks -- we show that the revealed internal information helps generate more effective adversarial examples against the black box model. On the other hand, this technique can be used for better protection of private content from automatic recognition models using adversarial examples. Our paper suggests that it is actually hard to draw a line between white box and black box models.
Text-based analysis methods allow to reveal privacy relevant author attributes such as gender, age and identify of the text's author. Such methods can compromise the privacy of an anonymous author even when the author tries to remove privacy sensitive content. In this paper, we propose an automatic method, called Adversarial Author Attribute Anonymity Neural Translation ($A^4NT$), to combat such text-based adversaries. We combine sequence-to-sequence language models used in machine translation and generative adversarial networks to obfuscate author attributes. Unlike machine translation techniques which need paired data, our method can be trained on unpaired corpora of text containing different authors. Importantly, we propose and evaluate techniques to impose constraints on our $A^4NT$ to preserve the semantics of the input text. $A^4NT$ learns to make minimal changes to the input text to successfully fool author attribute classifiers, while aiming to maintain the meaning of the input. We show through experiments on two different datasets and three settings that our proposed method is effective in fooling the author attribute classifiers and thereby improving the anonymity of authors.
Oct 30 2017 cs.CV
Human poses and motions are important cues for analysis of videos with people and there is strong evidence that representations based on body pose are highly effective for a variety of tasks such as activity recognition, content retrieval and social signal processing. In this work, we aim to further advance the state of the art by establishing "PoseTrack", a new large-scale benchmark for video-based human pose estimation and articulated tracking, and bringing together the community of researchers working on visual human analysis. The benchmark encompasses three competition tracks focusing on i) single-frame multi-person pose estimation, ii) multi-person pose estimation in videos, and iii) multi-person articulated tracking. To facilitate the benchmark and challenge we collect, annotate and release a new %large-scale benchmark dataset that features videos with multiple people labeled with person tracks and articulated pose. A centralized evaluation server is provided to allow participants to evaluate on a held-out test set. We envision that the proposed benchmark will stimulate productive research both by providing a large and representative training dataset as well as providing a platform to objectively evaluate and compare the proposed methods. The benchmark is freely accessible at https://posetrack.net.
Oct 11 2017 cs.CV
People nowadays share large parts of their personal lives through social media. Being able to automatically recognise people in personal photos may greatly enhance user convenience by easing photo album organisation. For human identification task, however, traditional focus of computer vision has been face recognition and pedestrian re-identification. Person recognition in social media photos sets new challenges for computer vision, including non-cooperative subjects (e.g. backward viewpoints, unusual poses) and great changes in appearance. To tackle this problem, we build a simple person recognition framework that leverages convnet features from multiple image regions (head, body, etc.). We propose new recognition scenarios that focus on the time and appearance gap between training and testing samples. We present an in-depth analysis of the importance of different features according to time and viewpoint generalisability. In the process, we verify that our simple approach achieves the state of the art result on the PIPA benchmark, arguably the largest social media based benchmark for person recognition to date with diverse poses, viewpoints, social groups, and events. Compared the conference version of the paper, this paper additionally presents (1) analysis of a face recogniser (DeepID2+), (2) new method naeil2 that combines the conference version method naeil and DeepID2+ to achieve state of the art results even compared to post-conference works, (3) discussion of related work since the conference version, (4) additional analysis including the head viewpoint-wise breakdown of performance, and (5) results on the open-world setup.
Sep 08 2017 cs.CV
Contextual information is crucial for semantic segmentation. However, finding the optimal trade-off between keeping desired fine details and at the same time providing sufficiently large receptive fields is non trivial. This is even more so, when objects or classes present in an image significantly vary in size. Dilated convolutions have proven valuable for semantic segmentation, because they allow to increase the size of the receptive field without sacrificing image resolution. However, in current state-of-the-art methods, dilation parameters are hand-tuned and fixed. In this paper, we present an approach for learning dilation parameters adaptively per channel, consistently improving semantic segmentation results on street-scene datasets like Cityscapes and Camvid.
Jul 04 2017 cs.CV
Due to the importance of zero-shot learning, i.e. classifying images where there is a lack of labeled training data, the number of proposed approaches has recently increased steadily. We argue that it is time to take a step back and to analyze the status quo of the area. The purpose of this paper is three-fold. First, given the fact that there is no agreed upon zero-shot learning benchmark, we first define a new benchmark by unifying both the evaluation protocols and data splits of publicly available datasets used for this task. This is an important contribution as published results are often not comparable and sometimes even flawed due to, e.g. pre-training on zero-shot test classes. Moreover, we propose a new zero-shot learning dataset, the Animals with Attributes 2 (AWA2) dataset which we make publicly available both in terms of image features and the images themselves. Second, we compare and analyze a significant number of the state-of-the-art methods in depth, both in the classic zero-shot setting but also in the more realistic generalized zero-shot setting. Finally, we discuss in detail the limitations of the current status of the area which can be taken as a basis for advancing it.
May 29 2017 cs.CV
This paper proposes the novel Pose Guided Person Generation Network (PG$^2$) that allows to synthesize person images in arbitrary poses, based on an image of that person and a novel pose. Our generation framework PG$^2$ utilizes the pose information explicitly and consists of two key stages: pose integration and image refinement. In the first stage the condition image and the target pose are fed into a U-Net-like network to generate an initial but coarse image of the person with the target pose. The second stage then refines the initial and blurry result by training a U-Net-like generator in an adversarial way. Extensive experimental results on both 128$\times$64 re-identification images and 256$\times$256 fashion photos show that our model generates high-quality person images with convincing details.
May 09 2017 cs.CV
Object detectors have hugely profited from moving towards an end-to-end learning paradigm: proposals, features, and the classifier becoming one neural network improved results two-fold on general object detection. One indispensable component is non-maximum suppression (NMS), a post-processing algorithm responsible for merging all detections that belong to the same object. The de facto standard NMS algorithm is still fully hand-crafted, suspiciously simple, and -- being based on greedy clustering with a fixed distance threshold -- forces a trade-off between recall and precision. We propose a new network architecture designed to perform NMS, using only boxes and their score. We report experiments for person detection on PETS and for general object categories on the COCO dataset. Our approach shows promise providing improved localization and occlusion handling.
Apr 24 2017 cs.CV
Social relations are the foundation of human daily life. Developing techniques to analyze such relations from visual data bears great potential to build machines that better understand us and are capable of interacting with us at a social level. Previous investigations have remained partial due to the overwhelming diversity and complexity of the topic and consequently have only focused on a handful of social relations. In this paper, we argue that the domain-based theory from social psychology is a great starting point to systematically approach this problem. The theory provides coverage of all aspects of social relations and equally is concrete and predictive about the visual attributes and behaviors defining the relations included in each domain. We provide the first dataset built on this holistic conceptualization of social life that is composed of a hierarchical label space of social domains and social relations. We also contribute the first models to recognize such domains and relations and find superior performance for attribute based features. Beyond the encouraging performance of the attribute based approach, we also find interpretable features that are in accordance with the predictions from social psychology literature. Beyond our findings, we believe that our contributions more tightly interleave visual recognition and social psychology theory that has the potential to complement the theoretical work in the area with empirical and data-driven models of social life.
Apr 06 2017 cs.CV
Learning how to generate descriptions of images or videos received major interest both in the Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing communities. While a few works have proposed to learn a grounding during the generation process in an unsupervised way (via an attention mechanism), it remains unclear how good the quality of the grounding is and whether it benefits the description quality. In this work we propose a movie description model which learns to generate description and jointly ground (localize) the mentioned characters as well as do visual co-reference resolution between pairs of consecutive sentences/clips. We also propose to use weak localization supervision through character mentions provided in movie descriptions to learn the character grounding. At training time, we first learn how to localize characters by relating their visual appearance to mentions in the descriptions via a semi-supervised approach. We then provide this (noisy) supervision into our description model which greatly improves its performance. Our proposed description model improves over prior work w.r.t. generated description quality and additionally provides grounding and local co-reference resolution. We evaluate it on the MPII Movie Description dataset using automatic and human evaluation measures and using our newly collected grounding and co-reference data for characters.
With an increasing number of users sharing information online, privacy implications entailing such actions are a major concern. For explicit content, such as user profile or GPS data, devices (e.g. mobile phones) as well as web services (e.g. Facebook) offer to set privacy settings in order to enforce the users' privacy preferences. We propose the first approach that extends this concept to image content in the spirit of a Visual Privacy Advisor. First, we categorize personal information in images into 68 image attributes and collect a dataset, which allows us to train models that predict such information directly from images. Second, we run a user study to understand the privacy preferences of different users w.r.t. such attributes. Third, we propose models that predict user specific privacy score from images in order to enforce the users' privacy preferences. Our model is trained to predict the user specific privacy risk and even outperforms the judgment of the users, who often fail to follow their own privacy preferences on image data.
While strong progress has been made in image captioning over the last years, machine and human captions are still quite distinct. A closer look reveals that this is due to the deficiencies in the generated word distribution, vocabulary size, and strong bias in the generators towards frequent captions. Furthermore, humans -- rightfully so -- generate multiple, diverse captions, due to the inherent ambiguity in the captioning task which is not considered in today's systems. To address these challenges, we change the training objective of the caption generator from reproducing groundtruth captions to generating a set of captions that is indistinguishable from human generated captions. Instead of handcrafting such a learning target, we employ adversarial training in combination with an approximate Gumbel sampler to implicitly match the generated distribution to the human one. While our method achieves comparable performance to the state-of-the-art in terms of the correctness of the captions, we generate a set of diverse captions, that are significantly less biased and match the word statistics better in several aspects.
Users like sharing personal photos with others through social media. At the same time, they might want to make automatic identification in such photos difficult or even impossible. Classic obfuscation methods such as blurring are not only unpleasant but also not as effective as one would expect. Recent studies on adversarial image perturbations (AIP) suggest that it is possible to confuse recognition systems effectively without unpleasant artifacts. However, in the presence of counter measures against AIPs, it is unclear how effective AIP would be in particular when the choice of counter measure is unknown. Game theory provides tools for studying the interaction between agents with uncertainties in the strategies. We introduce a general game theoretical framework for the user-recogniser dynamics, and present a case study that involves current state of the art AIP and person recognition techniques. We derive the optimal strategy for the user that assures an upper bound on the recognition rate independent of the recogniser's counter measure. Code is available at https://goo.gl/hgvbNK.
Mar 29 2017 cs.CV
Convolutional networks reach top quality in pixel-level object tracking but require a large amount of training data (1k~10k) to deliver such results. We propose a new training strategy which achieves state-of-the-art results across three evaluation datasets while using 20x~100x less annotated data than competing methods. Our approach is suitable for both single and multiple object tracking. Instead of using large training sets hoping to generalize across domains, we generate in-domain training data using the provided annotation on the first frame of each video to synthesize ("lucid dream") plausible future video frames. In-domain per-video training data allows us to train high quality appearance- and motion-based models, as well as tune the post-processing stage. This approach allows to reach competitive results even when training from only a single annotated frame, without ImageNet pre-training. Our results indicate that using a larger training set is not automatically better, and that for the tracking task a smaller training set that is closer to the target domain is more effective. This changes the mindset regarding how many training samples and general "objectness" knowledge are required for the object tracking task.
Mar 14 2017 cs.CV
Due to the importance of zero-shot learning, the number of proposed approaches has increased steadily recently. We argue that it is time to take a step back and to analyze the status quo of the area. The purpose of this paper is three-fold. First, given the fact that there is no agreed upon zero-shot learning benchmark, we first define a new benchmark by unifying both the evaluation protocols and data splits. This is an important contribution as published results are often not comparable and sometimes even flawed due to, e.g. pre-training on zero-shot test classes. Second, we compare and analyze a significant number of the state-of-the-art methods in depth, both in the classic zero-shot setting but also in the more realistic generalized zero-shot setting. Finally, we discuss limitations of the current status of the area which can be taken as a basis for advancing it.
Feb 21 2017 cs.CV
Convnets have enabled significant progress in pedestrian detection recently, but there are still open questions regarding suitable architectures and training data. We revisit CNN design and point out key adaptations, enabling plain FasterRCNN to obtain state-of-the-art results on the Caltech dataset. To achieve further improvement from more and better data, we introduce CityPersons, a new set of person annotations on top of the Cityscapes dataset. The diversity of CityPersons allows us for the first time to train one single CNN model that generalizes well over multiple benchmarks. Moreover, with additional training with CityPersons, we obtain top results using FasterRCNN on Caltech, improving especially for more difficult cases (heavy occlusion and small scale) and providing higher localization quality.
Jan 31 2017 cs.CV
There have been remarkable improvements in the semantic labelling task in the recent years. However, the state of the art methods rely on large-scale pixel-level annotations. This paper studies the problem of training a pixel-wise semantic labeller network from image-level annotations of the present object classes. Recently, it has been shown that high quality seeds indicating discriminative object regions can be obtained from image-level labels. Without additional information, obtaining the full extent of the object is an inherently ill-posed problem due to co-occurrences. We propose using a saliency model as additional information and hereby exploit prior knowledge on the object extent and image statistics. We show how to combine both information sources in order to recover 80% of the fully supervised performance - which is the new state of the art in weakly supervised training for pixel-wise semantic labelling. The code is available at https://goo.gl/KygSeb.
Jan 03 2017 cs.CV
Marker-based and marker-less optical skeletal motion-capture methods use an outside-in arrangement of cameras placed around a scene, with viewpoints converging on the center. They often create discomfort by possibly needed marker suits, and their recording volume is severely restricted and often constrained to indoor scenes with controlled backgrounds. We therefore propose a new method for real-time, marker-less and egocentric motion capture which estimates the full-body skeleton pose from a lightweight stereo pair of fisheye cameras that are attached to a helmet or virtual-reality headset. It combines the strength of a new generative pose estimation framework for fisheye views with a ConvNet-based body-part detector trained on a new automatically annotated and augmented dataset. Our inside-in method captures full-body motion in general indoor and outdoor scenes, and also crowded scenes.
Deep models are the defacto standard in visual decision models due to their impressive performance on a wide array of visual tasks. However, they are frequently seen as opaque and are unable to explain their decisions. In contrast, humans can justify their decisions with natural language and point to the evidence in the visual world which led to their decisions. We postulate that deep models can do this as well and propose our Pointing and Justification (PJ-X) model which can justify its decision with a sentence and point to the evidence by introspecting its decision and explanation process using an attention mechanism. Unfortunately there is no dataset available with reference explanations for visual decision making. We thus collect two datasets in two domains where it is interesting and challenging to explain decisions. First, we extend the visual question answering task to not only provide an answer but also a natural language explanation for the answer. Second, we focus on explaining human activities which is traditionally more challenging than object classification. We extensively evaluate our PJ-X model, both on the justification and pointing tasks, by comparing it to prior models and ablations using both automatic and human evaluations.
Top-k error is currently a popular performance measure on large scale image classification benchmarks such as ImageNet and Places. Despite its wide acceptance, our understanding of this metric is limited as most of the previous research is focused on its special case, the top-1 error. In this work, we explore two directions that shed more light on the top-k error. First, we provide an in-depth analysis of established and recently proposed single-label multiclass methods along with a detailed account of efficient optimization algorithms for them. Our results indicate that the softmax loss and the smooth multiclass SVM are surprisingly competitive in top-k error uniformly across all k, which can be explained by our analysis of multiclass top-k calibration. Further improvements for a specific k are possible with a number of proposed top-k loss functions. Second, we use the top-k methods to explore the transition from multiclass to multilabel learning. In particular, we find that it is possible to obtain effective multilabel classifiers on Pascal VOC using a single label per image for training, while the gap between multiclass and multilabel methods on MS COCO is more significant. Finally, our contribution of efficient algorithms for training with the considered top-k and multilabel loss functions is of independent interest.
Dec 09 2016 cs.CV
Inspired by recent advances of deep learning in instance segmentation and object tracking, we introduce video object segmentation problem as a concept of guided instance segmentation. Our model proceeds on a per-frame basis, guided by the output of the previous frame towards the object of interest in the next frame. We demonstrate that highly accurate object segmentation in videos can be enabled by using a convnet trained with static images only. The key ingredient of our approach is a combination of offline and online learning strategies, where the former serves to produce a refined mask from the previous frame estimate and the latter allows to capture the appearance of the specific object instance. Our method can handle different types of input annotations: bounding boxes and segments, as well as incorporate multiple annotated frames, making the system suitable for diverse applications. We obtain competitive results on three different datasets, independently from the type of input annotation.
Dec 06 2016 cs.CV
In this paper we propose an approach for articulated tracking of multiple people in unconstrained videos. Our starting point is a model that resembles existing architectures for single-frame pose estimation but is substantially faster. We achieve this in two ways: (1) by simplifying and sparsifying the body-part relationship graph and leveraging recent methods for faster inference, and (2) by offloading a substantial share of computation onto a feed-forward convolutional architecture that is able to detect and associate body joints of the same person even in clutter. We use this model to generate proposals for body joint locations and formulate articulated tracking as spatio-temporal grouping of such proposals. This allows to jointly solve the association problem for all people in the scene by propagating evidence from strong detections through time and enforcing constraints that each proposal can be assigned to one person only. We report results on a public MPII Human Pose benchmark and on a new MPII Video Pose dataset of image sequences with multiple people. We demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art results while using only a fraction of time and is able to leverage temporal information to improve state-of-the-art for crowded scenes.
Nov 29 2016 cs.CV
Zero-shot image classification using auxiliary information, such as attributes describing discriminative object properties, requires time-consuming annotation by domain experts. We instead propose a method that relies on human gaze as auxiliary information, exploiting that even non-expert users have a natural ability to judge class membership. We present a data collection paradigm that involves a discrimination task to increase the information content obtained from gaze data. Our method extracts discriminative descriptors from the data and learns a compatibility function between image and gaze using three novel gaze embeddings: Gaze Histograms (GH), Gaze Features with Grid (GFG) and Gaze Features with Sequence (GFS). We introduce two new gaze-annotated datasets for fine-grained image classification and show that human gaze data is indeed class discriminative, provides a competitive alternative to expert-annotated attributes, and outperforms other baselines for zero-shot image classification.
Boundary estimation in images and videos has been a very active topic of research, and organizing visual information into boundaries and segments is believed to be a corner stone of visual perception. While prior work has focused on estimating boundaries for observed frames, our work aims at predicting boundaries of future unobserved frames. This requires our model to learn about the fate of boundaries and corresponding motion patterns -- including a notion of "intuitive physics". We experiment on natural video sequences along with synthetic sequences with deterministic physics-based and agent-based motions. While not being our primary goal, we also show that fusion of RGB and boundary prediction leads to improved RGB predictions.
We state a combinatorial optimization problem whose feasible solutions define both a decomposition and a node labeling of a given graph. This problem offers a common mathematical abstraction of seemingly unrelated computer vision tasks, including instance-separating semantic segmentation, articulated human body pose estimation and multiple object tracking. Conceptually, the problem we state generalizes the unconstrained integer quadratic program and the minimum cost lifted multicut problem, both of which are NP-hard. In order to find feasible solutions efficiently, we define two local search algorithms that converge monotonously to a local optimum, offering a feasible solution at any time. To demonstrate their effectiveness in tackling computer vision tasks, we apply these algorithms to instances of the problem that we construct from published data, using published algorithms. We report state-of-the-art application-specific accuracy for the three above-mentioned applications.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have recently demonstrated the capability to synthesize compelling real-world images, such as room interiors, album covers, manga, faces, birds, and flowers. While existing models can synthesize images based on global constraints such as a class label or caption, they do not provide control over pose or object location. We propose a new model, the Generative Adversarial What-Where Network (GAWWN), that synthesizes images given instructions describing what content to draw in which location. We show high-quality 128 x 128 image synthesis on the Caltech-UCSD Birds dataset, conditioned on both informal text descriptions and also object location. Our system exposes control over both the bounding box around the bird and its constituent parts. By modeling the conditional distributions over part locations, our system also enables conditioning on arbitrary subsets of parts (e.g. only the beak and tail), yielding an efficient interface for picking part locations. We also show preliminary results on the more challenging domain of text- and location-controllable synthesis of images of human actions on the MPII Human Pose dataset.
Sep 26 2016 cs.CV
Marker-based and marker-less optical skeletal motion-capture methods use an outside-in arrangement of cameras placed around a scene, with viewpoints converging on the center. They often create discomfort by possibly needed marker suits, and their recording volume is severely restricted and often constrained to indoor scenes with controlled backgrounds. Alternative suit-based systems use several inertial measurement units or an exoskeleton to capture motion. This makes capturing independent of a confined volume, but requires substantial, often constraining, and hard to set up body instrumentation. We therefore propose a new method for real-time, marker-less and egocentric motion capture which estimates the full-body skeleton pose from a lightweight stereo pair of fisheye cameras that are attached to a helmet or virtual reality headset. It combines the strength of a new generative pose estimation framework for fisheye views with a ConvNet-based body-part detector trained on a large new dataset. Our inside-in method captures full-body motion in general indoor and outdoor scenes, and also crowded scenes with many people in close vicinity. The captured user can freely move around, which enables reconstruction of larger-scale activities and is particularly useful in virtual reality to freely roam and interact, while seeing the fully motion-captured virtual body.
Aug 22 2016 cs.CV
In , we proposed a graph-based formulation that links and clusters person hypotheses over time by solving a minimum cost subgraph multicut problem. In this paper, we modify and extend  in three ways: 1) We introduce a novel local pairwise feature based on local appearance matching that is robust to partial occlusion and camera motion. 2) We perform extensive experiments to compare different pairwise potentials and to analyze the robustness of the tracking formulation. 3) We consider a plain multicut problem and remove outlying clusters from its solution. This allows us to employ an efficient primal feasible optimization algorithm that is not applicable to the subgraph multicut problem of . Unlike the branch-and-cut algorithm used there, this efficient algorithm used here is applicable to long videos and many detections. Together with the novel feature, it eliminates the need for the intermediate tracklet representation of . We demonstrate the effectiveness of our overall approach on the MOT16 benchmark , achieving state-of-art performance.
As we shift more of our lives into the virtual domain, the volume of data shared on the web keeps increasing and presents a threat to our privacy. This works contributes to the understanding of privacy implications of such data sharing by analysing how well people are recognisable in social media data. To facilitate a systematic study we define a number of scenarios considering factors such as how many heads of a person are tagged and if those heads are obfuscated or not. We propose a robust person recognition system that can handle large variations in pose and clothing, and can be trained with few training samples. Our results indicate that a handful of images is enough to threaten users' privacy, even in the presence of obfuscation. We show detailed experimental results, and discuss their implications.
Jul 22 2016 cs.CV
Recently, Minimum Cost Multicut Formulations have been proposed and proven to be successful in both motion trajectory segmentation and multi-target tracking scenarios. Both tasks benefit from decomposing a graphical model into an optimal number of connected components based on attractive and repulsive pairwise terms. The two tasks are formulated on different levels of granularity and, accordingly, leverage mostly local information for motion segmentation and mostly high-level information for multi-target tracking. In this paper we argue that point trajectories and their local relationships can contribute to the high-level task of multi-target tracking and also argue that high-level cues from object detection and tracking are helpful to solve motion segmentation. We propose a joint graphical model for point trajectories and object detections whose Multicuts are solutions to motion segmentation \it and multi-target tracking problems at once. Results on the FBMS59 motion segmentation benchmark as well as on pedestrian tracking sequences from the 2D MOT 2015 benchmark demonstrate the promise of this joint approach.
May 19 2016 cs.CV
State-of-the-art methods for zero-shot visual recognition formulate learning as a joint embedding problem of images and side information. In these formulations the current best complement to visual features are attributes: manually encoded vectors describing shared characteristics among categories. Despite good performance, attributes have limitations: (1) finer-grained recognition requires commensurately more attributes, and (2) attributes do not provide a natural language interface. We propose to overcome these limitations by training neural language models from scratch; i.e. without pre-training and only consuming words and characters. Our proposed models train end-to-end to align with the fine-grained and category-specific content of images. Natural language provides a flexible and compact way of encoding only the salient visual aspects for distinguishing categories. By training on raw text, our model can do inference on raw text as well, providing humans a familiar mode both for annotation and retrieval. Our model achieves strong performance on zero-shot text-based image retrieval and significantly outperforms the attribute-based state-of-the-art for zero-shot classification on the Caltech UCSD Birds 200-2011 dataset.
Automatic synthesis of realistic images from text would be interesting and useful, but current AI systems are still far from this goal. However, in recent years generic and powerful recurrent neural network architectures have been developed to learn discriminative text feature representations. Meanwhile, deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (GANs) have begun to generate highly compelling images of specific categories, such as faces, album covers, and room interiors. In this work, we develop a novel deep architecture and GAN formulation to effectively bridge these advances in text and image model- ing, translating visual concepts from characters to pixels. We demonstrate the capability of our model to generate plausible images of birds and flowers from detailed text descriptions.
Audio Description (AD) provides linguistic descriptions of movies and allows visually impaired people to follow a movie along with their peers. Such descriptions are by design mainly visual and thus naturally form an interesting data source for computer vision and computational linguistics. In this work we propose a novel dataset which contains transcribed ADs, which are temporally aligned to full length movies. In addition we also collected and aligned movie scripts used in prior work and compare the two sources of descriptions. In total the Large Scale Movie Description Challenge (LSMDC) contains a parallel corpus of 118,114 sentences and video clips from 202 movies. First we characterize the dataset by benchmarking different approaches for generating video descriptions. Comparing ADs to scripts, we find that ADs are indeed more visual and describe precisely what is shown rather than what should happen according to the scripts created prior to movie production. Furthermore, we present and compare the results of several teams who participated in a challenge organized in the context of the workshop "Describing and Understanding Video & The Large Scale Movie Description Challenge (LSMDC)", at ICCV 2015.
May 13 2016 cs.CV
Graph-based video segmentation methods rely on superpixels as starting point. While most previous work has focused on the construction of the graph edges and weights as well as solving the graph partitioning problem, this paper focuses on better superpixels for video segmentation. We demonstrate by a comparative analysis that superpixels extracted from boundaries perform best, and show that boundary estimation can be significantly improved via image and time domain cues. With superpixels generated from our better boundaries we observe consistent improvement for two video segmentation methods in two different datasets.
May 11 2016 cs.CV
The goal of this paper is to advance the state-of-the-art of articulated pose estimation in scenes with multiple people. To that end we contribute on three fronts. We propose (1) improved body part detectors that generate effective bottom-up proposals for body parts; (2) novel image-conditioned pairwise terms that allow to assemble the proposals into a variable number of consistent body part configurations; and (3) an incremental optimization strategy that explores the search space more efficiently thus leading both to better performance and significant speed-up factors. Evaluation is done on two single-person and two multi-person pose estimation benchmarks. The proposed approach significantly outperforms best known multi-person pose estimation results while demonstrating competitive performance on the task of single person pose estimation. Models and code available at http://pose.mpi-inf.mpg.de
Apr 07 2016 cs.CV
Visual understanding of complex urban street scenes is an enabling factor for a wide range of applications. Object detection has benefited enormously from large-scale datasets, especially in the context of deep learning. For semantic urban scene understanding, however, no current dataset adequately captures the complexity of real-world urban scenes. To address this, we introduce Cityscapes, a benchmark suite and large-scale dataset to train and test approaches for pixel-level and instance-level semantic labeling. Cityscapes is comprised of a large, diverse set of stereo video sequences recorded in streets from 50 different cities. 5000 of these images have high quality pixel-level annotations; 20000 additional images have coarse annotations to enable methods that leverage large volumes of weakly-labeled data. Crucially, our effort exceeds previous attempts in terms of dataset size, annotation richness, scene variability, and complexity. Our accompanying empirical study provides an in-depth analysis of the dataset characteristics, as well as a performance evaluation of several state-of-the-art approaches based on our benchmark.
Mar 30 2016 cs.CV
We present a novel latent embedding model for learning a compatibility function between image and class embeddings, in the context of zero-shot classification. The proposed method augments the state-of-the-art bilinear compatibility model by incorporating latent variables. Instead of learning a single bilinear map, it learns a collection of maps with the selection, of which map to use, being a latent variable for the current image-class pair. We train the model with a ranking based objective function which penalizes incorrect rankings of the true class for a given image. We empirically demonstrate that our model improves the state-of-the-art for various class embeddings consistently on three challenging publicly available datasets for the zero-shot setting. Moreover, our method leads to visually highly interpretable results with clear clusters of different fine-grained object properties that correspond to different latent variable maps.
Mar 30 2016 cs.CV
Scaling up visual category recognition to large numbers of classes remains challenging. A promising research direction is zero-shot learning, which does not require any training data to recognize new classes, but rather relies on some form of auxiliary information describing the new classes. Ultimately, this may allow to use textbook knowledge that humans employ to learn about new classes by transferring knowledge from classes they know well. The most successful zero-shot learning approaches currently require a particular type of auxiliary information -- namely attribute annotations performed by humans -- that is not readily available for most classes. Our goal is to circumvent this bottleneck by substituting such annotations by extracting multiple pieces of information from multiple unstructured text sources readily available on the web. To compensate for the weaker form of auxiliary information, we incorporate stronger supervision in the form of semantic part annotations on the classes from which we transfer knowledge. We achieve our goal by a joint embedding framework that maps multiple text parts as well as multiple semantic parts into a common space. Our results consistently and significantly improve on the state-of-the-art in zero-short recognition and retrieval.
Clearly explaining a rationale for a classification decision to an end-user can be as important as the decision itself. Existing approaches for deep visual recognition are generally opaque and do not output any justification text; contemporary vision-language models can describe image content but fail to take into account class-discriminative image aspects which justify visual predictions. We propose a new model that focuses on the discriminating properties of the visible object, jointly predicts a class label, and explains why the predicted label is appropriate for the image. We propose a novel loss function based on sampling and reinforcement learning that learns to generate sentences that realize a global sentence property, such as class specificity. Our results on a fine-grained bird species classification dataset show that our model is able to generate explanations which are not only consistent with an image but also more discriminative than descriptions produced by existing captioning methods.
Mar 25 2016 cs.CV
Semantic labelling and instance segmentation are two tasks that require particularly costly annotations. Starting from weak supervision in the form of bounding box detection annotations, we propose a new approach that does not require modification of the segmentation training procedure. We show that when carefully designing the input labels from given bounding boxes, even a single round of training is enough to improve over previously reported weakly supervised results. Overall, our weak supervision approach reaches ~95% of the quality of the fully supervised model, both for semantic labelling and instance segmentation.
Feb 04 2016 cs.CV
Encouraged by the recent progress in pedestrian detection, we investigate the gap between current state-of-the-art methods and the "perfect single frame detector". We enable our analysis by creating a human baseline for pedestrian detection (over the Caltech dataset), and by manually clustering the recurrent errors of a top detector. Our results characterize both localization and background-versus-foreground errors. To address localization errors we study the impact of training annotation noise on the detector performance, and show that we can improve even with a small portion of sanitized training data. To address background/foreground discrimination, we study convnets for pedestrian detection, and discuss which factors affect their performance. Other than our in-depth analysis, we report top performance on the Caltech dataset, and provide a new sanitized set of training and test annotations.
In order to push the performance on realistic computer vision tasks, the number of classes in modern benchmark datasets has significantly increased in recent years. This increase in the number of classes comes along with increased ambiguity between the class labels, raising the question if top-1 error is the right performance measure. In this paper, we provide an extensive comparison and evaluation of established multiclass methods comparing their top-k performance both from a practical as well as from a theoretical perspective. Moreover, we introduce novel top-k loss functions as modifications of the softmax and the multiclass SVM losses and provide efficient optimization schemes for them. In the experiments, we compare on various datasets all of the proposed and established methods for top-k error optimization. An interesting insight of this paper is that the softmax loss yields competitive top-k performance for all k simultaneously. For a specific top-k error, our new top-k losses lead typically to further improvements while being faster to train than the softmax.
Nov 25 2015 cs.CV
State-of-the-art learning based boundary detection methods require extensive training data. Since labelling object boundaries is one of the most expensive types of annotations, there is a need to relax the requirement to carefully annotate images to make both the training more affordable and to extend the amount of training data. In this paper we propose a technique to generate weakly supervised annotations and show that bounding box annotations alone suffice to reach high-quality object boundaries without using any object-specific boundary annotations. With the proposed weak supervision techniques we achieve the top performance on the object boundary detection task, outperforming by a large margin the current fully supervised state-of-the-art methods.
Class ambiguity is typical in image classification problems with a large number of classes. When classes are difficult to discriminate, it makes sense to allow k guesses and evaluate classifiers based on the top-k error instead of the standard zero-one loss. We propose top-k multiclass SVM as a direct method to optimize for top-k performance. Our generalization of the well-known multiclass SVM is based on a tight convex upper bound of the top-k error. We propose a fast optimization scheme based on an efficient projection onto the top-k simplex, which is of its own interest. Experiments on five datasets show consistent improvements in top-k accuracy compared to various baselines.
Nov 23 2015 cs.CV
This paper considers the task of articulated human pose estimation of multiple people in real world images. We propose an approach that jointly solves the tasks of detection and pose estimation: it infers the number of persons in a scene, identifies occluded body parts, and disambiguates body parts between people in close proximity of each other. This joint formulation is in contrast to previous strategies, that address the problem by first detecting people and subsequently estimating their body pose. We propose a partitioning and labeling formulation of a set of body-part hypotheses generated with CNN-based part detectors. Our formulation, an instance of an integer linear program, implicitly performs non-maximum suppression on the set of part candidates and groups them to form configurations of body parts respecting geometric and appearance constraints. Experiments on four different datasets demonstrate state-of-the-art results for both single person and multi person pose estimation. Models and code available at http://pose.mpi-inf.mpg.de.
Non-maximum suppression (NMS) is used in virtually all state-of-the-art object detection pipelines. While essential object detection ingredients such as features, classifiers, and proposal methods have been extensively researched surprisingly little work has aimed to systematically address NMS. The de-facto standard for NMS is based on greedy clustering with a fixed distance threshold, which forces to trade-off recall versus precision. We propose a convnet designed to perform NMS of a given set of detections. We report experiments on a synthetic setup, and results on crowded pedestrian detection scenes. Our approach overcomes the intrinsic limitations of greedy NMS, obtaining better recall and precision.
The paradigm of multi-task learning is that one can achieve better generalization by learning tasks jointly and thus exploiting the similarity between the tasks rather than learning them independently of each other. While previously the relationship between tasks had to be user-defined in the form of an output kernel, recent approaches jointly learn the tasks and the output kernel. As the output kernel is a positive semidefinite matrix, the resulting optimization problems are not scalable in the number of tasks as an eigendecomposition is required in each step. \mboxUsing the theory of positive semidefinite kernels we show in this paper that for a certain class of regularizers on the output kernel, the constraint of being positive semidefinite can be dropped as it is automatically satisfied for the relaxed problem. This leads to an unconstrained dual problem which can be solved efficiently. Experiments on several multi-task and multi-class data sets illustrate the efficacy of our approach in terms of computational efficiency as well as generalization performance.
Grounding (i.e. localizing) arbitrary, free-form textual phrases in visual content is a challenging problem with many applications for human-computer interaction and image-text reference resolution. Few datasets provide the ground truth spatial localization of phrases, thus it is desirable to learn from data with no or little grounding supervision. We propose a novel approach which learns grounding by reconstructing a given phrase using an attention mechanism, which can be either latent or optimized directly. During training our approach encodes the phrase using a recurrent network language model and then learns to attend to the relevant image region in order to reconstruct the input phrase. At test time, the correct attention, i.e., the grounding, is evaluated. If grounding supervision is available it can be directly applied via a loss over the attention mechanism. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on the Flickr 30k Entities and ReferItGame datasets with different levels of supervision, ranging from no supervision over partial supervision to full supervision. Our supervised variant improves by a large margin over the state-of-the-art on both datasets.
Sep 30 2015 cs.CV
We propose a novel algorithm for the task of supervised discriminative distance learning by nonlinearly embedding vectors into a low dimensional Euclidean space. We work in the challenging setting where supervision is with constraints on similar and dissimilar pairs while training. The proposed method is derived by an approximate kernelization of a linear Mahalanobis-like distance metric learning algorithm and can also be seen as a kernel neural network. The number of model parameters and test time evaluation complexity of the proposed method are O(dD) where D is the dimensionality of the input features and d is the dimension of the projection space - this is in contrast to the usual kernelization methods as, unlike them, the complexity does not scale linearly with the number of training examples. We propose a stochastic gradient based learning algorithm which makes the method scalable (w.r.t. the number of training examples), while being nonlinear. We train the method with up to half a million training pairs of 4096 dimensional CNN features. We give empirical comparisons with relevant baselines on seven challenging datasets for the task of low dimensional semantic category based image retrieval.
Sep 14 2015 cs.CV
Recognising persons in everyday photos presents major challenges (occluded faces, different clothing, locations, etc.) for machine vision. We propose a convnet based person recognition system on which we provide an in-depth analysis of informativeness of different body cues, impact of training data, and the common failure modes of the system. In addition, we discuss the limitations of existing benchmarks and propose more challenging ones. Our method is simple and is built on open source and open data, yet it improves the state of the art results on a large dataset of social media photos (PIPA).
Aug 13 2015 cs.CV
Convolutional neural networks have recently shown excellent results in general object detection and many other tasks. Albeit very effective, they involve many user-defined design choices. In this paper we want to better understand these choices by inspecting two key aspects "what did the network learn?", and "what can the network learn?". We exploit new annotations (Pascal3D+), to enable a new empirical analysis of the R-CNN detector. Despite common belief, our results indicate that existing state-of-the-art convnet architectures are not invariant to various appearance factors. In fact, all considered networks have similar weak points which cannot be mitigated by simply increasing the training data (architectural changes are needed). We show that overall performance can improve when using image renderings for data augmentation. We report the best known results on the Pascal3D+ detection and view-point estimation tasks.
Generating descriptions for videos has many applications including assisting blind people and human-robot interaction. The recent advances in image captioning as well as the release of large-scale movie description datasets such as MPII Movie Description allow to study this task in more depth. Many of the proposed methods for image captioning rely on pre-trained object classifier CNNs and Long-Short Term Memory recurrent networks (LSTMs) for generating descriptions. While image description focuses on objects, we argue that it is important to distinguish verbs, objects, and places in the challenging setting of movie description. In this work we show how to learn robust visual classifiers from the weak annotations of the sentence descriptions. Based on these visual classifiers we learn how to generate a description using an LSTM. We explore different design choices to build and train the LSTM and achieve the best performance to date on the challenging MPII-MD dataset. We compare and analyze our approach and prior work along various dimensions to better understand the key challenges of the movie description task.
Mar 20 2015 cs.CV
Statistical models of 3D human shape and pose learned from scan databases have developed into valuable tools to solve a variety of vision and graphics problems. Unfortunately, most publicly available models are of limited expressiveness as they were learned on very small databases that hardly reflect the true variety in human body shapes. In this paper, we contribute by rebuilding a widely used statistical body representation from the largest commercially available scan database, and making the resulting model available to the community (visit http://humanshape.mpi-inf.mpg.de). As preprocessing several thousand scans for learning the model is a challenge in itself, we contribute by developing robust best practice solutions for scan alignment that quantitatively lead to the best learned models. We make implementations of these preprocessing steps also publicly available. We extensively evaluate the improved accuracy and generality of our new model, and show its improved performance for human body reconstruction from sparse input data.
Mar 18 2015 cs.CV
Object class detection has been a synonym for 2D bounding box localization for the longest time, fueled by the success of powerful statistical learning techniques, combined with robust image representations. Only recently, there has been a growing interest in revisiting the promise of computer vision from the early days: to precisely delineate the contents of a visual scene, object by object, in 3D. In this paper, we draw from recent advances in object detection and 2D-3D object lifting in order to design an object class detector that is particularly tailored towards 3D object class detection. Our 3D object class detection method consists of several stages gradually enriching the object detection output with object viewpoint, keypoints and 3D shape estimates. Following careful design, in each stage it constantly improves the performance and achieves state-ofthe-art performance in simultaneous 2D bounding box and viewpoint estimation on the challenging Pascal3D+ dataset.
Feb 25 2015 cs.CV
Activity recognition has shown impressive progress in recent years. However, the challenges of detecting fine-grained activities and understanding how they are combined into composite activities have been largely overlooked. In this work we approach both tasks and present a dataset which provides detailed annotations to address them. The first challenge is to detect fine-grained activities, which are defined by low inter-class variability and are typically characterized by fine-grained body motions. We explore how human pose and hands can help to approach this challenge by comparing two pose-based and two hand-centric features with state-of-the-art holistic features. To attack the second challenge, recognizing composite activities, we leverage the fact that these activities are compositional and that the essential components of the activities can be obtained from textual descriptions or scripts. We show the benefits of our hand-centric approach for fine-grained activity classification and detection. For composite activity recognition we find that decomposition into attributes allows sharing information across composites and is essential to attack this hard task. Using script data we can recognize novel composites without having training data for them.
Feb 19 2015 cs.CV
Current top performing object detectors employ detection proposals to guide the search for objects, thereby avoiding exhaustive sliding window search across images. Despite the popularity and widespread use of detection proposals, it is unclear which trade-offs are made when using them during object detection. We provide an in-depth analysis of twelve proposal methods along with four baselines regarding proposal repeatability, ground truth annotation recall on PASCAL, ImageNet, and MS COCO, and their impact on DPM, R-CNN, and Fast R-CNN detection performance. Our analysis shows that for object detection improving proposal localisation accuracy is as important as improving recall. We introduce a novel metric, the average recall (AR), which rewards both high recall and good localisation and correlates surprisingly well with detection performance. Our findings show common strengths and weaknesses of existing methods, and provide insights and metrics for selecting and tuning proposal methods.
Jan 26 2015 cs.CV
In this paper we study the use of convolutional neural networks (convnets) for the task of pedestrian detection. Despite their recent diverse successes, convnets historically underperform compared to other pedestrian detectors. We deliberately omit explicitly modelling the problem into the network (e.g. parts or occlusion modelling) and show that we can reach competitive performance without bells and whistles. In a wide range of experiments we analyse small and big convnets, their architectural choices, parameters, and the influence of different training data, including pre-training on surrogate tasks. We present the best convnet detectors on the Caltech and KITTI dataset. On Caltech our convnets reach top performance both for the Caltech1x and Caltech10x training setup. Using additional data at training time our strongest convnet model is competitive even to detectors that use additional data (optical flow) at test time.
Jan 26 2015 cs.CV
This paper starts from the observation that multiple top performing pedestrian detectors can be modelled by using an intermediate layer filtering low-level features in combination with a boosted decision forest. Based on this observation we propose a unifying framework and experimentally explore different filter families. We report extensive results enabling a systematic analysis. Using filtered channel features we obtain top performance on the challenging Caltech and KITTI datasets, while using only HOG+LUV as low-level features. When adding optical flow features we further improve detection quality and report the best known results on the Caltech dataset, reaching 93% recall at 1 FPPI.
Descriptive video service (DVS) provides linguistic descriptions of movies and allows visually impaired people to follow a movie along with their peers. Such descriptions are by design mainly visual and thus naturally form an interesting data source for computer vision and computational linguistics. In this work we propose a novel dataset which contains transcribed DVS, which is temporally aligned to full length HD movies. In addition we also collected the aligned movie scripts which have been used in prior work and compare the two different sources of descriptions. In total the Movie Description dataset contains a parallel corpus of over 54,000 sentences and video snippets from 72 HD movies. We characterize the dataset by benchmarking different approaches for generating video descriptions. Comparing DVS to scripts, we find that DVS is far more visual and describes precisely what is shown rather than what should happen according to the scripts created prior to movie production.