results for au:Sayed_A in:math

- This work develops a fully decentralized variance-reduced learning algorithm for on-device intelligence where nodes store and process the data locally and are only allowed to communicate with their immediate neighbors. In the proposed algorithm, there is no need for a central or master unit while the objective is to enable the dispersed nodes to learn the \em exact global model despite their limited localized interactions. The resulting algorithm is shown to have low memory requirement, guaranteed linear convergence, robustness to failure of links or nodes, scalability to the network size, and privacy-preserving properties. Moreover, the decentralized nature of the solution makes large-scale machine learning problems more tractable and also scalable since data is stored and processed locally at the nodes.
- Several useful variance-reduced stochastic gradient algorithms, such as SVRG, SAGA, Finito, and SAG, have been proposed to minimize empirical risks with linear convergence properties to the exact minimizers. The existing convergence results assume uniform data sampling with replacement. However, it has been observed that random reshuffling can deliver superior performance. No formal proofs or guarantees of exact convergence exist for variance-reduced algorithms under random reshuffling. This paper resolves this open convergence issue and provides the first theoretical guarantee of linear convergence under random reshuffling for SAGA; the argument is also adaptable to other variance-reduced algorithms. Under random reshuffling, the paper further proposes a new amortized variance-reduced gradient (AVRG) algorithm with constant storage requirements compared to SAGA and with balanced gradient computations compared to SVRG. The balancing in computations are attained by amortizing the full gradient calculation across all iterations. AVRG is also shown analytically to converge linearly.
- This work studies the problem of inferring whether an agent is directly influenced by another agent over an adaptive diffusion network. Agent i influences agent j if they are connected (according to the network topology), and if agent j uses the data from agent i to update its online statistic. The solution of this inference task is challenging for two main reasons. First, only the output of the diffusion learning algorithm is available to the external observer that must perform the inference based on these indirect measurements. Second, only output measurements from a fraction of the network agents is available, with the total number of agents itself being also unknown. The main focus of this article is ascertaining under these demanding conditions whether consistent tomography is possible, namely, whether it is possible to reconstruct the interaction profile of the observable portion of the network, with negligible error as the network size increases. We establish a critical achievability result, namely, that for symmetric combination policies and for any given fraction of observable agents, the interacting and non-interacting agent pairs split into two separate clusters as the network size increases. This remarkable property then enables the application of clustering algorithms to identify the interacting agents influencing the observations. We provide a set of numerical experiments that verify the results for finite network sizes and time horizons. The numerical experiments show that the results hold for asymmetric combination policies as well, which is particularly relevant in the context of causation.
- The analysis in Part I revealed interesting properties for subgradient learning algorithms in the context of stochastic optimization when gradient noise is present. These algorithms are used when the risk functions are non-smooth and involve non-differentiable components. They have been long recognized as being slow converging methods. However, it was revealed in Part I that the rate of convergence becomes linear for stochastic optimization problems, with the error iterate converging at an exponential rate $\alpha^i$ to within an $O(\mu)-$neighborhood of the optimizer, for some $\alpha \in (0,1)$ and small step-size $\mu$. The conclusion was established under weaker assumptions than the prior literature and, moreover, several important problems (such as LASSO, SVM, and Total Variation) were shown to satisfy these weaker assumptions automatically (but not the previously used conditions from the literature). These results revealed that sub-gradient learning methods have more favorable behavior than originally thought when used to enable continuous adaptation and learning. The results of Part I were exclusive to single-agent adaptation. The purpose of the current Part II is to examine the implications of these discoveries when a collection of networked agents employs subgradient learning as their cooperative mechanism. The analysis will show that, despite the coupled dynamics that arises in a networked scenario, the agents are still able to attain linear convergence in the stochastic case; they are also able to reach agreement within $O(\mu)$ of the optimizer.
- Feb 20 2017 math.OC arXiv:1702.05142v1Part I of this work developed the exact diffusion algorithm to remove the bias that is characteristic of distributed solutions for deterministic optimization problems. The algorithm was shown to be applicable to a larger set of combination policies than earlier approaches in the literature. In particular, the combination matrices are not required to be doubly stochastic or right-stochastic, which impose stringent conditions on the graph topology and communications protocol. In this Part II, we examine the convergence and stability properties of exact diffusion in some detail and establish its linear convergence rate. We also show that it has a wider stability range than the EXTRA consensus solution, meaning that it is stable for a wider range of step-sizes and can, therefore, attain faster convergence rates. Analytical examples and numerical simulations illustrate the theoretical findings.
- Feb 20 2017 math.OC arXiv:1702.05122v1This work develops a distributed optimization strategy with guaranteed exact convergence for a broad class of left-stochastic combination policies. The resulting exact diffusion strategy is shown in Part II to have a wider stability range and superior convergence performance than the EXTRA strategy. The exact diffusion solution is applicable to non-symmetric left-stochastic combination matrices, while most earlier developments on exact consensus implementations are limited to doubly-stochastic matrices; these latter matrices impose stringent constraints on the network topology. Similar difficulties arise for implementations with right-stochastic policies, which are common in push-sum consensus solutions. The derivation of the exact diffusion strategy in this work relies on reformulating the aggregate optimization problem as a penalized problem and resorting to a diagonally-weighted incremental construction. Detailed stability and convergence analyses are pursued in Part II and are facilitated by examining the evolution of the error dynamics in a transformed domain. Numerical simulations illustrate the theoretical conclusions.
- We propose an asynchronous, decentralized algorithm for consensus optimization. The algorithm runs over a network in which the agents communicate with their neighbors and perform local computation. In the proposed algorithm, each agent can compute and communicate independently at different times, for different durations, with the information it has even if the latest information from its neighbors is not yet available. Such an asynchronous algorithm reduces the time that agents would otherwise waste idle because of communication delays or because their neighbors are slower. It also eliminates the need for a global clock for synchronization. Mathematically, the algorithm involves both primal and dual variables, uses fixed step-size parameters, and provably converges to the exact solution under a bounded delay assumption and a random agent assumption. When running synchronously, the algorithm performs just as well as existing competitive synchronous algorithms such as PG-EXTRA, which diverges without synchronization. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical findings and illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.
- We consider the problem of decentralized clustering and estimation over multi-task networks, where agents infer and track different models of interest. The agents do not know beforehand which model is generating their own data. They also do not know which agents in their neighborhood belong to the same cluster. We propose a decentralized clustering algorithm aimed at identifying and forming clusters of agents of similar objectives, and at guiding cooperation to enhance the inference performance. One key feature of the proposed technique is the integration of the learning and clustering tasks into a single strategy. We analyze the performance of the procedure and show that the error probabilities of types I and II decay exponentially to zero with the step-size parameter. While links between agents following different objectives are ignored in the clustering process, we nevertheless show how to exploit these links to relay critical information across the network for enhanced performance. Simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed method in comparison to other useful techniques.
- The article examines in some detail the convergence rate and mean-square-error performance of momentum stochastic gradient methods in the constant step-size and slow adaptation regime. The results establish that momentum methods are equivalent to the standard stochastic gradient method with a re-scaled (larger) step-size value. The size of the re-scaling is determined by the value of the momentum parameter. The equivalence result is established for all time instants and not only in steady-state. The analysis is carried out for general strongly convex and smooth risk functions, and is not limited to quadratic risks. One notable conclusion is that the well-known bene ts of momentum constructions for deterministic optimization problems do not necessarily carry over to the adaptive online setting when small constant step-sizes are used to enable continuous adaptation and learn- ing in the presence of persistent gradient noise. From simulations, the equivalence between momentum and standard stochastic gradient methods is also observed for non-differentiable and non-convex problems.
- The stochastic dual coordinate-ascent (S-DCA) technique is a useful alternative to the traditional stochastic gradient-descent algorithm for solving large-scale optimization problems due to its scalability to large data sets and strong theoretical guarantees. However, the available S-DCA formulation is limited to finite sample sizes and relies on performing multiple passes over the same data. This formulation is not well-suited for online implementations where data keep streaming in. In this work, we develop an \em online dual coordinate-ascent (O-DCA) algorithm that is able to respond to streaming data and does not need to revisit the past data. This feature embeds the resulting construction with continuous adaptation, learning, and tracking abilities, which are particularly attractive for online learning scenarios.
- We consider distributed detection problems over adaptive networks, where dispersed agents learn continually from streaming data by means of local interactions. The simultaneous requirements of adaptation and cooperation are achieved by employing diffusion algorithms with constant step-size \mu. In [1], [2] some main features of adaptive distributed detection were revealed. By resorting to large deviations analysis, it was established that the Type-I and Type-II error probabilities of all agents vanish exponentially as functions of 1/\mu, and that all agents share the same Type-I and Type-II error exponents. However, numerical evidences presented in [1], [2] showed that the theory of large deviations does not capture the fundamental impact of network connectivity on performance, and that additional tools and efforts are required to obtain accurate predictions for the error probabilities. This work addresses these open issues and extends the results of [1], [2] in several directions. By conducting a refined asymptotic analysis based on the mathematical framework of exact asymptotics, we arrive at a revealing and powerful understanding of the universal behavior of distributed detection over adaptive networks: as functions of 1/\mu, the error (log-)probability curves corresponding to different agents stay nearly-parallel to each other (as already discovered in [1], [2]), however, these curves are ordered following a criterion reflecting the degree of connectivity of each agent. Depending on the combination weights, the more connected an agent is, the lower its error probability curve will be. Interesting and somehow unexpected behaviors emerge, in terms of the interplay between the network topology, the combination weights, and the inference performance. The lesson learned is that connectivity matters.
- Dec 01 2015 math.OC arXiv:1511.09180v1In a recent article [1] we surveyed advances related to adaptation, learning, and optimization over synchronous networks. Various distributed strategies were discussed that enable a collection of networked agents to interact locally in response to streaming data and to continually learn and adapt to track drifts in the data and models. Under reasonable technical conditions on the data, the adaptive networks were shown to be mean-square stable in the slow adaptation regime, and their mean-square-error performance and convergence rate were characterized in terms of the network topology and data statistical moments [2]. Classical results for single-agent adaptation and learning were recovered as special cases. Following the works [3]-[5], this chapter complements the exposition from [1] and extends the results to asynchronous networks. The operation of this class of networks can be subject to various sources of uncertainties that influence their dynamic behavior, including randomly changing topologies, random link failures, random data arrival times, and agents turning on and off randomly. In an asynchronous environment, agents may stop updating their solutions or may stop sending or receiving information in a random manner and without coordination with other agents. The presentation will reveal that the mean-square-error performance of asynchronous networks remains largely unaltered compared to synchronous networks. The results justify the remarkable resilience of cooperative networks in the face of random events.
- We study the problem of distributed adaptive estimation over networks where nodes cooperate to estimate physical parameters that can vary over both space and time domains. We use a set of basis functions to characterize the space-varying nature of the parameters and propose a diffusion least mean-squares (LMS) strategy to recover these parameters from successive time measurements. We analyze the stability and convergence of the proposed algorithm, and derive closed-form expressions to predict its learning behavior and steady-state performance in terms of mean-square error. We find that in the estimation of the space-varying parameters using distributed approaches, the covariance matrix of the regression data at each node becomes rank-deficient. Our analysis reveals that the proposed algorithm can overcome this difficulty to a large extent by benefiting from the network stochastic matrices that are used to combine exchanged information between nodes. We provide computer experiments to illustrate and support the theoretical findings.
- We study the performance of diffusion least-mean-square algorithms for distributed parameter estimation in multi-agent networks when nodes exchange information over wireless communication links. Wireless channel impairments, such as fading and path-loss, adversely affect the exchanged data and cause instability and performance degradation if left unattended. To mitigate these effects, we incorporate equalization coefficients into the diffusion combination step and update the combination weights dynamically in the face of randomly changing neighborhoods due to fading conditions. When channel state information (CSI) is unavailable, we determine the equalization factors from pilot-aided channel coefficient estimates. The analysis reveals that by properly monitoring the CSI over the network and choosing sufficiently small adaptation step-sizes, the diffusion strategies are able to deliver satisfactory performance in the presence of fading and path loss.
- In many fields, and especially in the medical and social sciences and in recommender systems, data are gathered through clinical studies or targeted surveys. Participants are generally reluctant to respond to all questions in a survey or they may lack information to respond adequately to some questions. The data collected from these studies tend to lead to linear regression models where the regression vectors are only known partially: some of their entries are either missing completely or replaced randomly by noisy values. In this work, assuming missing positions are replaced by noisy values, we examine how a connected network of agents, with each one of them subjected to a stream of data with incomplete regression information, can cooperate with each other through local interactions to estimate the underlying model parameters in the presence of missing data. We explain how to adjust the distributed diffusion through (de)regularization in order to eliminate the bias introduced by the incomplete model. We also propose a technique to recursively estimate the (de)regularization parameter and examine the performance of the resulting strategy. We illustrate the results by considering two applications: one dealing with a mental health survey and the other dealing with a household consumption survey.
- The paper examines the learning mechanism of adaptive agents over weakly-connected graphs and reveals an interesting behavior on how information flows through such topologies. The results clarify how asymmetries in the exchange of data can mask local information at certain agents and make them totally dependent on other agents. A leader-follower relationship develops with the performance of some agents being fully determined by the performance of other agents that are outside their domain of influence. This scenario can arise, for example, due to intruder attacks by malicious agents or as the result of failures by some critical links. The findings in this work help explain why strong-connectivity of the network topology, adaptation of the combination weights, and clustering of agents are important ingredients to equalize the learning abilities of all agents against such disturbances. The results also clarify how weak-connectivity can be helpful in reducing the effect of outlier data on learning performance.
- Distributed processing over networks relies on in-network processing and cooperation among neighboring agents. Cooperation is beneficial when agents share a common objective. However, in many applications agents may belong to different clusters that pursue different objectives. Then, indiscriminate cooperation will lead to undesired results. In this work, we propose an adaptive clustering and learning scheme that allows agents to learn which neighbors they should cooperate with and which other neighbors they should ignore. In doing so, the resulting algorithm enables the agents to identify their clusters and to attain improved learning and estimation accuracy over networks. We carry out a detailed mean-square analysis and assess the error probabilities of Types I and II, i.e., false alarm and mis-detection, for the clustering mechanism. Among other results, we establish that these probabilities decay exponentially with the step-sizes so that the probability of correct clustering can be made arbitrarily close to one.
- This work studies distributed primal-dual strategies for adaptation and learning over networks from streaming data. Two first-order methods are considered based on the Arrow-Hurwicz (AH) and augmented Lagrangian (AL) techniques. Several revealing results are discovered in relation to the performance and stability of these strategies when employed over adaptive networks. The conclusions establish that the advantages that these methods have for deterministic optimization problems do not necessarily carry over to stochastic optimization problems. It is found that they have narrower stability ranges and worse steady-state mean-square-error performance than primal methods of the consensus and diffusion type. It is also found that the AH technique can become unstable under a partial observation model, while the other techniques are able to recover the unknown under this scenario. A method to enhance the performance of AL strategies is proposed by tying the selection of the step-size to their regularization parameter. It is shown that this method allows the AL algorithm to approach the performance of consensus and diffusion strategies but that it remains less stable than these other strategies.
- This work examines the close interplay between cooperation and adaptation for distributed detection schemes over fully decentralized networks. The combined attributes of cooperation and adaptation are necessary to enable networks of detectors to continually learn from streaming data and to continually track drifts in the state of nature when deciding in favor of one hypothesis or another. The results in the paper establish a fundamental scaling law for the steady-state probabilities of miss-detection and false-alarm in the slow adaptation regime, when the agents interact with each other according to distributed strategies that employ small constant step-sizes. The latter are critical to enable continuous adaptation and learning. The work establishes three key results. First, it is shown that the output of the collaborative process at each agent has a steady-state distribution. Second, it is shown that this distribution is asymptotically Gaussian in the slow adaptation regime of small step-sizes. And third, by carrying out a detailed large deviations analysis, closed-form expressions are derived for the decaying rates of the false-alarm and miss-detection probabilities. Interesting insights are gained. In particular, it is verified that as the step-size $\mu$ decreases, the error probabilities are driven to zero exponentially fast as functions of $1/\mu$, and that the error exponents increase linearly in the number of agents. It is also verified that the scaling laws governing errors of detection and errors of estimation over networks behave very differently, with the former having an exponential decay proportional to $1/\mu$, while the latter scales linearly with decay proportional to $\mu$. It is shown that the cooperative strategy allows each agent to reach the same detection performance, in terms of detection error exponents, of a centralized stochastic-gradient solution.
- This work carries out a detailed transient analysis of the learning behavior of multi-agent networks, and reveals interesting results about the learning abilities of distributed strategies. Among other results, the analysis reveals how combination policies influence the learning process of networked agents, and how these policies can steer the convergence point towards any of many possible Pareto optimal solutions. The results also establish that the learning process of an adaptive network undergoes three (rather than two) well-defined stages of evolution with distinctive convergence rates during the first two stages, while attaining a finite mean-square-error (MSE) level in the last stage. The analysis reveals what aspects of the network topology influence performance directly and suggests design procedures that can optimize performance by adjusting the relevant topology parameters. Interestingly, it is further shown that, in the adaptation regime, each agent in a sparsely connected network is able to achieve the same performance level as that of a centralized stochastic-gradient strategy even for left-stochastic combination strategies. These results lead to a deeper understanding and useful insights on the convergence behavior of coupled distributed learners. The results also lead to effective design mechanisms to help diffuse information more thoroughly over networks.
- Part I of this work examined the mean-square stability and convergence of the learning process of distributed strategies over graphs. The results identified conditions on the network topology, utilities, and data in order to ensure stability; the results also identified three distinct stages in the learning behavior of multi-agent networks related to transient phases I and II and the steady-state phase. This Part II examines the steady-state phase of distributed learning by networked agents. Apart from characterizing the performance of the individual agents, it is shown that the network induces a useful equalization effect across all agents. In this way, the performance of noisier agents is enhanced to the same level as the performance of agents with less noisy data. It is further shown that in the small step-size regime, each agent in the network is able to achieve the same performance level as that of a centralized strategy corresponding to a fully connected network. The results in this part reveal explicitly which aspects of the network topology and operation influence performance and provide important insights into the design of effective mechanisms for the processing and diffusion of information over networks.
- In this work and the supporting Parts II [2] and III [3], we provide a rather detailed analysis of the stability and performance of asynchronous strategies for solving distributed optimization and adaptation problems over networks. We examine asynchronous networks that are subject to fairly general sources of uncertainties, such as changing topologies, random link failures, random data arrival times, and agents turning on and off randomly. Under this model, agents in the network may stop updating their solutions or may stop sending or receiving information in a random manner and without coordination with other agents. We establish in Part I conditions on the first and second-order moments of the relevant parameter distributions to ensure mean-square stable behavior. We derive in Part II expressions that reveal how the various parameters of the asynchronous behavior influence network performance. We compare in Part III the performance of asynchronous networks to the performance of both centralized solutions and synchronous networks. One notable conclusion is that the mean-square-error performance of asynchronous networks shows a degradation only of the order of $O(\nu)$, where $\nu$ is a small step-size parameter, while the convergence rate remains largely unaltered. The results provide a solid justification for the remarkable resilience of cooperative networks in the face of random failures at multiple levels: agents, links, data arrivals, and topology.
- In Part II [3] we carried out a detailed mean-square-error analysis of the performance of asynchronous adaptation and learning over networks under a fairly general model for asynchronous events including random topologies, random link failures, random data arrival times, and agents turning on and off randomly. In this Part III, we compare the performance of synchronous and asynchronous networks. We also compare the performance of decentralized adaptation against centralized stochastic-gradient (batch) solutions. Two interesting conclusions stand out. First, the results establish that the performance of adaptive networks is largely immune to the effect of asynchronous events: the mean and mean-square convergence rates and the asymptotic bias values are not degraded relative to synchronous or centralized implementations. Only the steady-state mean-square-deviation suffers a degradation in the order of $\nu$, which represents the small step-size parameters used for adaptation. Second, the results show that the adaptive distributed network matches the performance of the centralized solution. These conclusions highlight another critical benefit of cooperation by networked agents: cooperation does not only enhance performance in comparison to stand-alone single-agent processing, but it also endows the network with remarkable resilience to various forms of random failure events and is able to deliver performance that is as powerful as batch solutions.
- In Part I \citeZhao13TSPasync1, we introduced a fairly general model for asynchronous events over adaptive networks including random topologies, random link failures, random data arrival times, and agents turning on and off randomly. We performed a stability analysis and established the notable fact that the network is still able to converge in the mean-square-error sense to the desired solution. Once stable behavior is guaranteed, it becomes important to evaluate how fast the iterates converge and how close they get to the optimal solution. This is a demanding task due to the various asynchronous events and due to the fact that agents influence each other. In this Part II, we carry out a detailed analysis of the mean-square-error performance of asynchronous strategies for solving distributed optimization and adaptation problems over networks. We derive analytical expressions for the mean-square convergence rate and the steady-state mean-square-deviation. The expressions reveal how the various parameters of the asynchronous behavior influence network performance. In the process, we establish the interesting conclusion that even under the influence of asynchronous events, all agents in the adaptive network can still reach an $O(\nu^{1 + \gamma_o'})$ near-agreement with some $\gamma_o' > 0$ while approaching the desired solution within $O(\nu)$ accuracy, where $\nu$ is proportional to the small step-size parameter for adaptation.
- In this work, we study the task of distributed optimization over a network of learners in which each learner possesses a convex cost function, a set of affine equality constraints, and a set of convex inequality constraints. We propose a fully-distributed adaptive diffusion algorithm based on penalty methods that allows the network to cooperatively optimize the global cost function, which is defined as the sum of the individual costs over the network, subject to all constraints. We show that when small constant step-sizes are employed, the expected distance between the optimal solution vector and that obtained at each node in the network can be made arbitrarily small. Two distinguishing features of the proposed solution relative to other related approaches is that the developed strategy does not require the use of projections and is able to adapt to and track drifts in the location of the minimizer due to changes in the constraints or in the aggregate cost itself. The proposed strategy is also able to cope with changing network topology, is robust to network disruptions, and does not require global information or rely on central processors.
- Recent research works on distributed adaptive networks have intensively studied the case where the nodes estimate a common parameter vector collaboratively. However, there are many applications that are multitask-oriented in the sense that there are multiple parameter vectors that need to be inferred simultaneously. In this paper, we employ diffusion strategies to develop distributed algorithms that address clustered multitask problems by minimizing an appropriate mean-square error criterion with $\ell_2$-regularization. Some results on the mean-square stability and convergence of the algorithm are also provided. Simulations are conducted to illustrate the theoretical findings.
- In distributed processing, agents generally collect data generated by the same underlying unknown model (represented by a vector of parameters) and then solve an estimation or inference task cooperatively. In this paper, we consider the situation in which the data observed by the agents may have risen from two different models. Agents do not know beforehand which model accounts for their data and the data of their neighbors. The objective for the network is for all agents to reach agreement on which model to track and to estimate this model cooperatively. In these situations, where agents are subject to data from unknown different sources, conventional distributed estimation strategies would lead to biased estimates relative to any of the underlying models. We first show how to modify existing strategies to guarantee unbiasedness. We then develop a classification scheme for the agents to identify the models that generated the data, and propose a procedure by which the entire network can be made to converge towards the same model through a collaborative decision-making process. The resulting algorithm is applied to model fish foraging behavior in the presence of two food sources.
- This work studies the learning ability of consensus and diffusion distributed learners from continuous streams of data arising from different but related statistical distributions. Four distinctive features for diffusion learners are revealed in relation to other decentralized schemes even under left-stochastic combination policies. First, closed-form expressions for the evolution of their excess-risk are derived for strongly-convex risk functions under a diminishing step-size rule. Second, using these results, it is shown that the diffusion strategy improves the asymptotic convergence rate of the excess-risk relative to non-cooperative schemes. Third, it is shown that when the in-network cooperation rules are designed optimally, the performance of the diffusion implementation can outperform that of naive centralized processing. Finally, the arguments further show that diffusion outperforms consensus strategies asymptotically, and that the asymptotic excess-risk expression is invariant to the particular network topology. The framework adopted in this work studies convergence in the stronger mean-square-error sense, rather than in distribution, and develops tools that enable a close examination of the differences between distributed strategies in terms of asymptotic behavior, as well as in terms of convergence rates.
- In this work, we analyze the generalization ability of distributed online learning algorithms under stationary and non-stationary environments. We derive bounds for the excess-risk attained by each node in a connected network of learners and study the performance advantage that diffusion strategies have over individual non-cooperative processing. We conduct extensive simulations to illustrate the results.
- We consider solving multi-objective optimization problems in a distributed manner by a network of cooperating and learning agents. The problem is equivalent to optimizing a global cost that is the sum of individual components. The optimizers of the individual components do not necessarily coincide and the network therefore needs to seek Pareto optimal solutions. We develop a distributed solution that relies on a general class of adaptive diffusion strategies. We show how the diffusion process can be represented as the cascade composition of three operators: two combination operators and a gradient descent operator. Using the Banach fixed-point theorem, we establish the existence of a unique fixed point for the composite cascade. We then study how close each agent converges towards this fixed point, and also examine how close the Pareto solution is to the fixed point. We perform a detailed mean-square error analysis and establish that all agents are able to converge to the same Pareto optimal solution within a sufficiently small mean-square-error (MSE) bound even for constant step-sizes. We illustrate one application of the theory to collaborative decision making in finance by a network of agents.
- In this work we analyze the mean-square performance of different strategies for distributed estimation over least-mean-squares (LMS) adaptive networks. The results highlight some useful properties for distributed adaptation in comparison to fusion-based centralized solutions. The analysis establishes that, by optimizing over the combination weights, diffusion strategies can deliver lower excess-mean-square-error than centralized solutions employing traditional block or incremental LMS strategies. We first study in some detail the situation involving combinations of two adaptive agents and then extend the results to generic N-node ad-hoc networks. In the later case, we establish that, for sufficiently small step-sizes, diffusion strategies can outperform centralized block or incremental LMS strategies by optimizing over left-stochastic combination weighting matrices. The results suggest more efficient ways for organizing and processing data at fusion centers, and present useful adaptive strategies that are able to enhance performance when implemented in a distributed manner.
- Adaptive networks consist of a collection of nodes with adaptation and learning abilities. The nodes interact with each other on a local level and diffuse information across the network to solve estimation and inference tasks in a distributed manner. In this work, we compare the mean-square performance of two main strategies for distributed estimation over networks: consensus strategies and diffusion strategies. The analysis in the paper confirms that under constant step-sizes, diffusion strategies allow information to diffuse more thoroughly through the network and this property has a favorable effect on the evolution of the network: diffusion networks are shown to converge faster and reach lower mean-square deviation than consensus networks, and their mean-square stability is insensitive to the choice of the combination weights. In contrast, and surprisingly, it is shown that consensus networks can become unstable even if all the individual nodes are stable and able to solve the estimation task on their own. When this occurs, cooperation over the network leads to a catastrophic failure of the estimation task. This phenomenon does not occur for diffusion networks: we show that stability of the individual nodes always ensures stability of the diffusion network irrespective of the combination topology. Simulation results support the theoretical findings.
- Adaptive networks consist of a collection of agents with adaptation and learning abilities. The agents interact with each other on a local level and diffuse information across the network through their collaborations. In this work, we consider two types of agents: informed agents and uninformed agents. The former receive new data regularly and perform consultation and in-network tasks, while the latter do not collect data and only participate in the consultation tasks. We examine the performance of adaptive networks as a function of the proportion of informed agents and their distribution in space. The results reveal some interesting and surprising trade-offs between convergence rate and mean-square performance. In particular, among other results, it is shown that the performance of adaptive networks does not necessarily improve with a larger proportion of informed agents. Instead, it is established that the larger the proportion of informed agents is, the faster the convergence rate of the network becomes albeit at the expense of some deterioration in mean-square performance. The results further establish that uninformed agents play an important role in determining the steady-state performance of the network, and that it is preferable to keep some of the highly connected agents uninformed. The arguments reveal an important interplay among three factors: the number and distribution of informed agents in the network, the convergence rate of the learning process, and the estimation accuracy in steady-state. Expressions that quantify these relations are derived, and simulations are included to support the theoretical findings. We further apply the results to two models that are widely used to represent behavior over complex networks, namely, the Erdos-Renyi and scale-free models.
- Adaptive networks rely on in-network and collaborative processing among distributed agents to deliver enhanced performance in estimation and inference tasks. Information is exchanged among the nodes, usually over noisy links. The combination weights that are used by the nodes to fuse information from their neighbors play a critical role in influencing the adaptation and tracking abilities of the network. This paper first investigates the mean-square performance of general adaptive diffusion algorithms in the presence of various sources of imperfect information exchanges, quantization errors, and model non-stationarities. Among other results, the analysis reveals that link noise over the regression data modifies the dynamics of the network evolution in a distinct way, and leads to biased estimates in steady-state. The analysis also reveals how the network mean-square performance is dependent on the combination weights. We use these observations to show how the combination weights can be optimized and adapted. Simulation results illustrate the theoretical findings and match well with theory.
- We propose an adaptive diffusion mechanism to optimize a global cost function in a distributed manner over a network of nodes. The cost function is assumed to consist of a collection of individual components. Diffusion adaptation allows the nodes to cooperate and diffuse information in real-time; it also helps alleviate the effects of stochastic gradient noise and measurement noise through a continuous learning process. We analyze the mean-square-error performance of the algorithm in some detail, including its transient and steady-state behavior. We also apply the diffusion algorithm to two problems: distributed estimation with sparse parameters and distributed localization. Compared to well-studied incremental methods, diffusion methods do not require the use of a cyclic path over the nodes and are robust to node and link failure. Diffusion methods also endow networks with adaptation abilities that enable the individual nodes to continue learning even when the cost function changes with time. Examples involving such dynamic cost functions with moving targets are common in the context of biological networks.
- Spectrum sensing is one of the enabling functionalities for cognitive radio (CR) systems to operate in the spectrum white space. To protect the primary incumbent users from interference, the CR is required to detect incumbent signals at very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we present a spectrum sensing technique based on correlating spectra for detection of television (TV) broadcasting signals. The basic strategy is to correlate the periodogram of the received signal with the a priori known spectral features of the primary signal. We show that according to the Neyman-Pearson criterion, this spectral correlation-based sensing technique is asymptotically optimal at very low SNR and with a large sensing time. From the system design perspective, we analyze the effect of the spectral features on the spectrum sensing performance. Through the optimization analysis, we obtain useful insights on how to choose effective spectral features to achieve reliable sensing. Simulation results show that the proposed sensing technique can reliably detect analog and digital TV signals at SNR as low as -20 dB.
- Spectrum sensing is an essential enabling functionality for cognitive radio networks to detect spectrum holes and opportunistically use the under-utilized frequency bands without causing harmful interference to legacy networks. This paper introduces a novel wideband spectrum sensing technique, called multiband joint detection, which jointly detects the signal energy levels over multiple frequency bands rather than consider one band at a time. The proposed strategy is efficient in improving the dynamic spectrum utilization and reducing interference to the primary users. The spectrum sensing problem is formulated as a class of optimization problems in interference limited cognitive radio networks. By exploiting the hidden convexity in the seemingly non-convex problem formulations, optimal solutions for multiband joint detection are obtained under practical conditions. Simulation results show that the proposed spectrum sensing schemes can considerably improve the system performance. This paper establishes important principles for the design of wideband spectrum sensing algorithms in cognitive radio networks.
- Spectrum sensing is an essential functionality that enables cognitive radios to detect spectral holes and opportunistically use under-utilized frequency bands without causing harmful interference to primary networks. Since individual cognitive radios might not be able to reliably detect weak primary signals due to channel fading/shadowing, this paper proposes a cooperative wideband spectrum sensing scheme, referred to as spatial-spectral joint detection, which is based on a linear combination of the local statistics from spatially distributed multiple cognitive radios. The cooperative sensing problem is formulated into an optimization problem, for which suboptimal but efficient solutions can be obtained through mathematical transformation under practical conditions.