results for au:Sarkar_S in:hep-th

- We study the entropy evolution of black holes in Lovelock gravity by formulating a thermodynamic generalization of null Raychaudhuri equation. We show that the similarity between the expressions of entropy change of the black hole horizon due to perturbation and that of a fluid, which is out of equilibrium, transcends beyond general relativity to the Lovelock class of theories. Exploiting this analogy we find that the shear and bulk viscosities for the black holes in Lovelock theories exactly match with those obtained in the membrane paradigm and also from holographic considerations.
- Jan 25 2018 hep-th arXiv:1801.08106v1This paper reports a study of the nonlinear partial differential equation that arises in the local potential approximation to the Wetterich formulation of the functional renormalization group equation. A cut-off-dependent shift of the potential in this partial differential equation is performed. This shift allows a perturbative asymptotic treatment of the differential equation for large values of the infrared cut-off. To leading order in perturbation theory the differential equation becomes a heat equation, where the sign of the diffusion constant changes as the space-time dimension $D$ passes through $2$. When $D<2$, one obtains a forward heat equation whose initial-value problem is well-posed. However, for $D>2$ one obtains a backward heat equation whose initial-value problem is ill-posed. For the special case $D=1$ the asymptotic series for cubic and quartic models is extrapolated to the small infrared-cut-off limit by using Padé techniques. The effective potential thus obtained from the partial differential equation is then used in a Schrödinger-equation setting to study the stability of the ground state. For cubic potentials it is found that this Padé procedure distinguishes between a $PT$-symmetric $ig\phi^3$ theory and a conventional Hermitian $g\phi^3$ theory ($g$ real). For an $ig\phi^3$ theory the effective potential is nonsingular and has a stable ground state but for a conventional $g\phi^3$ theory the effective potential is singular. For a conventional Hermitian $g\phi^4$ theory and a $PT$-symmetric $-g\phi^4$ theory ($g>0$) the results are similar; the effective potentials in both cases are nonsingular and possess stable ground states.
- We find a local first law of thermodynamics, $\Delta E = T \Delta S - W$, connecting gravitational entropy, $S$, with matter energy and work. For Einstein gravity $S$ is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, while for more general theories of gravity $S$ is the Wald entropy, evaluated on the stretched future light cone of any point in an arbitrary spacetime, not necessarily containing a black hole. The equation can also be written as $\rho \Delta V = T \Delta S - p \Delta V$ by regarding the energy-momentum tensor as that of a fluid.
- Jan 09 2018 hep-th arXiv:1801.02059v1In \cite2 and \cite1 intersecting $D$-branes in flat space were studied at finite temperature in the Yang-Mills approximation. The one-loop correction to the tachyon mass was computed and the critical temperature at which the tachyon becomes massless was obtained numerically. In this paper we extend the computation of one-loop two-point amplitude to the case of intersecting stacks of $D3$-branes in flat space. The motivation for this calculation is to study the strong coupling holographic BCS model proposed in \cite3 at finite temperature. We show that the analytical results of \cite2 and \cite1 can be embedded into this more general setup. The main technicality involved here is keeping track of the extra color factors coming from the unbroken gauge groups. We further discuss the issues involved in the computation of two point amplitude for case of multiple intersecting stacks of branes.
- Dec 25 2017 hep-th arXiv:1712.08185v1We study the spectrum of local operators living on a defect in a generic conformal field theory, and their coupling to the local bulk operators. We establish the existence of universal accumulation points in the spectrum at large $s$, $s$ being the charge of the operators under rotations in the space transverse to the defect. Our tools include a formula that inverts the bulk to defect OPE, analogous to the Caron-Huot formula for the four-point function. Analyticity of the formula in $s$ implies that the scaling dimensions of the defect operators are aligned in Regge trajectories $\widehat{\Delta}(s)$. These results require the correlator of two local operators and the defect to be bounded in a certain region, a condition that we do not prove in general. We check our conclusions against examples in perturbation theory and holography, and we make specific predictions concerning the spectrum of defect operators on Wilson lines. We also give an interpretation of the large $s$ spectrum in the spirit of the work of Alday and Maldacena.
- We discuss leptogenesis in a model with heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos propagating in a constant but otherwise generic CPT-violating axial time-like background (which could be motivated by string theory considerations). At temperatures much higher than the temperature of the electroweak phase transition we solve analytically but approximately (using Pade approximants) the corresponding Boltzmann equations, which describe lepton asymmetry generation due to the tree-level decays of the heavy neutrinos into standard model leptons. These leptons are effectively massless at such temperatures. The current work completes in a rigorous way a preliminary treatment of the same system, by some of the present authors. In this earlier work, lepton asymmetry was crudely estimated considering the decay of a right-handed neutrino at rest. Our present analysis includes thermal momentum modes for the heavy neutrino and this leads to a total lepton asymmetry which is bigger by a factor of two as compared to the previous estimate. Nevertheless, our current and preliminary results for the freezeout are found to be in agreement (within a 12.5% uncertainty). Our analysis depends on a novel use of Pade approximants to solve the Boltzmann equations and may be more widely useful in cosmology.
- Nov 22 2017 hep-th arXiv:1711.07929v1We define Mellin amplitudes for the fermion-scalar four point function and the fermion four point function. The Mellin amplitude thus defined has multiple components each associated with a tensor structure. In the case of three spacetime dimensions, we explicitly show that each component factorizes on dynamical poles onto components of the Mellin amplitudes for the corresponding three point functions. The novelty here is that for a given exchanged primary, each component of the Mellin amplitude may in general have more than one series of poles. We present a few examples of Mellin amplitudes for tree-level Witten diagrams and tree-level conformal Feynman integrals with fermionic legs, which illustrate the general properties.
- Physical process version of the first law of black hole mechanics relates the change in entropy of a perturbed Killing horizon, between two asymptotic cross sections, to the matter flow into the horizon. In dynamical situations, for two intermediate cross sections of the horizon, it follows that the change of entropy inherits additional contributions. We show that these additional terms essentially coincide with the membrane energy associated with the horizon fluid. Using this interpretation, we write down a physical process first law for entropy change between two arbitrary non stationary cross sections of the horizon. Moreover, the above result goes beyond general relativity and holds for Lanczos-Lovelock gravity as well.
- We prove the non existence of massive scalar, vector and tensor hairs outside the surface of a static and stationary compact reflecting star. Our result is the extension of the no hair theorem for black holes to horizonless compact configurations with reflecting boundary condition at the surface. We also generalize the proof for spacetimes with a positive cosmological constant.
- Arising out of a Non-local non-relativistic BEC, we present an Analogue gravity model upto $\mathcal{O}(\xi^{2})$ accuracy in the presence of the quantum potential term for a canonical acoustic BH in $(3+1)$-d spacetime where the series solution of the free minimally coupled KG equation for the large length scale massive scalar modes is derived. We systematically address the issues of the presence of the quantum potential term being the root cause of a UV-IR coupling between short wavelength `primary' modes which are supposedly Hawking radiated through the sonic horizon and the large wavelength `secondary' modes. In the quantum gravity experiments of analogue Hawking radiation in the laboratory, this UV-IR coupling is inevitable and one can not get rid of these large wavelength excitations which would grow over space by gaining energy from the short wavelength Hawking radiated modes. We identify the characteristic feature in the growth rate(s) that would distinguish these primary and secondary modes.
- Mar 20 2017 hep-th arXiv:1703.06132v2We explore the connection between the operator product expansion (OPE) in the boundary and worldsheet conformal field theories in the context of AdS$_{d+1}$/CFT$_d$ correspondence. Considering single trace scalar operators in the boundary theory and using the saddle point analysis of the worldsheet OPE [1], we derive an explicit relation between OPE coefficients in the boundary and worldsheet theories for the contribution of single trace spin $\ell$ operators to the OPE. We also consider external vector operators and obtain the relation between OPE coefficients for the exchange of single trace scalar operators in the OPE. We revisit the relationship between the bulk cubic couplings in the Supergravity approximation and the OPE coefficients in the dual boundary theory. Our results match with the known examples from the case of AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$. For the operators whose two and three point correlators enjoy a non renormalization theorem, this gives a set of three way relations between the bulk cubic couplings in supergravity and the OPE coefficients in the boundary and worldsheet theories.
- Oct 25 2016 hep-th arXiv:1610.07140v1We continue with the analysis of finite temperature corrections to the Tachyon mass in intersecting branes which was initiated in arxiv:1403.0389. In this paper we extend the computation to the case of intersecting D3-branes by considering a setup of two intersecting branes in flat-space background. A holographic model dual to BCS superconductor consisting of intersecting D8-branes in D4-brane background was proposed in arxiv:1104.2843. The background considered here is a simplified configuration of this dual model. We compute the one-loop Tachyon amplitude in the Yang-Mills approximation and show that the result is finite. Analyzing the amplitudes further we numerically compute the transition temperature at which the Tachyon becomes massless. The analytic expressions for the one-loop amplitudes obtained here reduce to those for intersecting D1-branes obtained in arxiv:1403.0389 as well as those for intersecting D2-branes.
- Oct 05 2016 hep-th arXiv:1610.00724v2We investigate two-parameter solutions of sigma-models on two dimensional symmetric spaces contained in E11. Embedding such sigma-model solutions in space-time gives solutions of M* and M'-theory where the metric depends on general travelling wave functions, as opposed to harmonic functions typical in general relativity, supergravity and M-theory. Weyl reflection allows such solutions to be mapped to M-theory solutions where the wave functions depend explicitly on extra coordinates contained in the fundamental representation of E11.
- Jul 26 2016 hep-th arXiv:1607.07334v3We explore the Mellin representation of correlation functions in conformal field theories in the weak coupling regime. We provide a complete proof for a set of Feynman rules to write the Mellin amplitude for a general tree level Feynman diagram involving only scalar operators. We find a factorised form involving beta functions associated to the propagators, similar to tree level Feynman rules in momentum space for ordinary QFTs. We also briefly consider the case where a generic scalar perturbation of the free CFT breaks conformal invariance. Mellin space still has some utility and one can consider non-conformal Mellin representations. In this context, we find that the beta function corresponding to conformal propagator uplifts to a hypergeometric function.
- Possible classical solutions for electromagnetic monopoles induced by gravitational (global) monopoles in the presence of torsion are found. Such solutions rely on a non-zero (Kalb-Ramond) torsion strength, which may characterise low energy theories inspired from string models. Bounds from the current run of the LHC experiments are used to constrain the parameters of the model, but because the production mechanism depends on the details of the model and its ultraviolet completion, such bounds are presently only indicative.
- When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.
- We show that for a general four derivative theory of gravity, only the holographic entanglement entropy functionals obey the second law at linearized order in perturbations. We also derive bounds on the higher curvature couplings in several examples, demanding the validity of the second law for higher order perturbations. For the five dimensional Gauss-Bonnet theory in the context of AdS/CFT, the bound arising from black branes coincides with there being no sound channel instability close to the horizon. Repeating the analysis for topological black holes, the bound coincides with the tensor channel causality constraint (which is responsible for the viscosity bound). Furthermore, we show how to recover the holographic c-theorems in higher curvature theories from similar considerations based on the Raychaudhuri equation.
- The conventional interpretation of the one-loop effective potentials of the Higgs field in the Standard Model and the gravitino condensate in dynamically broken supergravity is that these theories are unstable at large field values. A PT-symmetric reinterpretation of these models at a quantum-mechanical level eliminates these instabilities and suggests that these instabilities may also be tamed at the quantum-field-theory level.
- Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is non stationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a Second Law.
- The effect of torsion in theories of quantum gravity is known to be well described by an axion-like field which couples to matter as well as to gravitation and radiation gauge fields. In this note we consider a particular kind of torsion, arising from the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field that appears in the gravitational multiplet of string theory. We investigate the implications for leptogenesis. It is shown that leptogenesis can occur even at tree-level and with only one generation of right-handed Majorana neutrinos, due to CP and CPT violation introduced by the background geometry.
- We study flat space cosmologies in two dimensions by taking the flat space limit of the Achucarro-Ortiz model. We unravel a phase transition between hot flat space and flat space cosmologies, and derive a new dilaton-dependent counterterm required for the consistency of the Euclidean partition function. Our results generalize to asymptotically mass-dominated 2-dimensional dilaton gravity models, whose thermodynamical properties we discuss. The novel case of asymptotic mass-domination is neither covered by the comprehensive discussion of hep-th/0703230 nor by the more recent generalization to dilaton gravity with confining U(1) charges in 1406.7007.
- Logarithmic time-like Liouville quantum field theory has a generalized PT invariance, where T is the time-reversal operator and P stands for an S-duality reflection of the Liouville field $\phi$. In Euclidean space the Lagrangian of such a theory, $L=\frac{1}{2}(\nabla\phi)^2-ig\phi\exp(ia\phi)$, is analyzed using the techniques of PT-symmetric quantum theory. It is shown that L defines an infinite number of unitarily inequivalent sectors of the theory labeled by the integer n. In one-dimensional space (quantum mechanics) the energy spectrum is calculated in the semiclassical limit and the mth energy level in the nth sector is given by $E_{m,n}\sim(m+1/2)^2a^2/(16n^2)$.
- Mar 04 2014 hep-th cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1403.0389v2A holographic description of BCS superconductivity is given in arxiv:1104.2843. This model was constructed by insertion of a pair of D8-branes on a D4-background. The spectrum of intersecting D8-branes has tachyonic modes indicating an instability which is identified with the BCS instability in superconductors. Our aim is to study the stability of the intersecting branes under finite temperature effects. Many of the technical aspects of this problem are captured by a simpler problem of two intersecting D1-branes on flat background. In the simplified set-up we compute the one-loop finite temperature corrections to the tree-level tachyon mass using the frame-work of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (1 + 1)-dimensions. We show that the one-loop two-point functions are ultraviolet finite due to cancellation of ultraviolet divergence between the amplitudes containing bosons and fermions in the loop. The amplitudes are found to be infrared divergent due to the presence of massless fields in the loops. We compute the finite temperature mass correction to all the massless fields and use these temperature dependent masses to compute the tachyonic mass correction. We show numerically the existence of a transition temperature at which the effective mass of the tree-level tachyons becomes zero, thereby stabilizing the brane configuration.
- The generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe may be induced by the propagation of fermions in non-trivial, spherically asymmetric (and hence Lorentz violating) gravitational backgrounds. Such backgrounds may characterise the epoch of the early universe. The key point in these models is that the background induces different dispersion relations, hence populations, between fermions and antifermions, and thus CPT Violation (CPTV) appears in thermal equilibrium. Species populations may freeze out leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. We consider here a string-inspired scenario, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond (KR) antisymemtric tensor field of the string gravitational multiplet. In a four-dimensional space time this field is dual to a pseudoscalar ``axion-like'' field. The mixing of the KR field with an ordinary axion field can lead to the generation of a Majorana neutrino mass.
- In an earlier paper it was argued that the conventional double-scaling limit of an O(N)-symmetric quartic quantum field theory is inconsistent because the critical coupling constant is negative and thus the integral representing the partition function of the critical theory does not exist. In this earlier paper it was shown that for an O(N)-symmetric quantum field theory in zero-dimensional spacetime one can avoid this difficulty if one replaces the original quartic theory by its PT-symmetric analog. In the current paper an O(N)-symmetric quartic quantum field theory in one-dimensional spacetime [that is, O(N)-symmetric quantum mechanics] is studied using the Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the global PT-symmetric formulation of this differential equation provides a consistent way to perform the double-scaling limit of the O(N)-symmetric anharmonic oscillator. The physical nature of the critical behavior is explained by studying the PT-symmetric quantum theory and the corresponding and equivalent Hermitian quantum theory.
- In this article we consider the second law of black holes (and other causal horizons) in theories where the gravitational action is an arbitrary function of the Lovelock densities. We show that there exists an entropy which increases locally, for linearized perturbations to regular Killing horizons. In addition to a classical increase theorem, we also prove a generalized second law for semiclassical, minimally-coupled matter fields.
- We consider a model of an expanding Universe in string theory that yields `environmental' CPT violation for fermions, in the sense of different dispersion relations for fermions and antifermions. These are induced by a cosmological background with constant torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field (axion) of the string gravitational multiplet. This effect induces different densities of neutrinos and antineutrinos while in chemical equilibrium, offering new scenarios for leptogenesis and baryogenesis even in the absence of CP violation.
- We propose an expression for the entropy density associated with the Local Causal Horizons in any diffeomorphism invariant theory of gravity. If the black-hole entropy of the theory satisfies the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamics then our proposed entropy satisfies the Clausius relation. Thus, our study shows that the thermodynamic nature of the spacetime horizons is not restricted to the black holes; it also applies to the local causal horizons in the neighborhood of any point in the spacetime.
- The conventional double-scaling limit of an O(N)-symmetric quartic quantum field theory is inconsistent because the critical coupling constant is negative. Thus, at the critical coupling the Lagrangian defines a quantum theory with an upside-down potential whose energy appears to be unbounded below. Worse yet, the integral representation of the partition function of the theory does not exist. It is shown that one can avoid these difficulties if one replaces the original theory by its PT-symmetric analog. For a zero-dimensional O(N)-symmetric quartic vector model the partition function of the PT-symmetric analog is calculated explicitly in the double-scaling limit.
- We study the zeroth law for Killing horizons in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity. We show that the surface gravity of a general Killing horizon in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity (except for general relativity) may not be constant even when the matter source satisfies dominant energy condition.
- This paper presents an asymptotic analysis of the Boltzmann equations (Riccati differential equations) that describe the physics of thermal dark-matter-relic abundances. Two different asymptotic techniques are used, boundary-layer theory, which makes use of asymptotic matching, and the delta expansion, which is a powerful technique for solving nonlinear differential equations. Two different Boltzmann equations are considered. The first is derived from general relativistic considerations and the second arises in dilatonic string cosmology. The global asymptotic analysis presented here is used to find the long-time behavior of the solutions to these equations. In the first case the nature of the so-called freeze-out region and the post-freeze-out behavior is explored. In the second case the effect of the dilaton on cold dark-matter abundances is calculated and it is shown that there is a large-time power-law fall off of the dark-matter abundance. Corrections to the power-law behavior are also calculated.
- For charged black hole, within the grand canonical ensemble, the decay rate from thermal AdS to the black hole at a fixed high temperature increases with the chemical potential. We check that this feature is well captured by a phenomenological matrix model expected to describe its strongly coupled dual. This comparison is made by explicitly constructing the kink and bounce solutions around the de-confinement transition and evaluating the matrix model effective potential on the solutions.
- It is argued that four Fermi interactions induced by non-perturbative effects due to scattering of stringy matter from D-particles, D-instantons and more generally bulk gauge fields in models with large extra dimensions have in specific situations condensate structure described by flavour vacua.
- We study quasi-stationary physical process for black holes within the context of Lanczos-Lovelock gravity. We show that the Wald entropy of stationary black holes in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity monotonically increases for quasi-stationary physical processes in which the horizon is perturbed by the accretion of positive energy matter and the black hole ultimately settles down to a stationary state. This result reinforces the physical interpretation of Wald entropy for Lanczos-Lovelock models and takes a step towards proving the analogue of the black hole area increase-theorem in a wider class of gravitational theories.
- The Clausius relation between entropy change and heat flux has previously been used to derive Einstein's field equations as an equation of state. In that derivation the entropy is proportional to the area of a local causal horizon, and the heat is the energy flux across the horizon, defined relative to an approximate boost Killing vector. We examine here whether a similar derivation can be given for extensions beyond Einstein gravity to include higher derivative and higher curvature terms. We review previous proposals which, in our opinion, are problematic or incomplete. Refining one of these, we assume that the horizon entropy depends on an approximate local Killing vector in a way that mimics the diffeomorphism Noether charge that yields the entropy of a stationary black hole. We show how this can be made to work if various restrictions are imposed on the nature of the horizon slices and the approximate Killing vector. Also, an integrability condition on the assumed horizon entropy density must hold. This can yield field equations of a Lagrangian constructed algebraically from the metric and Riemann tensor, but appears unlikely to allow for derivatives of curvature in the Lagrangian.
- We establish the physical process version of first law by studying small perturbations of a stationary black hole with regular bifurcation surface in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity. Our result shows that when the stationary black hole is perturbed by a matter stress energy tensor and finally settles down to a new stationary state, the Wald entropy increases as long as the matter satisfies null energy condition.
- We attempt to give a holographic description of the microscopic theory of a BCS superconductor. Exploiting the analogy with chiral symmetry breaking in QCD we use the Sakai-Sugimoto model of two D8 branes in a D4 brane background with finite baryon number. In this case there is a new tachyonic instability which is plausibly the bulk analog of the Cooper pairing instability. We analyze the Yang-Mills approximation to the non-Abelian Born-Infeld action. We give some exact solutions of the non-linear Yang-Mills equations in flat space and also give a stability analysis, showing that the instability disappears in the presence of an electric field. The holograhic picture also suggests a dependence of $T_c$ on the number density which is different from the usual (weak coupling) BCS. The flat space solutions are then generalized to curved space numerically and also, in an approximate way, analytically. This configuration should then correspond to the ground state of the boundary superconducting (superfluid) ground state. We also give some preliminary results on Green functions computations in the Sakai - Sugimoto model without any chemical potential
- Dec 30 2010 hep-th arXiv:1012.5964v1The role of Finsler-like metrics in situations where Lorentz symmetry breaking and also CPT violation are discussed. Various physical instances of such metrics both in quantum gravity and analogue systems are discussed. Both differences and similarities between the cases will be emphasised. In particular the medium of D-particles that arise in string theory will be examined. In this case the breaking of Lorentz invariance, at the level of quantum fluctuations, together with concomitant CPT in certain situations will be analysed. In particular it will be shown correlations for neutral meson pairs will be modified and a new contribution to baryogenesis will appear.
- To an outside observer, a black hole's event horizon appears to behave exactly like a dynamical fluid membrane. We extend this membrane paradigm to black holes in general $f(R)$ theories of gravity. We derive the stress tensor and various transport coefficients of the fluid and find that the membrane behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid except for the special case of Einstein gravity. Using Euclidean methods, we study the thermodynamics of the membrane. We speculate on what theories of gravity admit horizons with fluid properties.
- Within the context of supersymmetric space-time (D-particle) foam in string/brane-theory, we discuss a Finsler-induced Cosmology and its implications for (thermal) Dark Matter abundances. This constitutes a truly microscopic model of dynamical space-time, where Finsler geometries arise naturally. The D-particle foam model involves point-like brane defects (D-particles), which provide the topologically non-trivial foamy structures of space-time. The D-particles can capture and emit stringy matter and this leads to a recoil of D-particles. It is indicated how one effect of such a recoil of D-particles is a back-reaction on the space-time metric of Finsler type which is stochastic. We show that such a type of stochastic space-time foam can lead to acceptable cosmologies at late epochs of the Universe, due to the non-trivial properties of the supersymmetric (BPS like) D-particle defects, which are such so as not to affect significantly the Hubble expansion. The restrictions placed on the free parameters of the Finsler type metric are obtained from solving the Boltzmann equation in this background for relic abundances of a Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) dark matter candidate. It is demonstrated that the D-foam acts as a source for particle production in the Boltzmann equation, thereby leading to enhanced thermal LSP relic abundances relative to those in the Standard LambdaCDM Cosmology. For D-particle masses of order TeV, such effects may be relevant for dark matter searches at colliders. The latter constraints complement those coming from high energy gamma-ray astronomy on the induced vacuum refractive index that D-foam models entail. We also comment briefly on the production mechanisms of such TeV-mass stringy defects at colliders, which, in view of the current LHC experimental searches, will impose further constraints on their couplings.
- We study the classical second law of black hole thermodynamics, for Lovelock theories (other than General Relativity), in arbitrary dimensions. Using the standard formula for black hole entropy, we construct scenarios involving the merger of two black holes in which the entropy instantaneously decreases. Our construction involves a Kaluza-Klein compactification down to a dimension in which one of the Lovelock terms is topological. We discuss some open issues in the definition of the second law which might be used to compensate this entropy decrease.
- Recently we argued that a particular model of string-inspired quantum space-time foam (D-foam) may induce oscillations and mixing among flavoured particles. As a result, rather than the mass-eigenstate vacuum, the correct ground state to describe the underlying dynamics is the flavour vacuum, proposed some time ago by Blasone and Vitiello as a description of quantum field theories with mixing. At the microscopic level, the breaking of target-space supersymmetry is induced in our space-time foam model by the relative transverse motion of brane defects. Motivated by these results, we show that the flavour vacuum, introduced through an inequivalent representation of the canonical (anti-) commutation relations, provides a vehicle for the breaking of supersymmetry (SUSY) at a low-energy effective field theory level; on considering the flavour-vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor and comparing with the form of a perfect relativistic fluid, it is found that the bosonic sector contributes as dark energy while the fermion contribution is like dust. This indicates a strong and novel breaking of SUSY, of a non-perturbative nature, which may characterize the low energy field theory of certain quantum gravity models.
- We discuss modifications of the thermal Dark Matter (DM) relic abundances in stringy cosmologies with D-particle space-time foamy backgrounds. As a result of back-reaction of massive DM on the background space-time, owing to its interaction with D-particle defects in the foam, quantum fluctuations are induced in the space-time metric. We demonstrate that these lead to the presence of extra source terms in the Boltzmann equation used to determine the thermal dark matter relic abundances. The source terms are determined by the specific form of the induced metric deformations; the latter depend on the momentum transfer of the DM particle during its interactions with the D-particle defects and so are akin to Finsler metrics. In the case of low string scales arising from large extra dimensions our results may have phenomenological implications for the search of viable supersymmetric models.
- Sep 23 2009 hep-th cond-mat.str-el arXiv:0909.4051v2We study properties of strongly coupled CFT's with non-zero background electric charge in 1+1 dimensions by studying the dual gravity theory - which is a charged BTZ black hole. Correlators of operators dual to scalars, gauge fields and fermions are studied at both T=0 and $T\neq 0$. In the $T=0$ case we are also able to compare with analytical results based on $ AdS_2$ and find reasonable agreement. In particular the correlation between log periodicity and the presence of finite spectral density of gapless modes is seen. The real part of the conductivity (given by the current-current correlator) also vanishes as $\omega \rightarrow 0$ as expected. The fermion Green's function shows quasiparticle peaks with approximately linear dispersion but the detailed structure is neither Fermi liquid nor Luttinger liquid and bears some similarity to a "Fermi-Luttinger" liquid. This is expected since there is a background charge and the theory is not Lorentz or scale invariant. A boundary action that produces the observed non-Luttinger-liquid like behavior ($k$-independent non-analyticity at $\omega=0$) in the Greens function is discussed.
- In the context of a microscopic model of string-inspired foam, in which foamy structures are provided by brany point-like defects (D-particles) in space-time, we discuss flavour mixing as a result of flavour non-preserving interactions of (low-energy) fermionic stringy matter excitations with the defects. Such interactions involve splitting and capture of the matter string state by the defect, and subsequent re-emission. Quantum fluctuations of the D-particles induce a non-trivial space-time background; in some circumstances this could be akin to a cosmological Friedman-Robertson Walker expanding-Universe, with weak (but non-zero) particle production. Furthermore the D-particle medium can induce an MSW type effect. We have argued previously, in the context of bosons, that the so-called flavour vacuum is the appropriate state to be used, at least for low-energy excitations, with energies/momenta up to a dynamically determined cutoff scale. In this work we evaluate the flavour-vacuum expectation value (condensate) of the stress-energy tensor of the (1/2)-spin fields with mixing in an effective low-energy Quantum Field Theory in this foam-induced curved space-time. We demonstrate, at late epochs of the Universe, that the fermionic vacuum condensate behaves as a fluid with negative pressure and positive energy, but alone it cannot lead to present-day accelerating Universes. One needs flavoured boson contributions for this purpose.
- Jul 20 2009 hep-th arXiv:0907.3122v1The role of $CPT$ invariance and consequences for bipartite entanglement of neutral (K) mesons are discussed. A relaxation of $CPT$ leads to a modification of the entanglement which is known as the $\omega$ effect. The relaxation of assumptions required to prove the $CPT$ theorem are examined within the context of models of space-time foam. It is shown that the evasion of the EPR type entanglement implied by $CPT$ (which is connected with spin statistics) is rather elusive. Relaxation of locality (through non-commutative geometry) or the introduction of decoherence by themselves do not lead to a destruction of the entanglement. So far we find only one model which is based on non-critical strings and D-particle capture and recoil that leads to a stochastic contribution to the space-time metric and consequent change in the neutral meson bipartite entanglement. The lack of an omega effect is demonstrated for a class of models based on thermal like baths which are generally considered as generic models of decoherence.
- Apr 30 2009 hep-th arXiv:0904.4556v1The possible role of decoherence due to space-time foam is discussed within the context of two models, one based on string/brane theory. and the other based on properties of black hole horizons in general relativity. It is argued that the density matrix satisfies a dissipative master equation, primarily from the study of renormalization group flows in non-critical string theory.This interpretation of the zero mode of the Liouville field as time leads necessarily to the CPT operator being ill defined. One striking consequence is that the quantum mechanical correlations of pair states of neutral mesons produced in meson factories are changed from the usual EPR state. The magnitude of this departure from EPR correlations is characterised by a parameter $\omega$. The predicted value of $\omega$ is very small or zero. However it is shown explicitly that the the non-vanishing of $\omega$ is only a feature of the model based on string/brane theory.
- Mar 09 2009 hep-th arXiv:0903.1176v1We show that the classical equations of gravity follow from a thermodynamic relation, dQ = T dS, where S is taken to be the Wald entropy, applied to a local Rindler horizon at any point in spacetime. Our approach works for all diffeomorphism-invariant theories of gravity. This suggests that classical gravity may be thermodynamic in origin.
- The possibility of generation of non-extensive statistics, in the sense of Tsallis, due to space-time foam is discussed within the context of a particular kind of foam in string/brane-theory, the D-particle foam model . The latter involves point-like brane defects (D-particles), which provide the topologically non-trivial foamy structures of space-time. A stochastic Langevin equation for the velocity recoil of D-particles can be derived from the pinched approximation for a sum over genera in the calculation of the partition function of a bosonic string in the presence of heavy D-particles. The string coupling in standard perturbation theory is related to the exponential of the expectation of the dilaton. Inclusion of fluctuations of the dilaton itself and uncertainties in the string background will then necessitate fluctuations in $g_{s}$. The fluctuation in the string coupling in the sum over genera typically leads to a generic structure of the Langevin equation where the coefficient of the noise term, dependent on the string coupling $g_{s}$, fluctuates. The positivity of $g_{s}$ leads naturally to a stochastic modelling of its distribution with a $\chi$- distribution. This then rigorously implies a Tsallis type non-extensive or, more generally, a superstatistics distribution for the recoil velocity of D-particles. As a concrete and physically interesting application, we provide a rigorous estimate of an $\omega$-like effect, pertinent to CPT violating modifications of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlators in entangled states of neutral Kaons. In the case of D-particle foam fluctuations, which respect the Lorentz symmetry of the vacuum on average, we find that the $\omega$-effect may be within the range of sensitivity of future meson factories.
- In Einstein's gravity, the entropy of horizons is proportional to their area. Several arguments given in the literature suggest that, in this context, both area and entropy should be quantized with an equally spaced spectrum for large quantum numbers. But in more general theories (like, for e.g, in the black hole solutions of Gauss-Bonnet or Lanczos-Lovelock gravity) the horizon entropy is \emphnot proportional to area and the question arises as to which of the two (if at all) will have this property. We give a general argument that in all Lanczos-Lovelock theories of gravity, it is the \emphentropy that has equally spaced spectrum. In the case of Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we use the asymptotic form of quasi normal mode frequencies to explicitly demonstrate this result. Hence, the concept of a quantum of area in Einstein Hilbert (EH) gravity needs to be replaced by a concept of \emphquantum of entropy in a more general context.
- Jun 30 2008 hep-th arXiv:0806.4562v2We propose an effective model of strongly coupled gauge theory at finite temperature on $R^3$ in the presence of an infrared cutoff. It is constructed by considering the theory on $S^3$ with an infrared cutoff and then taking the size of the $S^3$ to infinity while keeping the cutoff fixed. This model reproduces various qualitative features expected from its gravity dual.
- Quantum decoherence, the evolution of pure states into mixed states, may be a feature of quantum-gravity models. In most cases, such models lead to fewer neutrinos of all active flavours being detected in a long baseline experiment as compared to three-flavour standard neutrino oscillations. We discuss the potential of the CNGS and J-PARC beams in constraining models of quantum-gravity induced decoherence using neutrino oscillations as a probe. We use as much as possible model-independent parameterizations, even though they are motivated by specific microscopic models, for fits to the expected experimental data which yield bounds on quantum-gravity decoherence parameters.
- Several kinds of astronomical observations, interpreted in the framework of the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, have indicated that our universe is dominated by a Cosmological Constant. The dimming of distant Type Ia supernovae suggests that the expansion rate is accelerating, as if driven by vacuum energy, and this has been indirectly substantiated through studies of angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and of spatial correlations in the large-scale structure (LSS) of galaxies. However there is no compelling direct evidence yet for (the dynamical effects of) dark energy. The precision CMB data can be equally well fitted without dark energy if the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations is not quite scale-free and if the Hubble constant is lower globally than its locally measured value. The LSS data can also be satisfactorily fitted if there is a small component of hot dark matter, as would be provided by neutrinos of mass 0.5 eV. Although such an Einstein-de Sitter model cannot explain the SNe Ia Hubble diagram or the position of the `baryon acoustic oscillation' peak in the autocorrelation function of galaxies, it may be possible to do so e.g. in an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi cosmology where we are located in a void which is expanding faster than the average. Such alternatives may seem contrived but this must be weighed against our lack of any fundamental understanding of the inferred tiny energy scale of the dark energy. It may well be an artifact of an oversimplified cosmological model, rather than having physical reality.
- The effect on flavour oscillations of simple expanding background space-times, motivated by some D-particle foam models, is calculated for a toy-model of bosons with flavour degrees of freedom. The presence of D-particle defects in the space-time, which can interact non trivially (via particle capture) with flavoured particles in a flavour non-preserving way, generates mixing in the effective field theory of low-energy string excitations. Moreover, the recoil of the D-particle defect during the capture/scattering process implies Lorentz violation, which however may be averaged to zero in isotropic D-particle populations, but implies non-trivial effects in correlators. Both features imply that the flavoured mixed state sees a non-trivial flavour (Fock-space) vacuum of a type introduced earlier by Blasone and Vitiello in a generic context of theories with mixing. We discuss the orthogonality of the flavour vacua to the usual Fock vacua and the effect on flavour oscillations in these backgrounds. Furthermore we analyse the equation of state of the Flavour vacuum, and find that, for slow expansion rates induced by D particle recoil, it is equivalent to that of a cosmological constant. Some estimates of these novel non-perturbative contribution to the vacuum energy are made. The contribution vanishes if the mass difference and the mixing angle of the flavoured states vanish.
- [Abridged] We compute the canonical entropy of a quantum scalar field around static and spherically symmetric black holes through the brick wall approach at the higher orders (in fact, up to the sixth order in \hbar) in the WKB approximation. We explicitly show that the brick wall model generally predicts corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in all spacetime dimensions. In four dimensions, we find that the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are of the form (A^n \log A), while, in six dimensions, the corrections behave as (A^m + A^n \log A), where A denotes the area of the black hole event horizon, and (m, n) < 1. We compare our results with the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy that have been obtained through the other approaches in the literature, and discuss the implications.
- We present a derivation of Hawking radiation through tunneling mechanism for a general class of asymptotically flat, spherically symmetric spacetimes. The tunneling rate $\Gamma \sim \exp{(\Delta S)}$ arises as a consequence of the first law of thermodynamics, TdS=dE + PdV. Therefore, this approach demonstrates how tunneling is intimately connected with the first law of thermodynamics through the principle of conservation of energy. The analysis is also generally applicable to any reasonable theory of gravity so long as the first law of thermodynamics for horizons holds in the form, TdS=dE + PdV.
- Jun 28 2007 hep-th arXiv:0706.3996v2This is a continuation of our earlier work where we constructed a phenomenologically motivated effective action of the boundary gauge theory at finite temperature and finite gauge coupling on $S^3 \times S^1$. In this paper, we argue that this effective action qualitatively reproduces the gauge theory representing various bulk phases of R-charged black hole with Gauss-Bonnet correction. We analyze the system both in canonical and grand canonical ensemble.
- Detailed analyses of the WMAP data indicate possible oscillatory features in the primordial curvature perturbation, which moreover appears to be suppressed beyond the present Hubble radius. Such deviations from the usual inflationary expectation of an approximately Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum are expected in the supergravity-based 'multiple inflation' model wherein phase transitions during inflation induce sudden changes in the mass of the inflaton, thus interrupting its slow-roll. In a previous paper we calculated the resulting curvature perturbation and showed how the oscillations arise. Here we perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo fitting exercise using the 3-year WMAP data to determine how the fitted cosmological parameters vary when such a primordial spectrum is used as an input, rather than the usually assumed power-law spectrum. The 'concordance' LCDM model is still a good fit when there is just a 'step' in the spectrum. However if there is a 'bump' in the spectrum (due e.g. to two phase transitions in rapid succession), the precision CMB data can be well-fitted by a flat Einstein-de Sitter cosmology without dark energy. This however requires the Hubble constant to be h ~ 0.44 which is lower than the locally measured value. To fit the SDSS data on the power spectrum of galaxy clustering requires a ~10% component of hot dark matter, as would naturally be provided by 3 species of neutrinos of mass ~0.5 eV. This CHDM model cannot however fit the position of the baryon acoustic peak in the LRG redshift two-point correlation function. It may be possible to overcome these difficulties in an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi cosmological model with a local void, which can potentially also account for the SN Ia Hubble diagram without invoking cosmic acceleration.
- There is an intriguing analogy between the gravitational dynamics of the horizons and thermodynamics. In case of general relativity, as well as for a wider class of Lanczos-Lovelock theories of gravity, it is possible to interpret the field equations near any spherically symmetric horizon as a thermodynamic identity TdS = dE + PdV. We study this approach further and generalize the results to two more generic cases within the context of general relativity: (i) stationary axis-symmetric horizons and (ii) time dependent evolving horizons. In both the cases, the near horizon structure of Einstein equations can be expressed as a thermodynamic identity under the virtual displacement of the horizon. This result demonstrates the fact that the thermodynamic interpretation of gravitational dynamics is not restricted to spherically symmetric or static horizons but is quite generic in nature and indicates a deeper connection between gravity and thermodynamics.
- Sep 06 2006 hep-th arXiv:hep-th/0609038v3This paper deals with black holes, bubbles and orbifolds in Gauss-Bonnet theory in five dimensional anti de Sitter space. In particular, we study stable, unstable and metastable phases of black holes from thermodynamical perspective. By comparing bubble and orbifold geometries, we analyse associated instabilities. Assuming AdS/CFT correspondence, we discuss the effects of this higher derivative bulk coupling on a specific matrix model near the critical points of the boundary gauge theory at finite temperature. Finally, we propose another phenomenological model on the boundary which mimics various phases of the bulk space-time.
- Spacetimes with horizons show a resemblance to thermodynamic systems and one can associate the notions of temperature and entropy with them. In the case of Einstein-Hilbert gravity, it is possible to interpret Einstein's equations as the thermodynamic identity TdS = dE + PdV for a spherically symmetric spacetime and thus provide a thermodynamic route to understand the dynamics of gravity. We study this approach further and show that the field equations for Lanczos-Lovelock action in a spherically symmetric spacetime can also be expressed as TdS = dE + PdV with S and E being given by expressions previously derived in the literature by other approaches. The Lanczos-Lovelock Lagrangians are of the form L=Q_a^bcdR^a_bcd with \nabla_b Q^abcd=0. In such models, the expansion of Q^abcd in terms of the derivatives of the metric tensor determines the structure of the theory and higher order terms can be interpreted quantum corrections to Einstein gravity. Our result indicates a deep connection between the thermodynamics of horizons and the allowed quantum corrections to standard Einstein gravity, and shows that the relation TdS = dE + PdV has a greater domain of validity that Einstein's field equations.
- We discuss two classes of semi-microscopic theoretical models of stochastic space-time foam in quantum gravity and the associated effects on entangled states of neutral mesons, signalling an intrinsic breakdown of CPT invariance. One class of models deals with a specific model of foam, initially constructed in the context of non-critical (Liouville) string theory, but viewed here in the more general context of effective quantum-gravity models. The relevant Hamiltonian perturbation, describing the interaction of the meson with the foam medium, consists of off-diagonal stochastic metric fluctuations, connecting distinct mass eigenstates (or the appropriate generalisation thereof in the case of K-mesons), and it is proportional to the relevant momentum transfer (along the direction of motion of the meson pair). There are two kinds of CPT-violating effects in this case, which can be experimentally disentangled: one (termed ``omega-effect'') is associated with the failure of the indistinguishability between the neutral meson and its antiparticle, and affects certain symmetry properties of the initial state of the two-meson system; the second effect is generated by the time evolution of the system in the medium of the space-time foam, and can result in time-dependent contributions of the $omega-effect type in the time profile of the two meson state. Estimates of both effects are given, which show that, at least in certain models, such effects are not far from the sensitivity of experimental facilities available currently or in the near future. The other class of quantum gravity models involves a medium of gravitational fluctuations which behaves like a ``thermal bath''. In this model both of the above-mentioned intrinsic CPT violation effects are not valid.
- In the first part of this work we discuss possible effects of stochastic space-time foam configurations of quantum gravity on the propagation of ``flavoured'' (Klein-Gordon and Dirac) neutral particles, such as neutral mesons and neutrinos. The formalism is not the usually assumed Lindblad one, but it is based on random averages of quantum fluctuations of space time metrics over which the propagation of the matter particles is considered. We arrive at expressions for the respective oscillation probabilities between flavours which are quite distinct from the ones pertaining to Lindblad-type decoherence, including in addition to the (expected) Gaussian decay with time, a modification to oscillation behaviour, as well as a power-law cutoff of the time-profile of the respective probability. In the second part we consider space-time foam configurations of quantum-fluctuating charged black holes as a way of generating (parts of) neutrino mass differences, mimicking appropriately the celebrated MSW effects of neutrinos in stochastically fluctuating random media. We pay particular attention to disentangling genuine quantum-gravity effects from ordinary effects due to the propagation of a neutrino through ordinary matter. Our results are of interest to precision tests of quantum gravity models using neutrinos as probes.
- Jun 02 2006 hep-th arXiv:hep-th/0606002v2In this paper we study the phenomenon of UV/IR mixing in noncommutative field theories from the point of view of world-sheet open-closed duality in string theory. New infrared divergences in noncommutative field theories arise as a result of integrating over high momentum modes in the loops. These are believed to come from integrating out additional bulk closed string modes. We analyse this issue in detail for the bosonic theory and further for the supersymmetric theory on the $C^2/Z_2$ orbifold. We elucidate on the exact role played by the constant background $B$-field in this correspondence.
- The sources of the observed ultra-high energy cosmic rays must also generate ultra-high energy neutrinos. Deep inelastic scattering of these neutrinos with nucleons on Earth probe center-of-mass energies $\sqrt{s} \sim 100$ TeV, well beyond those attainable at terrestrial colliders. By comparing the rates for two classes of observable events, any departure from the benchmark (unscreened perturbative QCD) neutrino-nucleon cross-section can be constrained. Using the projected sensitivity of the Pierre Auger Observatory to quasi-horizontal showers and Earth-skimming tau neutrinos, we show that a `Super-Auger' detector can thus provide an unique probe of strong interaction dynamics.
- It has been speculated that the zero-point energy of the vacuum, regularized due to the existence of a suitable ultraviolet cut-off scale, could be the source of the non-vanishing cosmological constant that is driving the present acceleration of the universe. We show that the presence of such a cut-off can significantly alter the results for the Casimir force between parallel conducting plates and even lead to repulsive Casimir force when the plate separation is smaller than the cut-off scale length. Using the current experimental data we rule out the possibility that the observed cosmological constant arises from the zero-point energy which is made finite by a suitable cut-off. Any such cut-off which is consistent with the observed Casimir effect will lead to an energy density which is about 10^12 times larger than the observed one, if gravity couples to these modes. The implications are discussed.
- Feb 16 2006 hep-th arXiv:hep-th/0602147v1In an earlier work it was shown that the IR singularities arising in the nonplanar one loop two point function of a noncommutative ${\cal N}=2$ gauge theory can be reproduced exactly from the massless closed string exchanges. The noncommutative gauge theory is realised on a fractional $D_3$ brane localised at the fixed point of the $C^2/Z_2$ orbifold. In this paper we identify the contributions from each of the closed string modes. The sum of these adds upto the nonplanar two-point function.
- Oct 14 2005 hep-th arXiv:hep-th/0510107v2We explore some explicit representations of a certain stable deformed algebra of quantum mechanics, considered by R. Vilela Mendes, having a fundamental length scale. The relation of the irreducible representations of the deformed algebra to those of the (limiting) Heisenberg algebra is discussed, and we construct the generalized harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian in this framework. To obtain local currents for this algebra, we extend the usual nonrelativistic local current algebra of vector fields and the corresponding group of diffeomorphisms, modeling the quantum configuration space as a commutative spatial manifold with one additional dimension.
- Aug 02 2005 hep-th arXiv:hep-th/0508004v3It was shown in [hep-th/0503009], in the context of bosonic theory that the IR singular terms that arise as a result of integrating out high momentum modes in nonplanar diagrams of noncommutative gauge theory can be recovered from low lying tree-level closed string exchanges. This follows as a natural consequence of world-sheet open-closed string duality. Here using the same setup we study the phenomenon for noncommutative ${\cal N}=2$ gauge theory realised on a $D_3$ fractional brane localised at the fixed point of $C^2/Z_2$. The IR singularities from the massless closed string exchanges are exactly equal to those coming from one-loop gauge theory. This is as a result of cancellation of all contributions from the massive modes.
- We study in some detail the master equation, and its solution in a simplified case modelling flavour oscillations of a two-level system, stemming from the Liouville-string approach to quantum space time foam. In this framework we discuss the appearance of diffusion terms and decoherence due to the interaction of low-energy string matter with space-time defects, such as D-particles in the specific model of ``D-particle foam'', as well as dark energy contributions. We pay particular attention to contrasting the decoherent role of a cosmological constant in inducing exponential quantum damping in the evolution of low-energy observables, such as the probability of flavour oscillations, with the situation where the dark energy relaxes to zero for asymptotically large times, in which case such a damping is absent. Our findings may be of interest to (astrophysical) tests of quantum space-time foam models in the not-so-distant future.