results for au:Sanders_B in:quant-ph

- Oct 02 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1709.10287v1We report the experimental detection of bulk topological invariants in nonunitary discrete-time quantum walks with single photons. The nonunitarity of the quantum dynamics is enforced by periodically performing partial measurements on the polarization of the walker photon, which effectively introduces loss to the dynamics. The topological invariant of the nonunitary quantum walk is manifested in the quantized average displacement of the walker, which is probed by monitoring the photon loss. We confirm the topological properties of the system by observing localized edge states at the boundary of regions with different topological invariants. We further demonstrate the robustness of both the topological properties and the measurement scheme of the topological invariants against disorder.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1709.06615v1We obtain coincidence rates for passive optical interferometry by exploiting the permutational symmetries of partially distinguishable input photons, and our approach elucidates qualitative features of multi-photon coincidence landscapes. We treat the interferometer input as a product state of any number of photons in each input mode with photons distinguished by their arrival time. Detectors at the output of the interferometer count photons from each output mode over a long integration time. We show that coincidence rates can be elegantly expressed in terms of immanants. Immanants are functions of matrices that exhibit permutational symmetries and the immanants appearing in our coincidence-rate expressions share permutational symmetries with the input state. Our results are obtained by employing representation theory of the symmetric group to analyze systems of arbitrary number of photons in arbitrarily sized interferometers.
- In quantum secret sharing protocols, the usual presumption is that the distribution of quantum shares and players' collaboration are both performed inertially. Here we develop a quantum secret sharing protocol that relaxes these assumptions wherein we consider the effects due to the accelerating motion of the shares. Specifically, we solve the (2,3)-threshold continuous-variable quantum secret sharing in non-inertial frames. To this aim, we formulate the effect of relativistic motion on the quantum field inside a cavity as a bosonic quantum Gaussian channel. We investigate how the fidelity of quantum secret sharing is affected by non-uniform motion of the quantum shares. Furthermore, we fully characterize the canonical form of the Gaussian channel which can be utilized in quantum information processing protocols to include relativistic effects.
- Aug 01 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.09485v1We experimentally demonstrate coherent amplification of probe field in a tripod-type atoms driven by strong coupling, signal and weak probe fields. We suppress linear and nonlinear atomic absorptions for resonant and near resonant probe via double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT). Combining these advantages of suppressed absorption along with temperature- or atomic-density-controlled transfer of population(ToP) between hyperfine ground states, we can induce near-resonant amplification of probe through stimulated Raman scattering(SRS) pumped by low-intensity signal field. The increased population difference of initial and final states of SRS due to increased ToP rate, together with reduced absorption at the second EIT window in an optically thick Cesium vapor, gives rise to highly effective coherent amplification.
- Jul 28 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.08790v1We demonstrate quantum metrology for noisy channels such that entanglement with an ancillary qubit enhances the quantum Fisher information for interferometric parameter estimation but not otherwise. Our photonic experiment covers a range of noise for various types of channels, including for two randomly alternating channels such that assisted entanglement fails for each noisy channel individually. We have simulated noisy channels by implementing space-multiplexed dual interferometers with heralded single-photon inputs. These results establish that entanglement with ancillæ is a valuable approach for delivering quantum-enhanced metrology.
- Jul 12 2017 physics.hist-ph quant-ph arXiv:1707.03286v1Sir Peter Knight is a pioneer in quantum optics which has now grown to an important branch of modern physics to study the foundations and applications of quantum physics. He is leading an effort to develop new technologies from quantum mechanics. In this collection of essays, we recall the time we were working with him as a postdoc or a PhD student and look at how the time with him has influenced our research.
- Jul 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.00400v1To date, blind quantum computing demonstrations require clients to have weak quantum devices. Here we implement a proof-of-principle experiment for completely classical clients. Via classically interacting with two quantum servers that share entanglement, the client accomplishes the task of having the number 15 factorized by servers who are denied information about the computation itself. This concealment is accompanied by a verification protocol that tests servers' honesty and correctness. Our demonstration shows the feasibility of completely classical clients and thus is a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.
- Jun 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.03828v1Magic states can be used as a resource to circumvent the restrictions due to stabilizer-preserving operations, and magic-state conversion has been studied only in the asymptotic regime thus far. Here we solve the question of whether a stabilizer-preserving quantum operation exists that can convert between two given magic states in the single-shot regime. We first phrase this question as a feasibility problem for a semi-definite program (SDP), which provides a procedure for constructing a free channel if it exists. Then we employ a variant of Farkas' Lemma to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for existence, and this method is used to construct a complete set of magic monotones.
- Jun 01 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.11036v1We analyze a continuous-time quantum walk on a chimera graph, which is a graph of choice for designing quantum annealers, and we discover beautiful quantum-walk features such as localization that starkly distinguishes classical from quantum behavior. Motivated by technological thrusts, we study continuous-time quantum walks on enhanced variants of the chimera graph and on a diminished chimera graph with a random removal of sites. We explain the quantum walk by constructing a generating set for a suitable subgroup of graph isomorphisms and corresponding symmetry operators that commute with the quantum-walk Hamiltonian; the Hamiltonian and these symmetry operators provide a complete set of labels for the spectrum and the stationary states. Our quantum-walk characterization of the chimera graph and its variants yields valuable insights into graphs used for designing quantum-annealers.
- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1703.05938v2We construct a decomposition procedure for converting split-step quantum walks into ordinary quantum walks with alternating coins, and we show that this decomposition enables a feasible linear optical realization of split-step quantum walks by eliminating quantum-control requirements. As salient applications, we show how our scheme will simulate Majorana modes and edge states.
- Mar 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.03860v1We design forward and backward fault-tolerant conversion circuits, which convert between the Steane code and the 15-qubit Reed-Muller quantum code so as to provide a universal transversal gate set.In our method, only 11 out of total 14 code stabilizers are measured, and we further enhance the circuit by simplifying some stabilizers; thus, we need only 64 CNOT gates for one round of forward-conversion stabilizer measurements and 60 CNOT gates for one round of backward-conversion stabilizer measurements. For conversion, we consider random single-qubit errors and their influence on syndromes of gauge operators, and we perform operations that yield quantum error correction and gauge fixing in a single step. We also generalize our method to conversion between any adjacent Reed-Muller quantum codes $\overline{\textsf{RM}}(1,m)$ and $\overline{\textsf{RM}}\left(1,m+1\right)$, for which we provide the necessary $3m+2$ stabilizers and the concomitant resources required.
- Feb 22 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.06211v2We establish strict upper bounds on local quantum uncertainty (LQU) and skew information associated with state conversion via certain quantum channels. Specifically, we obtain a bound on the achievable LQU for bipartite channels whose Kraus operators commute with nondegenerate von Neumann measurements on the first subsystem, and this LQU bound is expressed in terms of the skew information for the first subsystem. Furthermore, we establish a bound on the skew information of one subsystem obtained from any initial bipartite state subject to any quantum steering channel, and this bound is expressed in terms of the LQU for the initial joint-system state. Our two claims show that state conversion has fundamental limitations relating LQU with skew information.
- Oct 18 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.04828v1We present our approach for sharing photons and assessing resultant four-photon visibility between two distant parties using concatenated entanglement swapping. In addition we determine the corresponding key generation rate and the quantum bit-error rate. Our model is based on practical limitations of resources, including multipair parametric down-conversion sources, inefficient detectors with dark counts and lossy channels. Through this approach, we have found that a trade-off is needed between experimental run-time, pair-production rate and detector efficiency. Concatenated entanglement swapping enables huge distances for quantum key-distribution but at the expense of low key generation rate.
- Oct 04 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.00679v3We present a theory of cooperative light scattering valid in any dimension: connecting theories for an open line, open plane, and open space in the non-relativistic regime. This theory includes near-field and dipole-orientation effects, highlighting how field mode confinement controls the phenomena. We present a novel experimental implementation for planar collective effects.
- Quantum-enhanced metrology aims to estimate an unknown parameter such that the precision scales better than the shot-noise bound. Single-shot adaptive quantum-enhanced metrology (AQEM) is a promising approach that uses feedback to tweak the quantum process according to previous measurement outcomes. Techniques and formalism for the adaptive case are quite different from the usual non-adaptive quantum metrology approach due to the causal relationship between measurements and outcomes. We construct a formal framework for AQEM by modeling the procedure as a decision-making process, and we derive the imprecision and the Cramér-Rao lower bound with explicit dependence on the feedback policy. We also explain the reinforcement learning approach for generating quantum control policies, which is adopted due to the optimal policy being non-trivial to devise. Applying a learning algorithm based on differential evolution enables us to attain imprecision for adaptive interferometric phase estimation, which turns out to be SQL when non-entangled particles are used in the scheme.
- Quantum control is valuable for various quantum technologies such as high-fidelity gates for universal quantum computing, adaptive quantum-enhanced metrology, and ultra-cold atom manipulation. Although supervised machine learning and reinforcement learning are widely used for optimizing control parameters in classical systems, quantum control for parameter optimization is mainly pursued via gradient-based greedy algorithms. Although the quantum fitness landscape is often compatible with greedy algorithms, sometimes greedy algorithms yield poor results, especially for large-dimensional quantum systems. We employ differential evolution algorithms to circumvent the stagnation problem of non-convex optimization. We improve quantum control fidelity for noisy system by averaging over the objective function. To reduce computational cost, we introduce heuristics for early termination of runs and for adaptive selection of search subspaces. Our implementation is massively parallel and vectorized to reduce run time even further. We demonstrate our methods with two examples, namely quantum phase estimation and quantum gate design, for which we achieve superior fidelity and scalability than obtained using greedy algorithms.
- May 25 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1605.07539v2Cat states are coherent quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states and are useful for understanding the boundary between the classical and the quantum world. Due to their macroscopic nature, cat states are difficult to prepare in physical systems. We propose a method to create cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states of the walker. Since the quantum walks can be performed on any quantum system, our proposal enables a platform-independent realization of the cat states. We further show that the linear dispersion relation of the effective quantum walk Hamiltonian, which governs the dynamics of the delocalized states, is responsible for the formation of the cat states. We analyze the robustness of these states against environmental interactions and present methods to control and manipulate the cat states in the photonic implementation of quantum walks.
- Apr 21 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.05905v2We realize a pair of simultaneous ten-step one-dimensional quantum walks with two walkers sharing coins, which we prove is analogous to the ten-step two-dimensional quantum walk with a single walker holding a four-dimensional coin. Our experiment demonstrates a ten-step quantum walk over an 11x11 two-dimensional lattice with a line defect, thereby realizing a localized walker state.
- Mar 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1603.06857v3We propose an optical scheme, employing optical parametric down-converters interlaced with nonlinear sign gates (NSGs), that completely converts an $n$-photon Fock-state pump to $n$ signal-idler photon pairs when the down-converters' crystal lengths are chosen appropriately. The proof of this assertion relies on amplitude amplification, analogous to that employed in Grover search, applied to the full quantum dynamics of single-mode parametric down-conversion. When we require that all Grover iterations use the same crystal, and account for potential experimental limitations on crystal-length precision, our optimized conversion efficiencies reach unity for $1\le n \le 5$, after which they decrease monotonically for $n$ values up to 50, which is the upper limit of our numerical dynamics evaluations. Nevertheless, our conversion efficiencies remain higher than those for a conventional (no NSGs) down-converter.
- Jan 12 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1601.02544v4The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. We use a new class of homologically-constructed CV quantum error correcting codes to provide efficient solutions for the general case of information replication. As compared to schemes encoding qubits, our CV solution requires half as many shares per encoded system. We also provide an optimized five-mode strategy for replicating quantum information in a particular configuration of four spacetime regions designed not to be reducible to previously performed experiments. For this optimized strategy, we provide detailed encoding and decoding procedures using standard optical apparatus and calculate the recovery fidelity when finite squeezing is used. As such we provide a scheme for experimentally realizing quantum information replication using quantum optics.
- Three-qubit quantum gates are key ingredients for quantum error correction and quantum information processing. We generate quantum-control procedures to design three types of three-qubit gates, namely Toffoli, Controlled-Not-Not and Fredkin gates. The design procedures are applicable to a system comprising three nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting artificial atoms. For each three-qubit gate, the numerical simulation of the proposed scheme achieves 99.9% fidelity, which is an accepted threshold fidelity for fault-tolerant quantum computing. We test our procedure in the presence of decoherence-induced noise as well as show its robustness against random external noise generated by the control electronics. The three-qubit gates are designed via the machine learning algorithm called Subspace-Selective Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution (SuSSADE).
- Oct 28 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.07815v1We show that the stability theorem of the depolarizing channel holds for the output quantum $p$-Rényi entropy for $p \ge 2$ or $p=1$, which is an extension of the well known case $p=2$. As an application, we present a protocol in which Bob determines whether Alice prepares a pure quantum state close to a product state. In the protocol, Alice transmits to Bob multiple copies of a pure state through a depolarizing channel, and Bob estimates its output quantum $p$-Rényi entropy. By using our stability theorem, we show that Bob can determine whether her preparation is appropriate.
- Aug 11 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1508.01989v1We demonstrate a quantum walk with time-dependent coin bias. With this technique we realize an experimental single-photon one-dimensional quantum walk with a linearly-ramped time-dependent coin flip operation and thereby demonstrate two periodic revivals of the walker distribution. In our beam-displacer interferometer, the walk corresponds to movement between discretely separated transverse modes of the field serving as lattice sites, and the time-dependent coin flip is effected by implementing a different angle between the optical axis of half-wave plate and the light propagation at each step. Each of the quantum-walk steps required to realize a revival comprises two sequential orthogonal coin-flip operators, with one coin having constant bias and the other coin having a time-dependent ramped coin bias, followed by a conditional translation of the walker.
- We explore the crucial role of relative space-time positioning between the two detectors in an operational two-party entanglement-harvesting protocol. Specifically we show that the protocol is robust if imprecision in spatial positioning and clock synchronization are much smaller than the spatial separation between the detectors and its light-crossing time thereof. This in principle guarantees robustness if the imprecision is comparable to a few times the size of the detectors, which suggests entanglement harvesting could be explored for tabletop experiments. On the other hand, keeping the effects of this imprecision under control would be demanding on astronomical scales.
- Aug 04 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1508.00283v2We combine single- and two-photon interference procedures for characterizing any multi-port linear optical interferometer accurately and precisely. Accuracy is achieved by estimating and correcting systematic errors that arise due to spatiotemporal and polarization mode mismatch. Enhanced accuracy and precision are attained by fitting experimental coincidence data to curve simulated using measured source spectra. We employ bootstrapping statistics to quantify the resultant degree of precision. A scattershot approach is devised to effect a reduction in the experimental time required to characterize the interferometer. The efficacy of our characterization procedure is verified by numerical simulations.
- Jul 23 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1507.06274v2Boson realizations map operators and states of groups to transformations and states of bosonic systems. We devise a graph-theoretic algorithm to construct the boson realizations of the canonical SU$(n)$ basis states, which reduce the canonical subgroup chain, for arbitrary $n$. The boson realizations are employed to construct $\mathcal{D}$-functions, which are the matrix elements of arbitrary irreducible representations, of SU$(n)$ in the canonical basis. We demonstrate that our $\mathcal{D}$-function algorithm offers significant advantage over the two competing procedures, namely factorization and exponentiation.
- We devise a scalable scheme for simulating a quantum phase transition from paramagnetism to frustrated magnetism in a superconducting flux-qubit network, and we show how to characterize this system experimentally both macroscopically and microscopically. The proposed macroscopic characterization of the quantum phase transition is based on the transition of the probability distribution for the spin-network net magnetic moment with this transition quantified by the difference between the Kullback-Leibler divergences of the distributions corresponding to the paramagnetic and frustrated magnetic phases with respect to the probability distribution at a given time during the transition. Microscopic characterization of the quantum phase transition is performed using the standard local-entanglement-witness approach. Simultaneous macro and micro characterizations of quantum phase transitions would serve to verify a quantum phase transition in two ways especially in the quantum realm for the classically intractable case of frustrated quantum magnetism.
- May 13 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.02879v2Quantum simulation is of great importance in quantum information science. Here, we report an experimental quantum channel simulator imbued with an algorithm for imitating the behavior of a general class of quantum systems. The reported quantum channel simulator consists of four single-qubit gates and one controlled-NOT gate. All types of quantum channels can be decomposed by the algorithm and implemented on this device. We deploy our system to simulate various quantum channels, such as quantum-noise channels and weak quantum measurement. Our results advance experimental quantum channel simulation, which is integral to the goal of quantum information processing.
- Feb 03 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1502.00332v2For Doppler-broadened media operating under double-double electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions, we devise a scheme to control and reduce the probe-field group velocity at the center of the second transparency window. We derive numerical and approximate analytical solutions for the width of EIT windows and for the group velocities of the probe field at the two distinct transparency windows, and we show that the group velocities of the probe field can be lowered by judiciously choosing the physical parameters of the system. Our modeling enables us to identify three signal-field strength regimes (with a signal-field strength always higher than the probe-field strength), quantified by the Rabi frequency, for slowing the probe field. These three regimes correspond to a weak signal field, with the probe-field group velocity and transparency window width both smaller for the second window compared to the first window, a medium-strength signal field, with a probe-field group velocity smaller in the second window than in the first window but with larger transparency-window width for the second window, and the strong signal field, with both group velocity and transparency window width larger for the second window. Our scheme exploits the fact that the second transparency window is sensitive to a temperature-controlled signal-field nonlinearity, whereas the first transparency window is insensitive to this nonlinearity.
- Jan 23 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1501.05540v1We perform generalized measurements of a qubit by realizing the qubit as a coin in a photonic quantum walk and subjecting the walker to projective measurements. Our experimental technique can be used to realize photonically any rank-1 single-qubit positive operator-valued measure via constructing an appropriate interferometric quantum-walk network and then projectively measuring the walker's position at the final step.
- Jan 21 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1501.04932v3Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates.
- Jan 21 2015 quant-ph physics.comp-ph arXiv:1501.04676v2A single-shot Toffoli, or controlled-controlled-NOT, gate is desirable for classical and quantum information processing. The Toffoli gate alone is universal for reversible computing and, accompanied by the Hadamard gate, forms a universal gate set for quantum computing. The Toffoli gate is also a key ingredient for (non-topological) quantum error correction. Currently Toffoli gates are achieved by decomposing into sequentially implemented single- and two-qubit gates, which requires much longer times and yields lower overall fidelities compared to a single-shot implementation. We develop a quantum-control procedure to construct a single-shot Toffoli gate for three nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting transmon systems such that the fidelity is 99.9% and is as fast as an entangling two-qubit gate under the same realistic conditions. The gate is achieved by a non-greedy quantum control procedure using our enhanced version of the Differential Evolution algorithm.
- Jan 15 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1501.03317v2We develop a theory for long-distance quantum key distribution based on concatenated entanglement swapping using parametric down-conversion sources and show numerical results of our model. The model incorporates practical resources including multi-pair sources, inefficient detectors with dark counts and lossy channels. We calculate the maximum secret key-generation ratefor up to three entanglement swapping stations by optimizing over resource parameters, and our numerical simulation shows that the range of quantum key distribution can in principle be markedly increased but at the expense of an atrociously unfeasible secret key-generation rate; however, the upper bound of our key rates closely approach the Takeoka-Guha-Wilde upper bound. Our analysis demonstrates the need for new technology such as quantum memory to synchronize photons and our methods should serve as a valuable component for accurately modelling quantum-memory-based long-distance quantum key distribution.
- Dec 03 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1412.0750v1A successful approach to understand field theories is to resolve the physics into different length or energy scales using the renormalization group framework. We propose a quantum simulation of quantum field theory which encodes field degrees of freedom in a wavelet basis---a multi-scale description of the theory. Since wavelets are compact wavefunctions, this encoding allows for quantum simulations to create particle excitations with compact support and provides a natural way to associate observables in the theory to finite resolution detectors. We show that the wavelet basis is well suited to compute subsystem entanglement entropy by dividing the field into contributions from short-range wavelet degrees of freedom and long-range scale degrees of freedom, of which the latter act as renormalized modes which capture the essential physics at a renormalization fixed point.
- We present second-order molecular cluster perturbation theory (MCPT(2)), a linear scaling methodology to calculate arbitrarily large systems with explicit calculation of individual wavefunctions in a coupled-cluster framework. This new MCPT(2) framework uses coupled-cluster perturbation theory and an expansion in terms of molecular dimer interactions to obtain molecular wavefunctions that are infinite-order in both the electronic fluctuation operator and all possible dimer (and products of dimers) interactions. The MCPT(2) framework has been implemented in the new SIA/Aces4 parallel architecture, making use of the advanced dynamic memory control and fine grained parallelism to perform very large explicit molecular cluster calculations. To illustrate the power of this method, we have computed energy shifts, lattice site dipole moments, and harmonic vibrational frequencies via explicit calculation of the bulk system for the polar and non-polar polymorphs of solid hydrogen fluoride. The explicit lattice size (without using any periodic boundary conditions) was expanded up to 1,000 HF molecules, with 32,000 basis functions and 10,000 electrons. Our obtained HF lattice site dipole moments and harmonic vibrational frequencies agree well with the existing literature.
- Sep 02 2014 quant-ph physics.atom-ph arXiv:1409.0460v2We study phase-sensitive amplification of electromagnetically induced transparency in a warm ${}^{85}$Rb vapor wherein a microwave driving field couples the two lower-energy states of a \Lambda energy-level system thereby transforming into a ∆ system. Our theoretical description includes effects of ground-state coherence decay and temperature effects. In particular, we demonstrate that driving-field-enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency is robust against significant loss of coherence between ground states. We also show that for specific field intensities, a threshold rate of ground-state coherence decay exists at every temperature. This threshold separates the probe-transmittance behavior into two regimes: probe amplification vs probe attenuation. Thus, electromagnetically induced transparency plus amplification is possible at any temperature in a ∆ system.
- Jul 29 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1407.7251v4We construct a classical algorithm that designs quantum circuits for algorithmic quantum simulation of arbitrary qudit channels on fault-tolerant quantum computers within a pre-specified error tolerance with respect to diamond-norm distance. The classical algorithm is constructed by decomposing a quantum channel into a convex combination of generalized extreme channels by optimization of a set of nonlinear coupled algebraic equations. The resultant circuit is a randomly chosen generalized extreme channel circuit whose run-time is logarithmic with respect to the error tolerance and quadratic with respect to Hilbert space dimension, which requires only a single ancillary qudit plus classical dits.
- Photon-mediated interactions between atoms are of fundamental importance in quantum optics, quantum simulations and quantum information processing. The exchange of real and virtual photons between atoms gives rise to non-trivial interactions the strength of which decreases rapidly with distance in three dimensions. Here we study much stronger photon mediated interactions using two superconducting qubits in an open onedimensional transmission line. Making use of the unique possibility to tune these qubits by more than a quarter of their transition frequency we observe both coherent exchange interactions at an effective separation of $3\lambda/4$ and the creation of super- and sub-radiant states at a separation of one photon wavelength $\lambda$. This system is highly suitable for exploring collective atom/photon interactions and applications in quantum communication technology.
- Jul 22 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1407.5507v3Quantum discord is the quantitative difference between two alternative expressions for bipartite mutual information, given respectively in terms of two distinct definitions for the conditional entropy. By constructing a stochastic model of shared states, classical discord can be similarly defined, quantifying the presence of some stochasticity in the measurement process. Therefore, discord can generally be understood as a quantification of the system's state disturbance due to local measurements, be it quantum or classical. We establish an operational meaning of classical discord in the context of state merging with noisy measurement and thereby show the quantum-classical separation in terms of a negative conditional entropy.
- Jul 08 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1407.1568v2We develop a theory and accompanying mathematical model for quantum communication via any number of intermediate entanglement swapping operations and solve numerically for up to three intermediate entanglement swapping operations. Our model yields two-photon interference visibilities post-selected on photon counts at the intermediate entanglement-swapping stations. Realistic experimental conditions are accommodated through parametric down-conversion rate, photon-counter efficiencies and dark-count rates, and instrument and transmission losses. We calculate achievable quantum communication distances such that two-photon interference visibility exceeds the Bell-inequality threshold.
- May 21 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1405.5026v4The N00N state, which was introduced as a resource for quantum-enhanced metrology, is in fact a special case of a superposition of two SU(2) coherent states. We show here explicitly the derivation of the N00N state from the superposition state. This derivation makes clear the connection between these seemingly disparate states as well as shows how the N00N state can be generalized to a superposition of SU(2) coherent states.
- We develop a complete resource theory of charge-parity-time (CPT) inversion symmetry for both massive and massless relativistic particles of arbitrary spin. We show that a unitary representation of CPT can be consistently constructed for all spins and develop the resource theory associated with CPT super-selection, thereby identifying and quantifying the resources required to lift the super-selection rule.
- Apr 08 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1404.1399v1We investigate a method for generating nonlinear phase shifts on superpositions of photon number states. The light is stored in a Bose-Einstein condensate via electromagnetically-induced transparency memory techniques. The atomic collisions are exploited to generate a nonlinear phase shift of the stored state. The stored light is then revived with the nonlinear phase shift imprinted upon it. We show that this method can be used as a nonlinear-sign gate in the regime where the Thomas-Fermi and mean-field approximations are valid. We test these approximations using realistic parameters and find that these approximations pass the standard tests for validity in a single-component condensate. However, for the two-component condensates considered here, we find that these conditions are insufficiently strict. We find a stronger set of conditions and show for the same set of parameters that the approximations are invalid.
- Mar 17 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.3433v3Non-classical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. This effect is exploited in universal quantum gates as well as in purpose-built quantum computers that solve the BosonSampling problem. Although non-classical interference is often associated with perfectly indistinguishable photons this only represents the degenerate case, hard to achieve under realistic experimental conditions. Here we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multi-photon non-classical interference. This we investigate in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis which decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.
- Mar 06 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.0943v2Although quantum control typically relies on greedy (local) optimization, traps (irregular critical points) in the control landscape can make optimization hard by foiling local search strategies. We demonstrate the failure of greedy algorithms to realize two fast quantum computing gates: a qutrit phase gate and a controlled-not gate. Then we show that our evolutionary algorithm circumvents the trap to deliver effective quantum control in both instances. Even when greedy algorithms succeed, our evolutionary algorithm delivers a superior control procedure because less time resolution is required for the control sequence.
- Feb 12 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1402.2391v2We use permutation-group methods plus SU(3) group-theoretic methods to determine the action of a three-channel passive optical interferometer on controllably delayed single-photon pulse inputs to each channel. Permutation-group techniques allow us to relate directly expressions for rates and, in particular, investigate symmetries in the coincidence landscape. These techniques extend the traditional Hong-Ou-Mandel effect analysis for two-channel interferometry to valleys and plateaus in three-channel interferometry. Our group-theoretic approach is intuitively appealing because the calculus of Wigner $D$ functions partially accounts for permutational symmetries and directly reveals the connections among $D$ functions, partial distinguishability, and immanants.
- Dec 03 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1312.0123v1We realize quasi-periodic dynamics of a quantum walker over 2.5 quasi-periods by realizing the walker as a single photon passing through a quantum-walk optical-interferometer network. We introduce fully controllable polarization-independent phase shifters in each optical path to realize arbitrary site-dependent phase shifts, and we employ large clear-aperture beam displacers, while maintaining high-visibility interference, to enable reaching 10 quantum-walk steps. By varying the half-wave-plate setting, we control the quantum-coin bias thereby observing a transition from quasi-periodic dynamics to ballistic diffusion.
- We show that an alkali atom with a tripod electronic structure can yield rich electromagnetically induced transparency phenomena even at room temperature. In particular we introduce double-double electromagnetically induced transparency wherein signal and probe fields each have two transparency windows. Their group velocities can be matched in either the first or second pair of transparency windows. Moreover signal and probe fields can each experience coherent gain in the second transparency windows. We explain using a semi-classical-dressed-picture to connect the tripod electronic structure to a double-\Lambda scheme.
- The concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes (GCQC) provides a systematic way for constructing good quantum codes from short component codes. We introduce a stabilizer formalism for GCQCs, which is achieved by defining quantum coset codes. This formalism offers a new perspective for GCQCs and enables us to derive a lower bound on the code distance of stabilizer GCQCs from component codes parameters,for both non-degenerate and degenerate component codes. Our formalism also shows how to exploit the error-correcting capacity of component codes to design good GCQCs efficiently.
- Jul 06 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1307.1498v1A universal quantum simulator would enable efficient simulation of quantum dynamics by implementing quantum-simulation algorithms on a quantum computer. Specifically the quantum simulator would efficiently generate qubit-string states that closely approximate physical states obtained from a broad class of dynamical evolutions. I provide an overview of theoretical research into universal quantum simulators and the strategies for minimizing computational space and time costs. Applications to simulating many-body quantum simulation and solving linear equations are discussed.
- Jun 27 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.6114v1We develop a theory of charge-parity-time (CPT) frameness resources to circumvent CPT-superselection. We construct and quantify such resources for spin~0, $\frac{1}{2}$, 1, and Majorana particles and show that quantum information processing is possible even with CPT superselection. Our method employs a unitary representation of CPT inversion by considering the aggregate action of CPT rather than the composition of separate C, P and T operations, as some of these operations involve problematic anti-unitary representations.
- May 31 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.7135v2We study the collective effects that emerge in waveguide quantum electrodynamics where several (artificial) atoms are coupled to a one-dimensional superconducting transmission line. Since single microwave photons can travel without loss for a long distance along the line, real and virtual photons emitted by one atom can be reabsorbed or scattered by a second atom. Depending on the distance between the atoms, this collective effect can lead to super- and subradiance or to a coherent exchange-type interaction between the atoms. Changing the artificial atoms transition frequencies, something which can be easily done with superconducting qubits (two levels artificial atoms), is equivalent to changing the atom-atom separation and thereby opens the possibility to study the characteristics of these collective effects. To study this waveguide quantum electrodynamics system, we extend previous work and present an effective master equation valid for an ensemble of inhomogeneous atoms driven by a coherent state. Using input-output theory, we compute analytically and numerically the elastic and inelastic scattering and show how these quantities reveal information about collective effects. These theoretical results are compatible with recent experimental results using transmon qubits coupled to a superconducting one-dimensional transmission line [A.~F.~van Loo \it et al.].
- May 29 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1305.6359v2We devise a scheme to characterize tunneling of an excess electron shared by a pair of tunnel-coupled dangling bonds on a silicon surface -- effectively a two-level system. Theoretical estimates show that the tunneling should be highly coherent but too fast to be measured by any conventional techniques. Our approach is instead to measure the time-averaged charge distribution of our dangling-bond pair by a capacitively coupled atomic-force-microscope tip in the presence of both a surface-parallel electrostatic potential bias between the two dangling bonds and a tunable midinfrared laser capable of inducing Rabi oscillations in the system. With a nonresonant laser, the time-averaged charge distribution in the dangling-bond pair is asymmetric as imposed by the bias. However, as the laser becomes resonant with the coherent electron tunneling in the biased pair the theory predicts that the time-averaged charge distribution becomes symmetric. This resonant symmetry effect should not only reveal the tunneling rate, but also the nature and rate of decoherence of single-electron dynamics in our system.
- May 18 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.3946v1We construct a theory for long-distance quantum communication based on sharing entanglement through a linear chain of $N$ elementary swapping segments of length~$L=Nl$ where $l$ is the length of each elementary swap setup. Entanglement swapping is achieved by linear optics, photon counting and post-selection, and we include effects due to multi-photon sources, transmission loss and detector inefficiencies and dark counts. Specifically we calculate the resultant four-mode state shared by the two parties at the two ends of the chain, and we derive the two-photon coincidence rate expected for this state and thereby the visibility of this long-range entangled state. The expression is a nested sum with each sum extending from zero to infinite photons, and we solve the case $N=2$ exactly for the ideal case (zero dark counts, unit-efficiency detectors and no transmission loss) and numerically for $N=2$ in the non-ideal case with truncation at $n_\text{max}=3$ photons in each mode. For the general case, we show that the computational complexity for the numerical solution is $n_\text{max}^{12N}$.
- May 14 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.2783v2Inspired by the Solovay-Kitaev decomposition for approximating unitary operations as a sequence of operations selected from a universal quantum computing gate set, we introduce a method for approximating any single-qubit channel using single-qubit gates and the controlled-NOT (CNOT). Our approach uses the decomposition of the single-qubit channel into a convex combination of "quasiextreme" channels. Previous techniques for simulating general single-qubit channels would require as many as 20 CNOT gates, whereas ours only needs one, bringing it within the range of current experiments.
- May 06 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.0805v2Quantum secret-sharing and quantum error-correction schemes rely on multipartite decoding protocols, yet the non-local operations involved are challenging and sometimes infeasible. Here we construct a quantum secret-sharing protocol with a reduced number of quantum communication channels between the players. Our scheme is based on embedding a classical linear code into a quantum error-correcting code. Our work paves the way towards the more general problem of simplifying the decoding of quantum error-correcting codes.
- Apr 09 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1304.2246v2We devise powerful algorithms based on differential evolution for adaptive many-particle quantum metrology. Our new approach delivers adaptive quantum metrology policies for feedback control that are orders-of-magnitude more efficient and surpass the few-dozen-particle limitation arising in methods based on particle-swarm optimization. We apply our method to the binary-decision-tree model for quantum-enhanced phase estimation as well as to a new problem: a decision tree for adaptive estimation of the unknown bias of a quantum coin in a quantum walk and show how this latter case can be realized experimentally.
- Jan 08 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1301.1050v2We propose a quantum-electrodynamics scheme for implementing the discrete-time, coined quantum walk with the walker corresponding to the phase degree of freedom for a quasi-magnon field realized in an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. The coin is realized as a superconducting flux qubit. Our scheme improves on an existing proposal for implementing quantum walks in cavity quantum electrodynamics by removing the cumbersome requirement of varying drive-pulse durations according to mean quasiparticle number. Our improvement is relevant to all indirect-coin-flip cavity quantum-electrodynamics realizations of quantum walks. Our numerical analysis shows that this scheme can realize a discrete quantum walk under realistic conditions.
- Dec 19 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1212.4217v2We introduce a new multiparty cryptographic protocol, which we call `entanglement sharing schemes', wherein a dealer retains half of a maximally-entangled bipartite state and encodes the other half into a multipartite state that is distributed among multiple players. In a close analogue to quantum secret sharing, some subsets of players can recover maximal entanglement with the dealer whereas other subsets can recover no entanglement (though they may retain classical correlations with the dealer). We find a lower bound on the share size for such schemes and construct two non-trivial examples based on Shor's $[[9,1,3]]$ and the $[[4,2,2]]$ stabilizer code; we further demonstrate how other examples may be obtained from quantum error correcting codes through classical encryption. Finally, we demonstrate that entanglement sharing schemes can be applied to characterize leaked information in quantum ramp secret sharing.
- Sep 18 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1209.3376v2We show that the standard quantum-walk quantum-to-classical transition, characterized by ballistic-to-diffusive spreading of the walker's position, can be controlled by externally modulating the coin state. We illustrate by showing an oscillation between classical diffusive and quantum ballistic spreading using numerical and asymptotically exact closed-form solutions, and we prove that the walker is in a controllable incoherent mixture of classical and quantum walks with a reversible quantum-to-classical transition.
- We develop a framework for solving the action of a three-channel passive optical interferometer on single-photon pulse inputs to each channel using SU(3) group-theoretic methods, which can be readily generalized to higher-order photon-coincidence experiments. We show that features of the coincidence plots vs relative time delays of photons yield information about permanents, immanants, and determinants of the interferometer SU(3) matrix.
- Jun 06 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1206.1035v1We study a simple-harmonic-oscillator quantum computer solving oracle decision problems. We show that such computers can perform better by using nonorthogonal Gaussian wave functions rather than orthogonal top-hat wave functions as input to the information encoding process. Using the Deutsch-Jozsa problem as an example, we demonstrate that Gaussian modulation with optimized width parameter results in a lower error rate than for the top-hat encoding. We conclude that Gaussian modulation can allow for an improved trade-off between encoding, processing and measurement of the information.
- May 22 2012 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1205.4506v1We propose a scheme for creating of a maximally entangled state comprising two field quanta. In our scheme, two weak light fields, which are initially prepared in either coherent or polarization states, interact with a composite medium near an interface between a dielectric and a negative index metamaterial. Such interaction leads to a large Kerr nonlinearity, reduction of the group velocity of the light and significant confinement of the light fields while simultaneously avoiding amplitude losses of the incoming radiation. All these considerations make our scheme efficient.
- May 04 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1205.0637v2Coherent pulse control for quantum memory is viable in the optical domain but nascent in microwave quantum circuits. We show how to realize coherent storage and on-demand pulse retrieval entirely within a superconducting circuit by exploiting and extending existing electromagnetically induced transparency technology in superconducting quantum circuits. Our scheme employs a linear array of superconducting artificial atoms coupled to a microwave transmission line.
- Apr 10 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1204.1680v3We show how to probe multipartite entanglement in $N$ coupled Jaynes-Cummings cells where the degrees of freedom are the electronic energies of each of the $N$ atoms in separate single-mode cavities plus the $N$ single-mode fields themselves. Specifically we propose probing the combined system as though it is a dielectric medium. The spectral properties and transition rates directly reveal multipartite entanglement signatures. It is found that the Hilbert space of the $N$ cell system can be confined to the totally symmetric subspace of two states only that are maximally-entangled W states with 2N degrees of freedom.
- Feb 23 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1202.4827v1We develop a theoretical framework to evaluate the energy spectrum, stationary states, and dielectric susceptibility of two Jaynes-Cummings systems coupled together by the overlap of their respective longitudinal field modes, and we solve and characterize the combined system for the case that the two atoms and two cavities share a single quantum of energy.
- We develop a charge-parity-time (CPT) frameness resource theory to circumvent CPT- superselection. We construct and quantify such resources for spins 0, 1/2, and 1 and for Majorana particles, and we show that spin 0 particles only admit classical information processing whereas particles of higher-dimensional spin permit quantum information processing in the presence of CPT-superselection. Our treatment of CPT inversion as indecomposable circumvents the anti-unitarity of certain actions (C and T) by strictly considering the aggregate CPT.
- Dec 09 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1112.1778v1We review entangled coherent state research since its first implicit use in 1967 to the present. Entangled coherent states are important to quantum superselection principles, quantum information processing, quantum optics, and mathematical physics. Despite their inherent fragility they have produced in a conditional propagating-wave quantum optics realization. Fundamentally the states are intriguing because they are entanglements of the coherent states, which are in a sense the most classical of all states of a dynamical system.
- We discuss limitations to sharing entanglement known as monogamy of entanglement. Our pedagogical approach commences with simple examples of limited entanglement sharing for pure three-qubit states and progresses to the more general case of mixed-state monogamy relations with multiple qudits.
- Dec 08 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1112.1446v3We study a model of quantum computation based on the continuously-parameterized yet finite-dimensional Hilbert space of a spin system. We explore the computational powers of this model by analyzing a pilot problem we refer to as the close Hadamard problem. We prove that the close Hadamard problem can be solved in the spin system model with arbitrarily small error probability in a constant number of oracle queries. We conclude that this model of quantum computation is suitable for solving certain types of problems. The model is effective for problems where symmetries between the structure of the information associated with the problem and the structure of the unitary operators employed in the quantum algorithm can be exploited.