Mar 19 2018 cs.NI
Value-added services (e.g., overlaid video advertisements) have become an integral part of today's Content Delivery Networks (CDNs). To offer cost-efficient, scalable and more agile provisioning of new value-added services in CDNs, Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) paradigm may be leveraged to allow implementation of fine-grained services as a chain of Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) to be placed in CDN. The manner in which these chains are placed is critical as it both affects the quality of service (QoS) and provider cost. The problem is however, very challenging due to the specifics of the chains (e.g.,one of their end-points is not known prior to the placement). We formulate it as an Integer Linear Program (ILP) and propose a cost efficient Proactive VNF placement and chaining (CPVNF)algorithm. The objective is to find the optimal number of VNFs along with their locations in such a manner that the cost is minimized while QoS is met. Apart from cost minimization, the support for large-scale CDNs with a large number of servers and end-users is an important feature of the proposed algorithm. Through simulations, the algorithm's behaviour for small-scale to large-scale CDN networks is analyzed.
In large-scale natural disasters, humans are likely to fail when they attempt to reach high-risk sites or act in search and rescue operations. Robots, however, outdo their counterparts in surviving the hazards and handling the search and rescue missions due to their multiple and diverse sensing and actuation capabilities. The dynamic formation of optimal coalition of these heterogeneous robots for cost efficiency is very challenging and research in the area is gaining more and more attention. In this paper, we propose a novel heuristic. Since the population of robots in large-scale disaster settings is very large, we rely on Quantum Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (QMOPSO). The problem is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Simulations with different test cases and metrics, and comparison with other algorithms such as NSGA-II and SPEA-II are carried out. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms not only in terms of convergence but also in terms of diversity and processing time.
Nov 08 2016 cs.NI
Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) have gained immense popularity over the years. Replica server placement is a key design issue in CDNs. It entails placing replica servers at meticulous locations, such that cost is minimized and Quality of Service (QoS) of end-users is satisfied. Many replica server placement models have been proposed in the literature of traditional CDN. As the CDN architecture is evolving through the adoption of emerging paradigms, such as, cloud computing and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), new algorithms are being proposed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of replica server placement algorithms in traditional and emerging paradigm based CDNs. We categorize the algorithms and provide a summary of their characteristics. Besides, we identify requirements for an efficient replica server placement algorithm and perform a comparison in the light of the requirements. Finally, we discuss potential avenues for further research in replica server placement in CDNs.
Jan 15 2016 cs.NI
Virtualization enables multiple applications to share the same wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN). However, in heterogeneous environments, virtualized wireless sensor and actuator networks (VWSAN) raise new challenges, such as the need for on-the-fly, dynamic, elastic, and scalable provisioning of gateways. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is a paradigm emerging to help tackle these new challenges. It leverages standard virtualization technology to consolidate special-purpose network elements on commodity hardware. This article presents NFV architecture for VWSAN gateways, in which software instances of gateway modules are hosted in NFV infrastructure operated and managed by a VWSAN gateway provider. We consider several VWSAN providers, each with its own brand or combination of brands of sensors and actuators/robots. These sensors and actuators can be accessed by a variety of applications, each may have different interface and QoS (i.e., latency, throughput, etc.) requirements. The NFV infrastructure allows dynamic, elastic, and scalable deployment of gateway modules in this heterogeneous VWSAN environment. Furthermore, the proposed architecture is flexible enough to easily allow new sensors and actuators integration and new application domains accommodation. We present a prototype that is built using the OpenStack platform. Besides, the performance results are discussed
Dec 02 2015 cs.NI
4G systems have been continuously evolving to cope with the emerging challenges of human-centric and machine-to- machine (M2M) applications. Research has also now started on 5G systems. Scenarios have been proposed and initial requirements derived. 4G and beyond systems are expected to easily deliver a wide range of human-centric and M2M applications and services in a scalable, elastic, and cost efficient manner. The 3GPP IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) was standardized as the service delivery platform for 3G networks. Unfortunately, it does not meet several requirements for provisioning applications and services in 4G and beyond systems. However, cloudifying it will certainly pave the way for its use as a service delivery platform for 4G and beyond. This article presents a critical overview of the architectures proposed so far for cloudifying the IMS. There are two classes of approaches; the first focuses on the whole IMS system, and the second deals with specific IMS entities. Research directions are also discussed. IMS granularity and a PaaS for the development and management of IMS functional entities are the two key directions we currently foresee.
Mar 19 2015 cs.NI
Virtualization enables the sharing of a same wireless sensor network (WSN) by multiple applications. However, in heterogeneous environments, virtualized wireless sensor networks (VWSN) raises new challenges such as the need for on-the-fly, dynamic, elastic and scalable provisioning of gateways. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is an emerging paradigm that can certainly aid in tackling these new challenges. It leverages standard virtualization technology to consolidate special-purpose network elements on top of commodity hardware. This article presents a case study on NFV based gateways for VWSNs. In the study, a VWSN gateway provider, operates and manages an NFV based infrastructure. We use two different brands of wireless sensors. The NFV infrastructure makes possible the dynamic, elastic and scalable deployment of gateway modules in this heterogeneous VWSN environment. The prototype built with Openstack as platform is described.
In this paper, we propose a generic technique to model temporal dependencies and sequences using a combination of a recurrent neural network and a Deep Belief Network. Our technique, RNN-DBN, is an amalgamation of the memory state of the RNN that allows it to provide temporal information and a multi-layer DBN that helps in high level representation of the data. This makes RNN-DBNs ideal for sequence generation. Further, the use of a DBN in conjunction with the RNN makes this model capable of significantly more complex data representation than an RBM. We apply this technique to the task of polyphonic music generation.
Oct 14 2014 cs.DB
Traditional association rule mining based on the support-confidence framework provides the objective measure of the rules that are of interest to users. However, it does not reflect the utility of the rules. To extract non-redundant association rules in support-confidence framework frequent closed itemsets and their generators play an important role. To extract non-redundant association rules among high utility itemsets, high utility closed itemsets (HUCI) and their generators should be extracted in order to apply traditional support-confidence framework. However, no efficient method exists at present for mining HUCIs with their generators. This paper addresses this issue. A post-processing algorithm, called the HUCI-Miner, is proposed to mine HUCIs with their generators. The proposed algorithm is implemented using both synthetic and real datasets.