results for au:Ryu_S in:cond-mat

- The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem dictates that a trivial symmetric insulator in lattice models is prohibited if lattice translation symmetry and $U(1)$ charge conservation are both preserved. In this paper, we generalize the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem to systems with higher-form symmetries, which act on extended objects of dimension $n > 0$. The prototypical lattice system with higher-form symmetry is the pure abelian lattice gauge theory whose action consists only of the field strength. We first construct the higher-form generalization of the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem with a proof. We then apply it to the $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory description of the quantum dimer model on bipartite lattices. Finally, using the continuum field theory description in the vicinity of the Rokhsar-Kivelson point of the quantum dimer model, we diagnose and compute the mixed 't Hooft anomaly corresponding to the higher-form Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem.
- May 07 2018 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1805.01591v1Although the pearlitic steel is one of the most extensively studied materials, there are still questions unanswered about the interface in the lamellar structure. In particular, to deepen the understanding of the mechanical behavior of pearlitic steel with fine lamellar structure, it is essential to reveal the structure-property relationship of the ferrite/cementite interface (FCI). In this study, we analyzed the in-plane shear deformation of the FCI using atomistic simulation combined with extended atomically informed Frank-Bilby (xAIFB) method and disregistry analyses. In the atomistic simulation, we applied in-plane shear stress along twelve different directions to the ferrite/cementite bilayer for Isaichev (IS), Near Bagaryatsky (Near BA) and Near Pitsch-Petch (Near PP) orientation relationship (OR), respectively. The simulation results reveal that IS and Near BA ORs show dislocation-mediated plasticity except two directions, while Near PP OR shows mode II (in-plane shear) fracture at the FCI along all directions. Based on the xAIFB and disregistry analysis results, we conclude that the in-plane shear behavior of the FCI is governed by the magnitude of Burgers vector and core-width of misfit dislocations.
- May 01 2018 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1804.11266v1We analyze the deformation mechanism of the stoichiometric \gamma-Ti50Al50 single-crystal nanowire by combining theoretical and computational methods. We suggest a theoretical framework to predict the deformation mode for a given uniaxial loading condition based on the generalized stacking fault energy and Schmid factor. The theory explains four deformation mechanisms, namely, ordinary slip, super slip, twinning, and mixed slip/fracture, observed from tensile and compressive tests along 10 different orientations using molecular dynamics simulations. Interestingly, the deformation modes of the nanowire are different from existing bulk experiments for a few exceptions; these differences can be explained by the size dependent deformation mechanism. The present study provides a systematic method to predict the deformation mode of \gamma-TiAl crystal that is readily applicable to other intermetallic crystals with complex slip systems.
- We study quantum information aspects of the fermionic entanglement negativity recently introduced in [Phys. Rev. B 95, 165101 (2017)] based on the fermionic partial transpose. In particular, we show that it is an entanglement monotone under the action of local quantum operations and classical communications (LOCC) which preserve the local fermion-number parity and satisfies other common properties expected for an entanglement measure of mixed states. We present fermionic analogs of tripartite entangled states such as $W$ and $GHZ$ states and compare the results of bosonic and fermionic partial transpose in various fermionic states, where we explain why the bosonic partial transpose fails in distinguishing separable states of fermions. Finally, we explore a set of entanglement quantities which distinguish different classes of entangled states of a system with two and three fermionic modes. In doing so, we prove that vanishing entanglement negativity is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability of $N\geq 2$ fermionic modes with respect to the bipartition into one mode and the rest. We further conjecture that the entanglement negativity of inseparable states which mix local fermion-number parity is always non-vanishing.
- Dec 27 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1712.09031v1Using a recently-developed time-of-flight measurement technique with 1 ps time resolution and electron-energy spectroscopy, we developed a method to measure the longitudinal-optical-phonon emission rate of hot electrons travelling along a depleted edge of a quantum Hall bar. A comparison of the experimental results to a single-particle model implies that the main scattering mechanism involves a two-step process via intra-Landau-level transition. We show this scattering can be suppressed by controlling the edge potential profile, and a scattering length > 1 mm can be achieved, allowing the use of this system for scalable single-electron device applications.
- Dec 27 2017 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1712.08715v2We obtained an analytical solution for the effective thermal conductivity of composites composed of orthotropic matrices and spherical inhomogeneities with interfacial thermal resistance using a micromechanics-based homogenization. We derived the closed form of a modified Eshelby tensor as a function of the interfacial thermal resistance. We then predicted the heat flux of a single inhomogeneity in the infinite media based on the modified Eshelby tensor, which was validated against the numerical results obtained from the finite element analysis. Based on the modified Eshelby tensor and the localization tensor accounting for the interfacial resistance, we derived an analytical expression for the effective thermal conductivity tensor for the composites by a mean-field approach called the Mori-Tanaka method. Our analytical prediction matched very well with the effective thermal conductivity obtained from finite element analysis with up to 10% inhomogeneity volume fraction.
- Dec 01 2017 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1711.11236v1Two-dimensional (2D) van-der-Waals semiconductors have emerged as a class of materials with promising device characteristics owing to the intrinsic bandgap. For realistic applications, the ideal is to modify the bandgap in a controlled manner by a mechanism that can be generally applied to this class of materials. Here, we report the observation of a universally tunable bandgap in the family of bulk 2H transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) by in situ surface doping of Rb atoms. A series of angle-resolved photoemission spectra unexceptionally shows that the bandgap of TMDs at the zone corners is modulated in the range of 0.8 ~ 2.0 eV, which covers a wide spectral range from visible to near infrared, with a tendency from indirect to direct bandgap. A key clue to understand the mechanism of this bandgap engineering is provided by the spectroscopic signature of symmetry breaking and resultant spin splitting, which can be explained by the formation of 2D electric dipole layers within the surface bilayer of TMDs. Our results establish the surface Stark effect as a universal mechanism of bandgap engineering based on the strong 2D nature of van-der-Waals semiconductors.
- Dec 01 2017 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1711.11228v1We report the realization of novel symmetry-protected Dirac fermions in a surface-doped two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor, black phosphorus. The widely tunable band gap of black phosphorus by the surface Stark effect is employed to achieve a surprisingly large band inversion up to ~0.6 eV. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectra directly reveal the pair creation of Dirac points and their moving along the axis of the glide-mirror symmetry. Unlike graphene, the Dirac point of black phosphorus is stable, as protected by spacetime inversion symmetry, even in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. Our results establish black phosphorus in the inverted regime as a simple model system of 2D symmetry-protected (topological) Dirac semimetals, offering an unprecedented opportunity for the discovery of 2D Weyl semimetals.
- We study the intrinsic fully-gapped odd-parity superconducting order in doped nodal-loop materials with a torus-shaped Fermi surface. We show that the mirror symmetry, which protects the nodal loop in the normal state, also protects the superconducting state as a topological crystalline superconductor. As a result, the surfaces preserving the mirror symmetry host gapless Majorana cones. Moreover, for a Weyl loop system (two-fold degenerate at the nodal loop), the surfaces that break the mirror symmetry (those parallel to the bulk nodal loop) contribute a Chern (winding) number to the quasi-two-dimensional system in a slab geometry, which leads to a quantized thermal Hall effect and a single Majorana zero mode bound at a vortex line penetrating the system. This Chern number can be viewed as a higher-order topological invariant, which supports hinge modes in a cubic sample when mirror symmetry is broken. For a Dirac loop system (four-fold degenerate at the nodal loop), the fully gapped odd-parity state can be either time-reversal symmetry-breaking or symmetric, similar to the $A$- and $B$- phases of $^3$He. In a slab geometry, the $A$-phase has a Chern number two, while the $B$-phase carries a nontrivial $\mathbb{Z}_2$ invariant. We discuss the experimental relevance of our results to nodal-loop materials such as CaAgAs.
- Nov 08 2017 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1711.02126v4For two dimensional conformal field theories in the ground state, it is known that a conformal interface along the entanglement cut can suppress the entanglement entropy from $S_A\sim c\log L$ to $S_A\sim c_{\text{eff}}\log L$, where $L$ is the length of the subsystem $A$, and $c_{\text{eff}}\in [0, c]$ is the effective central charge which depends on the transmission property of the conformal interface. In this work, by making use of conformal mappings, we show that a conformal interface has the same effect on entanglement evolution in non-equilibrium cases, including global, local and certain inhomogeneous quantum quenches. I.e., a conformal interface suppresses the time evolution of entanglement entropy by effectively replacing the central charge $c$ with $c_{\text{eff}}$, where $c_{\text{eff}}$ is exactly the same as that in the ground state case. We confirm this conclusion by a numerical study on a critical fermion chain. Furthermore, based on the quasi-particle picture, we conjecture that this conclusion holds for an arbitrary quantum quench in CFTs, as long as the initial state can be described by a regularized conformal boundary state.
- Oct 16 2017 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1710.04730v1We analyze $2+1d$ and $3+1d$ Bosonic Symmetry Protected Topological (SPT) phases of matter protected by onsite symmetry group $G$ by using dual bulk and boundary approaches. In the bulk we study an effective field theory which upon coupling to a background flat $G$ gauge field furnishes a purely topological response theory. The response action evaluated on certain manifolds, with appropriate choice of background gauge field, defines a set of SPT topological invariants. Further, SPTs can be gauged by summing over all isomorphism classes of flat $G$ gauge fields to obtain Dijkgraaf-Witten topological $G$ gauge theories. These topological gauge theories can be ungauged by first introducing and then proliferating defects that spoils the gauge symmetry. This mechanism is related to anyon condensation in $2+1d$ and condensing bosonic gauge charges in $3+1d$. In the dual boundary approach, we study $1+1d$ and $2+1d$ quantum field theories that have $G$ 't-Hooft anomalies that can be precisely cancelled by (the response theory of) the corresponding bulk SPT. We show how to construct/compute topological invariants for the bulk SPTs directly from the boundary theories. Further we sum over boundary partition functions with different background gauge fields to construct $G$-characters that generate topological data for the bulk topological gauge theory. Finally, we study a $2+1d$ quantum field theory with a mixed $\mathbb{Z}_2^{T/R} \times U(1)$ anomaly where $\mathbb{Z}_2^{T/R}$ is time-reversal/reflection symmetry, and the $U(1)$ could be a 0-form or 1-form symmetry depending on the choice of time reversal/reflection action. We briefly discuss the bulk effective action and topological response for a theory in $3+1d$ that cancels this anomaly. This signals the existence of SPTs in $3+1d$ protected by 0,1-form $U(1)\times \mathbb{Z}_{2}^{T,R}$.
- We present a fully many-body formulation of topological invariants for various topological phases of fermions protected by antiunitary symmetry, which does not refer to single particle wave functions. For example, we construct the many-body $\mathbb{Z}_2$ topological invariant for time-reversal symmetric topological insulators in two spatial dimensions, which is a many-body counterpart of the Kane-Mele $\mathbb{Z}_2$ invariant written in terms of single-particle Bloch wave functions. We show that an important ingredient for the construction of the many-body topological invariants is a fermionic partial transpose which is basically the standard partial transpose equipped with a sign structure to account for anti-commuting property of fermion operators. We also report some basic results on various kinds of pin structures -- a key concept behind our strategy for constructing many-body topological invariants -- such as the obstructions, isomorphism classes, and Dirac quantization conditions.
- Jun 05 2017 cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1706.00560v1We discuss several bosonic topological phases in (3+1) dimensions enriched by a global $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry, and gauging the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry. More specifically, following the spirit of the bulk-boundary correspondence, expected to hold in topological phases of matter in general, we consider boundary (surface) field theories and their orbifold. From the surface partition functions, we extract the modular $\mathcal{S}$ and $\mathcal{T}$ matrices and compare them with $(2+1)$d toplogical phase after dimensional reduction. As a specific example, we discuss topologically ordered phases in $(3+1)$ dimensions described by the BF topological quantum field theories, with abelian exchange statistics between point-like and loop-like quasiparticles. Once the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ charge conjugation symmetry is gauged, the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ flux becomes non-abelian excitation. The gauged topological phases we are considering here belong to the quantum double model with non-abelian group in $(3+1)$ dimensions.
- Jun 05 2017 cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1706.00557v1Topological phases of matter in (2+1) dimensions are commonly equipped with global symmetries, such as electric-magnetic duality in gauge theories and bilayer symmetry in fractional quantum Hall states. Gauging these symmetries into local dynamical ones is one way of obtaining exotic phases from conventional systems. We study this using the bulk-boundary correspondence and applying the orbifold construction to the (1+1) dimensional edge described by a conformal field theory (CFT). Our procedure puts twisted boundary conditions into the partition function, and predicts the fusion, spin and braiding behavior of anyonic excitations after gauging. We demonstrate this for the electric-magnetic self-dual $\mathbb{Z}_N$ gauge theory, the twofold symmetric $SU(3)_1$, and the $S_3$-symmetric $SO(8)_1$ Wess-Zumino-Witten theories.
- The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis (LSM) theorem dictates that emergent low-energy states from a lattice model cannot be a trivial symmetric insulator if the filling per unit cell is not integral and if the lattice translation symmetry and particle number conservation are strictly imposed. In this paper, we compare the one-dimensional gapless states enforced by the LSM theorem and the boundaries of one-higher dimensional strong symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases from the perspective of quantum anomalies. We first note that, they can be both described by the same low-energy effective field theory with the same effective symmetry realizations on low-energy modes, wherein non-on-site lattice translation symmetry is encoded as if it is a local symmetry. In spite of the identical form of the low-energy effective field theories, we show that the quantum anomalies of the theories play different roles in the two systems. In particular, We find that the chiral anomaly is equivalent to the LSM theorem, whereas there is another anomaly, which is not related to the LSM theorem but is intrinsic to the SPT states. As an application, we extend the conventional LSM theorem to multiple-charge multiple-species problems and construct several exotic symmetric insulators. We also find that the (3+1)d chiral anomaly provides only the perturbative stability of the gapless-ness local in the parameter space.
- Apr 06 2017 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1704.01193v2We propose a diagnostic tool for detecting non-trivial symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases protected by a symmetry group $G$ in 2+1 dimensions. Our method is based on directly studying the 1+1-dimensional anomalous edge conformal field theory (CFT) of SPT phases. We claim that if the CFT is the edge theory of an SPT phase, then there must be an obstruction to cutting it open. This obstruction manifests in the in-existence of boundary states that preserves both the conformal symmetry and the global symmetry $G$. We discuss the relation between edgeability, the ability to find a consistent boundary state, and gappability, the ability to gap out a CFT, in the presence of $G$. We study several cases including time-reversal symmetric topological insulators, $\mathbb{Z}_N$ symmetric bosonic SPTs, and $\mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetric topological superconductors.
- Mar 27 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1703.08185v2We demonstrate a topological classification of vortices in three dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductors based on superconducting Dirac semimetals with an s-wave superconducting order parameter by means of a pair of numbers $(N_\Phi,N)$, accounting how many units $N_\Phi$ of magnetic fluxes $hc/4e$ and how many $N$ chiral Majorana modes the vortex carries. From these quantities, we introduce a topological invariant which further classifies the properties of such vortices under linking processes. While such processes are known to be related to instanton processes in a field theoretic description, we demonstrate here that they are, in fact, also equivalent to the fractional Josephson effect on junctions based at the edges of quantum spin Hall systems. This allows one to consider microscopically the effects of interactions in the linking problem. We therefore demonstrate that associated to links between vortices, one has the exchange of quasi-particles, either Majorana zero-modes or $e/2$ quasi-particles, which allows for a topological classification of vortices in these systems, seen to be $\mathbb{Z}_8$ classified. While $N_\Phi$ and $N$ are shown to be both even or odd in the weakly-interacting limit, in the strongly interacting scenario one loosens this constraint. In this case, one may have further fractionalization possibilities for the vortices, whose excitations are described by $SO(3)_3$-like conformal field theories with quasi-particle exchanges of more exotic types.
- Mar 07 2017 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1703.01926v2While winding a particle-like excitation around a loop-like excitation yields the celebrated Aharonov-Bohm phase, we find a distinctive braiding phase in the absence of such mutual winding. In this work, we propose an exotic particle-loop-loop braiding process, dubbed the Borromean-Rings braiding, in which a particle moves around two unlinked loops, such that its trajectory and the two loops form the Borromean-Rings or more general Brunnian links. As the particle trajectory does not wind with any of the loops, the resulting braiding phase is fundamentally different from the Aharonov-Bohm phase. We derive an explicit expression for the braiding phase in terms of the underlying Milnor's triple linking number. We also propose Topological Quantum Field Theories consisting of an $AAB$-type topological term which realize the braiding statistics. Such an exotic braiding statistics sheds light on a new class of Symmetry-Protected Topological phases with a mixed generalized global symmetry that acts on both particles and loops.
- We extend Laughlin's magnetic-flux-threading argument to the quantized thermal Hall effect. A proper analogue of Laughlin's adiabatic magnetic-flux threading process for the case of the thermal Hall effect is given in terms of an external gravitational field. From the perspective of the edge theories of quantum Hall systems, the quantized thermal Hall effect is closely tied to the breakdown of large diffeomorphism invariance, that is, a global gravitational anomaly. In addition, we also give an argument from the bulk perspective in which a free energy, decomposed into its Fourier modes, is adiabatically transferred under an adiabatic process involving external gravitational perturbations.
- The partial transpose of density matrices in many-body quantum systems, in which one takes the transpose only for a subsystem of the full Hilbert space, has been recognized as a useful tool to diagnose quantum entanglement. It can be used, for example, to define the (logarithmic) negativity. For fermionic systems, it has been known that the partial transpose of Gaussian fermionic density matrices is not Gaussian. In this work, we propose to use partial time-reversal transformation to define (an analog of) the entanglement negativity and related quantities. We demonstrate that for the symmetry-protected topological phase realized in the Kitaev chain the conventional definition of the partial transpose (and hence the entanglement negativity) fails to capture the formation of the edge Majorana fermions, while the partial time-reversal computes the quantum dimension of the Majorana fermions. Furthermore, we show that the partial time-reversal of fermionic density matrices is Gaussian and can be computed efficiently. Various results (both numerical and analytical) for the entanglement negativity using the partial-time reversal are presented for (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theories, and also for fermionic disordered systems (random single phases).
- Nov 21 2016 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1611.05877v1The Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) is a tensor network based variational ansatz that is capable of capturing many of the key physical properties of strongly correlated ground states such as criticality and topological order. MERA also shares many deep relationships with the AdS/CFT (gauge-gravity) correspondence by realizing a UV complete holographic duality within the tensor networks framework. Motivated by this, we have re-purposed the MERA tensor network as an analysis tool to study the real-time evolution of the 1D transverse Ising model in its low energy excited state sector. We performed this analysis by allowing the ancilla qubits of the MERA tensor network to acquire quantum fluctuations, which yields a unitary transform between the physical (boundary) and ancilla qubit (bulk) Hilbert spaces. This then defines a reversible quantum circuit which is used as a `holographic transform' to study excited states and their real-time dynamics from the point of the bulk ancillae. In the gapped paramagnetic phase of the transverse field Ising model, we demonstrate the holographic duality between excited states induced by single spin-flips (Ising `magnons') acting on the ground state and single ancilla qubit spin-flips. The single ancillae qubit excitation is shown to be stable in the bulk under real-time evolution and hence defines a stable holographic quasiparticle which we have named the `hologron'. The `dictionary' between the bulk and boundary is determined and realizes many features of the holographic correspondence in a non-CFT limit of the boundary theory. As an added spin-off, this dictionary together with the extension to multi-hologron sectors gives us a systematic way to construct quantitatively accurate low energy effective Hamiltonians.
- Oct 25 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1610.07293v1Generating and detecting a prescribed single-electron state is an important step towards solid-state fermion optics. We propose how to generate an electron in a Gaussian state, using a quantum-dot pump with gigahertz operation and realistic parameters. With the help of a strong magnetic field, the electron occupies a coherent state in the pump, insensitive to the details of nonadiabatic evolution. The state changes during the emission from the pump, governed by competition between the Landauer-Buttiker traversal time and the passage time. When the former is much shorter than the latter, the emitted state is a Gaussian wave packet. The Gaussian packet can be identified by using a dynamical potential barrier, with a resolution reaching the Heisenberg minimal uncertainty $\hbar/2$.
- Sep 21 2016 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1609.05970v2We propose the definitions of many-body topological invariants to detect symmetry-protected topological phases protected by point group symmetry, using partial point group transformations on a given short-range entangled quantum ground state. Partial point group transformations $g_D$ are defined by point group transformations restricted to a spatial subregion $D$, which is closed under the point group transformations and sufficiently larger than the bulk correlation length $\xi$. By analytical and numerical calculations,we find that the ground state expectation value of the partial point group transformations behaves generically as $\langle GS | g_D | GS \rangle \sim \exp \Big[ i \theta+ \gamma - \alpha \frac{{\rm Area}(\partial D)}{\xi^{d-1}} \Big]$. Here, ${\rm Area}(\partial D)$ is the area of the boundary of the subregion $D$, and $\alpha$ is a dimensionless constant. The complex phase of the expectation value $\theta$ is quantized and serves as the topological invariant, and $\gamma$ is a scale-independent topological contribution to the amplitude. The examples we consider include the $\mathbb{Z}_8$ and $\mathbb{Z}_{16}$ invariants of topological superconductors protected by inversion symmetry in $(1+1)$ and $(3+1)$ dimensions, respectively, and the lens space topological invariants in $(2+1)$-dimensional fermionic topological phases. Connections to topological quantum field theories and cobordism classification of symmetry-protected topological phases are discussed.
- Sep 12 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.other arXiv:1609.02565v1The transfer of conserved charges through insulating matter via smooth deformations of the Hamiltonian is known as quantum adiabatic, or Thouless, pumping. Central to this phenomenon are Hamiltonians whose insulating gap is controlled by a multi-dimensional (usually two-dimensional) parameter space in which paths can be defined for adiabatic changes in the Hamiltonian, i.e., without closing the gap. Here, we extend the concept of Thouless pumps of band insulators by considering a larger, three-dimensional parameter space. We show that the connectivity of this parameter space is crucial for defining quantum pumps, demonstrating that, as opposed to the conventional two-dimensional case, pumped quantities depend not only on the initial and final points of Hamiltonian evolution but also on the class of the chosen path and preserved symmetries. As such, we distinguish the scenarios of closed/open paths of Hamiltonian evolution, finding that different closed cycles can lead to the pumping of different quantum numbers, and that different open paths may point to distinct scenarios for surface physics. As explicit examples, we consider models similar to simple models used to describe topological insulators, but with doubled degrees of freedom compared to a minimal topological insulator model. The extra fermionic flavors from doubling allow for extra gapping terms/adiabatic parameters - besides the usual topological mass which preserves the topology-protecting discrete symmetries - generating an enlarged adiabatic parameter-space. We consider cases in one and three \emphspatial dimensions, and our results in three dimensions may be realized in the context of crystalline topological insulators, as we briefly discuss.
- Jul 25 2016 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1607.06504v4Matrix Product States (MPSs) provide a powerful framework to study and classify gapped quantum phases --symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in particular--defined in one dimensional lattices. On the other hand, it is natural to expect that gapped quantum phases in the limit of zero correlation length are described by topological quantum field theories (TFTs or TQFTs). In this paper, for (1+1)-dimensional bosonic SPT phases protected by symmetry $G$, we bridge their descriptions in terms of MPSs, and those in terms of $G$-equivariant TFTs. In particular, for various topological invariants (SPT invariants) constructed previously using MPSs, we provide derivations from the point of view of (1+1) TFTs. We also discuss the connection between boundary degrees of freedom, which appear when one introduces a physical boundary in SPT phases, and "open" TFTs, which are TFTs defined on spacetimes with boundaries.
- We define and compute many-body topological invariants of interacting fermionic symmetry-protected topological phases, protected by an orientation-reversing symmetry, such as time-reversal or reflection symmetry. The topological invariants are given by partition functions obtained by a path integral on unoriented spacetime which, as we show, can be computed for a given ground state wave function by considering a non-local operation, "partial" reflection or transpose. As an application of our scheme, we study the $\mathbb{Z}_8$ and $\mathbb{Z}_{16}$ classification of topological superconductors in one and three dimensions.
- Jun 22 2016 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1606.06402v1Quantum phase transitions out of a symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase in (1+1) dimensions into an adjacent, topologically distinct SPT phase protected by the same symmetry or a trivial gapped phase, are typically described by a conformal field theory (CFT). At the same time, the low-lying entanglement spectrum of a gapped phase close to such a quantum critical point is known(Cho et al., arXiv:1603.04016), very generally, to be universal and described by (gapless) boundary conformal field theory. Using this connection we show that symmetry properties of the boundary conditions in boundary CFT can be used to characterize the symmetry-protected degeneracies of the entanglement spectrum, a hallmark of non-trivial symmetry-protected topological phases. Specifically, we show that the relevant boundary CFT is the orbifold of the quantum critical point with respect to the symmetry group defining the SPT, and that the boundary states of this orbifold carry a quantum anomaly that determines the topological class of the SPT. We illustrate this connection using various characteristic examples such as the time-reversal breaking "Kitaev chain" superconductor (symmetry class D), the Haldane phase, and the $\mathbb{Z}_8$ classification of interacting topological superconductors in symmetry class BDI in (1+1) dimensions.
- Jun 15 2016 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1606.04118v2We study the topological entanglement negativity between two spatial regions in (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories by using the replica trick and the surgery method. For a bipartitioned or tripartitioned spatial manifold, we show how the topological entanglement negativity depends on the presence of quasiparticles and the choice of ground states. In particular, for two adjacent non-contractible regions on a tripartitioned torus, the entanglement negativity provides a simple way to distinguish Abelian and non-Abelian theories. Our method applies to a Chern-Simons gauge theory defined on an arbitrary oriented (2+1)-dimensional spacetime manifold. Our results agree with the edge theory approach in a recent work (X. Wen, S. Matsuura and S. Ryu, arXiv:1603.08534).
- We study the real-space entanglement renormalization group flows of topological band insulators in (2+1) dimensions by using the continuum multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (cMERA). Given the ground state of a Chern insulator, we construct and study its cMERA by paying attention, in particular, to how the bulk holographic geometry and the Berry curvature depend on the topological properties of the ground state. It is found that each state defined at different energy scale of cMERA carries a nonzero Berry flux, which is emanated from the UV layer of cMERA, and flows towards the IR. Hence, a topologically nontrivial UV state flows under the RG to an IR state, which is also topologically nontrivial. On the other hand, we found that there is an obstruction to construct the exact ground state of a topological insulator with a topologically trivial IR state. I.e., if we try to construct a cMERA for the ground state of a Chern insulator by taking a topologically trivial IR state, the resulting cMERA does not faithfully reproduce the exact ground state at all length scales.
- May 03 2016 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1605.00465v2In the manufacturing process of a filler-reinforced composite, the fillers in the matrix are aligned due to the shear flow occurring during the drawing stage, and the interface between the matrix and the fillers form various imperfections that lead to debonding and slip under mechanical loading. Hence, there have been numerous micromechanics studies to predict effective moduli of the composites in the presence of partial alignment of fillers and interface imperfections. In this study, we present an improved theory that overcomes two limitations in the existing micromechanics based approaches. First, we find that the interface damage tensor, which has been developed to model the weakened interface between matrix and fillers, has singularities that cause non-physical predictions (such as infinite or negative effective moduli). We correct the mathematical mistakes to remove singularities and derive analytic expressions of the damage tensor for ellipsoidal inclusions. Second, we reveal that the previous theory on the effective moduli with axisymmetric filler orientation distribution fails because the longitudinal and transverse moduli do not converge in the limit of random orientation distribution. With appropriate corrections, we derive an analytic expression for the orientation average of arbitrary transversely isotropic 4th order tensor under general axisymmetric orientation distribution. We apply the improved method to compute the effective moduli of a representative composite with non-uniform filler orientation and interface damage.
- In this paper, we study $(2+1)$-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall states, i.e. band insulators with quantized Hall conductance, using the exact holographic mapping. The exact holographic mapping is an approach to holographic duality which maps the quantum anomalous Hall state to a different state living in $(3+1)$-dimensional hyperbolic space. By studying topological response properties and the entanglement spectrum, we demonstrate that the holographic dual theory of a quantum anomalous Hall state is a $(3+1)$-dimensional topological insulator. The dual description enables a new characterization of topological properties of a system by the quantum entanglement between degrees of freedom at different length scales.
- Apr 06 2016 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1604.01085v2By making use of conformal mapping, we construct various time-evolution operators in (1+1) dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs), which take the form $\int dx\, f(x) \mathcal{H}(x)$, where $\mathcal{H}(x)$ is the Hamiltonian density of the CFT, and $f(x)$ is an envelope function. Examples of such deformed evolution operators include the entanglement Hamiltonian, and the so-called sine-square deformation of the CFT. Within our construction, the spectrum and the (finite-size) scaling of the level spacing of the deformed evolution operator are known exactly. Based on our construction, we also propose a regularized version of the sine-square deformation, which, in contrast to the original sine-square deformation, has the spectrum of the CFT defined on a spatial circle of finite circumference $L$, and for which the level spacing scales as $1/L^2$, once the circumference of the circle and the regularization parameter are suitably adjusted.
- We develop an approach based on edge theories to calculate the entanglement entropy and related quantities in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered phases. Our approach is complementary to, e.g., the existing methods using replica trick and Witten's method of surgery, and applies to a generic spatial manifold of genus $g$, which can be bipartitioned in an arbitrary way. The effects of fusion and braiding of Wilson lines can be also straightforwardly studied within our framework. By considering a generic superposition of states with different Wilson line configurations, through an interference effect, we can detect, by the entanglement entropy, the topological data of Chern-Simons theories, e.g., the $R$-symbols, monodromy and topological spins of quasiparticles. Furthermore, by using our method, we calculate other entanglement measures such as the mutual information and the entanglement negativity. In particular, it is found that the entanglement negativity of two adjacent non-contractible regions on a torus provides a simple way to distinguish Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders.
- Mar 29 2016 hep-th cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1603.08429v1The multi-flavor $BF$ theories in (3+1) dimensions with cubic or quartic coupling are the simplest topological quantum field theories that can describe fractional braiding statistics between loop-like topological excitations (three-loop or four-loop braiding statistics). In this paper, by canonically quantizing these theories, we study the algebra of Wilson loop and Wilson surface operators, and multiplets of ground states on three torus. In particular, by quantizing these coupled $BF$ theories on the three-torus, we explicitly calculate the $\mathcal{S}$- and $\mathcal{T}$-matrices, which encode fractional braiding statistics and topological spin of loop-like excitations, respectively. In the coupled $BF$ theories with cubic and quartic coupling, the Hopf link and Borromean ring of loop excitations, together with point-like excitations, form composite particles.
- Mar 17 2016 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1603.05153v1We carry out molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation to investigate the effect of cementite size and temperature on the deformation behavior of nanocomposite pearlite composed of alternating ferrite and cementite layers. We find that, instead of the coherent transmission, dislocation propagates by forming a widespread plastic deformation in cementite layer. We also show that increasing temperature enhances the distribution of plastic strain in the ferrite layer, which reduces the stress acting on the cementite layer. Hence, thickening cementite layer or increasing temperature reduces the likelihood of dislocation propagation through the cementite layer. Our finding sheds a light on the mechanism of dislocation blocking by cementite layer in the pearlite.
- Mar 15 2016 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1603.04016v1We discuss the entanglement spectrum of the ground state of a gapped (1+1)-dimensional system in a phase near a quantum phase transition. In particular, in proximity to a quantum phase transition described by a conformal field theory (CFT), the system is represented by a gapped Lorentz invariant field theory in the "scaling limit" (correlation length $\xi$ much larger than microscopic 'lattice' scale $a$), and can be thought of as a CFT perturbed by a relevant perturbation. We show that for such (1+1) gapped Lorentz invariant field theories in infinite space, the low-lying entanglement spectrum obtained by tracing out, say, left half-infinite space, is precisely equal to the physical spectrum of the unperturbed gapless, i.e. conformal field theory defined on a finite interval of length $L_\xi=$ $\log(\xi/a)$ with certain boundary conditions. In particular, the low-lying entanglement spectrum of the gapped theory is the finite-size spectrum of a boundary conformal field theory, and is always discrete and universal. Each relevant perturbation, and thus each gapped phase in proximity to the quantum phase transition, maps into a particular boundary condition. A similar property has been known to hold for Baxter's Corner Transfer Matrices in a very special class of fine-tuned, namely integrable off-critical lattice models, for the entire entanglement spectrum and independent of the scaling limit. In contrast, our result applies to completely general gapped Lorentz invariant theories in the scaling limit, without the requirement of integrability, for the low-lying entanglement spectrum. - The finite-size spectra of the entanglement Hamiltonian and of the physical Hamiltonian on an interval of length R exhibit entirely different behaviors upon crossover from the critical regime $R \ll \xi$ to the gapped regime $R \gg \xi$.
- The interface between the two complex oxides LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 has remarkable properties that can be locally reconfigured between conducting and insulating states using a conductive atomic force microscope. Prior investigations of sketched quantum dot devices revealed a phase in which electrons form pairs, implying a strongly attractive electron-electron interaction. Here, we show that these devices with strong electron-electron interactions can exhibit a gate-tunable transition from a pair-tunneling regime to a single-electron (Andreev bound state) tunneling regime where the interactions become repulsive. The electron-electron interaction sign change is associated with a Lifshitz transition where the dxz and dyz bands start to become occupied. This electronically tunable electron-electron interaction, combined with the nanoscale reconfigurability of this system, provides an interesting starting point towards solid-state quantum simulation.
- Feb 17 2016 cond-mat.soft arXiv:1602.04914v1We studied the correlation between the molecular structure and the formation of helical nanofilaments (HNFs) of bent-core dimeric molecules with varying linkage lengths. To obtain precise structural data, a single domain of HNFs was prepared under physical confinement using porous 1D nanochannels, made up of anodic aluminium oxide films. Electron microscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction were used to elucidate the linkage length-dependent formation of HNFs.
- Jan 25 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1601.06053v1High-mobility complex-oxide heterostructures and nanostructures offer new opportunities for extending the paradigm of quantum transport beyond the realm of traditional III-V or carbon-based materials. Recent quantum transport investigations with LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$-based quantum dots have revealed the existence of a strongly correlated phase in which electrons form spin-singlet pairs without becoming superconducting. Here we report evidence for micrometer-scale ballistic transport of electron pairs in quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ nanowire cavities. In the paired phase, Fabry-Perot-like quantum interference is observed, in sync with conductance oscillations observed in the superconducting regime (at zero magnetic field). Above a critical magnetic field $B_p$, electron pairs unbind and conductance oscillations shift with magnetic field. These experimental observations extend the regime of ballistic electronic transport to strongly correlated phases.
- A charged entanglement entropy is a new measure which probes quantum entanglement between different charge sectors. We study symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases in 2+1 dimensional space-time by using this charged entanglement entropy. SPT phases are short range entangled states without topological order and hence cannot be detected by the topological entanglement entropy. We demonstrate that the universal part of the charged entanglement entropy is non-zero for non-trivial SPT phases and therefore it is a useful measure to detect short range entangled topological phases. We also discuss that the classification of SPT phases based on the charged topological entanglement entropy is related to that of the braiding statistics of quasiparticles.
- Nov 02 2015 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1510.08975v1While many features of topological band insulators are commonly discussed at the level of single-particle electron wave functions, such as the gapless Dirac spectrum at their boundary, it remains elusive to develop a \it hydrodynamic or \it collective description of fermionic topological band insulators in 3+1 dimensions. As the Chern-Simons theory for the 2+1-dimensional quantum Hall effect, such a hydrodynamic effective field theory provides a universal description of topological band insulators, even in the presence of interactions, and that of putative fractional topological insulators. In this paper, we undertake this task by using the functional bosonization. The effective field theory in the functional bosonization is written in terms of a two-form gauge field, which couples to a $U(1)$ gauge field that arises by gauging the continuous symmetry of the target system (the $U(1)$ particle number conservation). Integrating over the $U(1)$ gauge field by using the electromagnetic duality, the resulting theory describes topological band insulators as a condensation phase of the $U(1)$ gauge theory (or as a monopole condensation phase of the dual gauge field). The hydrodynamic description, and the implication of its duality, of the surface of topological insulators are also discussed. We also touch upon the hydrodynamic theory of fractional topological insulators by using the parton construction.
- Oct 26 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1510.06922v1In recent charge-pump experiments, single electrons are injected into quantum Hall edge channels at energies significantly above the Fermi level. We consider here the relaxation of these hot edge-channel electrons through longitudinal-optical phonon emission. Our results show that the probability for an electron in the outermost edge channel to emit one or more phonons en route to a detector some microns distant along the edge channel suffers a double-exponential suppression with increasing magnetic field. This explains recent experimental observations. We also describe how the shape of the arrival-time distribution of electrons at the detector reflects the velocities of the electronic states post phonon emission. We show how this can give rise to pronounced oscillations in the arrival-time-distribution width as a function of magnetic field or electron energy.
- Sep 16 2015 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1509.04266v3We discuss (2+1)-dimensional gapless surface theories of bulk (3+1)-dimensional topological phases, such as the BF theory at level $\mathrm{K}$, and its generalization. In particular, we put these theories on a flat (2+1) dimensional torus $T^3$ parameterized by its modular parameters, and compute the partition functions obeying various twisted boundary conditions. We show the partition functions are transformed into each other under $SL(3,\mathbb{Z})$ modular transformations, and furthermore establish the bulk-boundary correspondence in (3+1) dimensions by matching the modular $\mathcal{S}$ and $\mathcal{T}$ matrices computed from the boundary field theories with those computed in the bulk. We also propose the three-loop braiding statistics can be studied by constructing the modular $\mathcal{S}$ and $\mathcal{T}$ matrices from an appropriate boundary field theory.
- Sep 15 2015 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1509.03920v2We discuss (2+1)D topological phases on non-orientable spatial surfaces, such as MÃ¶bius strip, real projective plane and Klein bottle, etc., which are obtained by twisting the parent topological phases by their underlying pairty symmetries through introducing parity defects. We construct the ground states on arbitrary non-orientable closed manifolds and calculate the ground state degeneracy. Such degeneracy is shown to be robust against continuous deformation of the underlying manifold. We also study the action of the mapping class group on the multiplet of ground states on the Klein bottle. The physical properties of the topological states on non-orientable surfaces are deeply related to the parity symmetric anyons which do not have a notion of orientation in their statistics. The number of ground states on the projective plane equals the root of the number of distinguishable parity symmetric anyons, while the ground state degeneracy on the Klein bottle equals the total number of parity symmetric anyons; In deforming the Klein bottle, the Dehn twist encodes the topological spins whereas the Y-homeomorphism tells the particle-hole relation of the parity symmetric anyons.
- Aug 25 2015 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1508.05523v1Black phosphorus consists of stacked layers of phosphorene, a two-dimensional semiconductor with promising device characteristics. We report the realization of a widely tunable bandgap in few-layer black phosphorus doped with potassium using an in-situ surface doping technique. Through band-structure measurements and calculations, we demonstrate that a vertical electric field from dopants modulates the bandgap owing to the giant Stark effect and tunes the material from a moderate-gap semiconductor to a band-inverted semimetal. At the critical field of this band inversion, the material becomes a Dirac semimetal with anisotropic dispersion, linear in armchair and quadratic in zigzag directions. The tunable band structure of black phosphorus may allow great flexibility in design and optimization of electronic and optoelectronic devices.
- Aug 04 2015 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1508.00194v1An analytical benchmark is proposed for graphene and carbon nanotubes, that may serve to test whatsoever molecular dynamics code implemented with REBO potentials. By exploiting the benchmark, we checked results produced by LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) when adopting the second generation Brenner potential, we made evident that the code in its current implementation produces results which are offset from those of the benchmark by a significant amount, and provide evidence of the reason.
- May 19 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1505.03868v3The topological response to external perturbations is an effective probe to characterize different topological phases of matter. Besides the Hall conductance, the Hall viscosity is another example of such a response that measures how electronic wave functions respond to changes in the underlying geometry. Topological (Chern) insulators are known to have a quantized Hall conductance. A natural question is how the Hall viscosity behaves for these materials. So far, most of studies on the Hall viscosity of Chern insulators have focused on the continuum limit. The presence of lattice breaks the continuous translational symmetry to a discrete group and this causes two complications: it introduces a new length scale associated with the lattice constant, and makes the momentum periodic. We develop two different methods of how to implement a lattice deformation: (1) a lattice distortion is encoded as a shift in the lattice momentum, and (2) a lattice deformation is treated microscopically in the gradient expansion of the hopping matrix elements. After establishing the method of deformation we can compute the Hall viscosity through a linear response (Kubo) formula. We examine these methods for three models: the Hofstadter model, the Chern insulator, and the surface of a 3D topological insulator. Our results in certain regimes of parameters, where the continuum limit is relevant, are in agreement with previous calculations. We also provide possible experimental signatures of the Hall viscosity by studying the phononic properties of a single crystal 3D topological insulator.
- Topological materials have become the focus of intense research in recent years, since they exhibit fundamentally new physical phenomena with potential applications for novel devices and quantum information technology. One of the hallmarks of topological materials is the existence of protected gapless surface states, which arise due to a nontrivial topology of the bulk wave functions. This review provides a pedagogical introduction into the field of topological quantum matter with an emphasis on classification schemes. We consider both fully gapped and gapless topological materials and their classification in terms of nonspatial symmetries, such as time-reversal, as well as spatial symmetries, such as reflection. Furthermore, we survey the classification of gapless modes localized on topological defects. The classification of these systems is discussed by use of homotopy groups, Clifford algebras, K-theory, and non-linear sigma models describing the Anderson (de-)localization at the surface or inside a defect of the material. Theoretical model systems and their topological invariants are reviewed together with recent experimental results in order to provide a unified and comprehensive perspective of the field. While the bulk of this article is concerned with the topological properties of noninteracting or mean-field Hamiltonians, we also provide a brief overview of recent results and open questions concerning the topological classifications of interacting systems.
- Apr 22 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1504.05343v2A finite-temperature effective free energy of the boundary of a quantized thermal Hall system is derived microscopically from the bulk two-dimensional Dirac fermion coupled with a gravitational field. In two spatial dimensions, the thermal Hall conductivity of fully gapped insulators and superconductors is quantized and given by the bulk Chern number, in analogy to the quantized electric Hall conductivity in quantum Hall systems. From the perspective of effective action functionals, two distinct types of the field theory have been proposed to describe the quantized thermal Hall effect. One of these, known as the gravitational Chern-Simons action, is a kind of topological field theory, and the other is a phenomenological theory relevant to the StÅ™eda formula. In order to solve this problem, we derive microscopically an effective theory that accounts for the quantized thermal Hall effect. In this paper, the two-dimensional Dirac fermion under a static background gravitational field is considered in equilibrium at a finite temperature, from which an effective boundary free energy functional of the gravitational field is derived. This boundary theory is shown to explain the quantized thermal Hall conductivity and thermal Hall current in the bulk by assuming the Lorentz symmetry. The bulk effective theory is consistently determined via the boundary effective theory
- Mar 05 2015 cond-mat.str-el hep-th arXiv:1503.01411v4Quantum anomalies, breakdown of classical symmetries by quantum effects, provide a sharp definition of symmetry protected topological phases. In particular, they can diagnose interaction effects on the non-interacting classification of fermionic symmetry protected topological phases. In this paper, we identify quantum anomalies in two kinds of (3+1)-dimensional fermionic symmetry protected topological phases: (i) topological insulators protected by CP (charge conjugation $\times$ reflection) and electromagnetic $\mathrm{U}(1)$ symmetries, and (ii) topological superconductors protected by reflection symmetry. For the first example, which is related to, by CPT-theorem, time-reversal symmetric topological insulators, we show that the CP-projected partition function of the surface theory is not invariant under large $\mathrm{U}(1)$ gauge transformations, but picks up an anomalous sign, signaling a $\mathbb{Z}_2$ topological classification. Similarly, for the second example, which is related to, by CPT-theorem, time-reversal symmetric topological superconductors, we discuss the invariance/non-invariance of the partition function of the surface theory, defined on the three-torus and its descendants generated by the orientifold projection, under large diffeomorphisms (3d modular transformations). The connection to the collapse of the non-interacting classification by an integer ($\mathbb{Z}$) to $\mathbb{Z}_{16}$, in the presence of interactions, is discussed.
- Feb 10 2015 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1502.02228v2We provide evidence for the mapping of critical spin-1 chains, in particular the SU(3) symmetric bilinear-biquadratic model with additional interactions, to free boson theories using exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. Using the correspondence with a conformal field theory with central charge c=2, we determine the analytic formulae for the scaling dimensions in terms of four Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid parameters. By matching the lowest scaling dimensions, we numerically calculate these field-theoretic parameters and track their evolution as a function of the parameters of the lattice model.
- Twisting symmetries provides an efficient method to diagnose symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases. In this paper, edge theories of (2+1)-dimensional topological phases protected by reflection as well as other symmetries are studied by twisting reflection symmetry, which effectively puts the edge theories on an unoriented spacetime, such as the Klein bottle. A key technical step taken in this paper is the use of the so-called cross-cap states, which encode entirely the unoriented nature of spacetime, and can be obtained by rearranging the spacetime geometry and exchanging the role of space and time coordinates. When the system is in a non-trivial SPT phase, we find that the corresponding cross-cap state is non-invariant under the action of the symmetries of the SPT phase, but acquires an anomalous phase. This anomalous phase, with a proper definition of a reference state, on which symmetry acts trivially, reproduces the known classification of (2+1)-dimensional bosonic and fermionic SPT phases protected by reflection symmetry, including in particular the Z_8 classification of topological crystalline superconductors protected by reflection and time-reversal symmetries.
- Jan 20 2015 cond-mat.other arXiv:1501.04109v1We propose a gravitational response theory for point defects (hedgehogs) binding Majorana zero modes in (3+1)-dimensional superconductors. Starting in 4+1 dimensions, where the point defect is extended into a line, a coupling of the bulk defect texture with the gravitational field is introduced. Diffeomorphism invariance then leads to an $SU(2)_2$ Kac-Moody current running along the defect line. The $SU(2)_2$ Kac-Moody algebra accounts for the non-Abelian nature of the zero modes in 3+1 dimensions. It is then shown to also encode the angular momentum density which permeates throughout the bulk between hedgehog-anti-hedgehog pairs.
- We study the time evolution of the entanglement negativity after a local quantum quench in (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs), which we introduce by suddenly joining two initially decoupled CFTs at their endpoints. We calculate the negativity evolution for both adjacent intervals and disjoint intervals explicitly. For two adjacent intervals, the entanglement negativity grows logarithmically in time right after the quench. After developing a plateau-like feature, the entanglement negativity drops to the ground-state value. For the case of two spatially separated intervals, a light-cone behavior is observed in the negativity evolution; in addition, a long-range entanglement, which is independent of the distance between two intervals, can be created. Our results agree with the heuristic picture that quasiparticles, which carry entanglement, are emitted from the joining point and propagate freely through the system. Our analytical results are confirmed by numerical calculations based on a critical harmonic chain.
- Dec 22 2014 hep-th cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1412.6226v1We study real-space quantum entanglement included in conformally invariant boundary states in conformal field theories (CFTs). First, we argue that boundary states essentially have no real-space entanglement by computing the entanglement entropy when we bipartite the system into two spatial regions. From the viewpoint of holography, this shows that boundary states are dual to trivial spacetimes of zero spactime volume. Next, we point out that a continuous multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (cMERA) for any CFTs can be formulated by employing a boundary state as its infrared unentangled state with an appropriate regularization. Exploiting this idea, we propose an approximation scheme of cMERA construction for general CFTs.
- Aug 26 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1408.5417v2We analyze a hydrodynamical model of a polar fluid in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime. We explore a spacetime symmetry -- volume preserving diffeomorphisms -- to construct an effective description of this fluid in terms of a topological BF theory. The two degrees of freedom of the BF theory are associated to the mass (charge) flows of the fluid and its polarization vorticities. We discuss the quantization of this hydrodynamic theory, which generically allows for fractionalized excitations. We propose an extension of the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman algebra to (3+1)-dimensional spacetime by the inclusion of the vortex-density operator in addition to the usual charge density operator and show that the same algebra is obeyed by massive Dirac fermions that represent the bulk of $\mathbb{Z}^{\,}_{2}$ topological insulators in three-dimensional space.
- Jul 23 2014 cond-mat.supr-con cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1407.5939v1We demonstrate top-gate tunable Josephson junction like behavior in the two dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO$_3$-SrTiO$_3$ interface. A combination of global back-gating and local top-gating is used to define the junctions, providing an efficient way for much finer spatial control over the properties of the interface, as compared to back-gating alone. The variation of critical currents and zero bias resistances with temperature shows that the junctions behave like short, overdamped weak links. This technique could be an important tool to illuminate the nature of superconductivity in the LaAlO$_3$-SrTiO$_3$ interface system.
- Jun 27 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1406.6779v1Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheet, one of two dimensional (2D) semiconductors, has recently been regarded as a promising material to break through the limit of present semiconductors including graphene. However, its potential in carrier mobility has still been depreciated since the field-effect mobilities have only been measured from metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs), where the transport behavior of conducting carriers located at the insulator/MoS2 interface is unavoidably interfered by the interface traps and gate voltage. Here, we for the first time report MoS2-based metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with NiOx Schottky electrode, where the maximum mobilities or carrier transport behavior of the Schottky devices may hardly be interfered by on-state gate field. Our MESFETs with single-, double-, and triple-layered MoS2 respectively demonstrate high mobilities of 6000, 3500, and 2800 cm2/Vs at a certain low threshold voltage of -1 ~ -2 V. The thickness-dependent mobility difference in MESFETs was theoretically explained with electron scattering reduction mechanisms.
- Jun 03 2014 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1406.0307v1We present a systematic topological classification of fermionic and bosonic topological phases protected by time-reversal, particle-hole, parity, and combination of these symmetries. We use two complementary approaches: one in terms of K-theory classification of gapped quadratic fermion theories with symmetries, and the other in terms of the K-matrix theory description of the edge theory of (2+1)-dimensional bulk theories. The first approach is specific to free fermion theories in general spatial dimensions while the second approach is limited to two spatial dimensions but incorporates effects of interactions. We also clarify the role of CPT theorem in classification of symmetry-protected topological phases, and show, in particular, topological superconductors dis- cussed before are related by CPT theorem.
- Noncentrosymmetric superconductors (NCSs), characterized by antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling and a mixture of spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairing components, are promising candidate materials for topological superconductivity. An important hallmark of topological superconductors is the existence of protected zero-energy states at surfaces or in vortex cores. Here we investigate Majorana vortex-bound states in three-dimensional nodal and fully gapped NCSs by combining analytical solutions of Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations in the continuum with exact diagonalization of BdG Hamiltonians. We show that depending on the crystal point-group symmetries and the topological properties of the bulk Bogoliubov-quasiparticle wave functions, different types of zero-energy Majorana modes can appear inside the vortex core. We find that for nodal NCSs with tetragonal point group $C_{4v}$ the vortex states are dispersionless along the vortex line, forming one-dimensional Majorana flat bands, while for NCSs with $D_{4}$ point-group symmetry the vortex modes are helical Majorana states with a linear dispersion along the vortex line. NCSs with monoclinic point group $C_2$, on the other hand, do not exhibit any zero-energy vortex-bound states. We show that in the case of the $C_{4v}$ ($D_4$) point group the stability of these Majorana zero modes is guaranteed by a combination of reflection ($\pi$ rotation), time-reversal, and particle-hole symmetry. Considering continuous deformations of the quasiparticle spectrum in the presence of vortices, we show that the flat-band vortex-bound states of $C_{4v}$ point-group NCSs can be adiabatically connected to the dispersionless vortex-bound states of time-reversal symmetric Weyl superconductors. Experimental implications of our results for thermal transport and tunneling measurements are discussed.
- Apr 29 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1404.6733v1Because of the dominant role of the surface of molecules and their individuality, molecules behave dis-tinctively in a confined space, which has far-reaching implications in many physical, chemical and bio-logical systems. Here, we demonstrate that graphene forms a unique atom-thick interstitial space that enables the study of molecular diffusion in 2-dimensions with underlying silica substrates. Raman spec-troscopy visualized intercalation of water from the edge to the center underneath graphene in real time, which was dictated by the hydrophilicity of the substrates. In addition, graphene undergoes reversible deformation to conform to intercalating water clusters or islands. Atomic force microscopy confirmed that the interfacial water layer is only ca. 3.5 angstroms thick, corresponding to one bilayer unit of normal ice. This study also demonstrates that oxygen species responsible for the ubiquitous hole dop-ing are located below graphene. In addition to serving as a transparent confining wall, graphene and possibly other 2-dimensional materials can be used as an optical indicator sensitive to interfacial mass transport and charge transfer.
- Mar 28 2014 cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1403.6902v2We generalize Laughlin's flux insertion argument, originally discussed in the context of the quantum Hall effect, to topological phases protected by non-on-site unitary symmetries, in particular by parity symmetry or parity symmetry combined with an on-site unitary symmetry. As a model, we discuss fermionic or bosonic systems in two spatial dimensions with CP symmetry, which are, by the CPT theorem, related to time-reversal symmetric topological insulators (e.g., the quantum spin Hall effect). In particular, we develop the stability/instability (or "gappability"/"ingappablity") criteria for non-chiral conformal field theories with parity symmetry that may emerge as an edge state of a symmetry-protected topological phase. A necessary ingredient, as it turns out, is to consider the edge conformal field theories on unoriented surfaces, such as the Klein bottle, which arises naturally from enforcing parity symmetry by a projection operation.
- Mar 26 2014 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1403.6176v3Crystalline topological insulators owe their topological character to the protection that certain boundary states acquire because of certain point-group symmetries. We first show that a Hermitian operator obeying supersymmetric quantum mechanisms (SUSY QM) delivers the entanglement spectrum. We then show that such an entanglement spectrum that is compatible with a certain point-group symmetry obeys a certain local spectral symmetry. The latter result is applied to the stability analysis of four fermionic non-interacting Hamiltonians, the last of which describes graphene with a Kekule distortion. All examples have the remarkable property that their entanglement spectra inherit a local spectral symmetry from either an inversion or reflection symmetry that guarantees the stability of gapless boundary entangling states, even though all examples fail to support protected gapless boundary states at their physical boundaries.
- Mar 11 2014 cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1403.2018v2We study the Z2 topologically ordered surface state of three-dimensional bosonic SPT phases with the discrete symmetries G1 x G2. It has been argued that the topologically ordered surface state cannot be realized on a purely two-dimensional lattice model. We carefully examine the statement and show that the surface state should break G2 if the symmetry G1 is gauged. This manifests the conflict of the symmetry G1 and G2 on the surface of the three-dimensional SPT phase. Given that there is no such phenomena in the purely two-dimensional model, it signals that the symmetries are encoded anomalously on the surface of the three-dimensional SPT phases and that the surface state can never be realized on the purely two-dimensional models.
- We study the time evolution of cMERA (continuous MERA) under quantum quenches in free field theories. We calculate the corresponding holographic metric using the proposal of arXiv:1208.3469 and confirm that it qualitatively agrees with its gravity dual given by a half of the AdS black hole spacetime, argued by Hartman and Maldacena in arXiv:1303.1080. By doubling the cMERA for the quantum quench, we give an explicit construction of finite temperature cMERA. We also study cMERA in the presence of chemical potential and show that there is an enhancement of metric in the infrared region corresponding to the Fermi energy.
- Oct 31 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1310.8044v1Even weak van der Waals (vdW) adhesion between two-dimensional solids may perturb their various materials properties owing to their low dimensionality. Although the electronic structure of graphene has been predicted to be modified by the vdW interaction with other materials, its optical characterization has not been successful. In this report, we demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can be utilized to detect a few % decrease in the Fermi velocity (vF) of graphene caused by the vdW interaction with underlying hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). Our study also establishes Raman spectroscopic analysis which enables separation of the effects by the vdW interaction from those by mechanical strain or extra charge carriers. The analysis reveals that spectral features of graphene on hBN are mainly affected by change in vF and mechanical strain, but not by charge doping unlike graphene supported on SiO2 substrates. Graphene on hBN was also found to be less susceptible to thermally induced hole doping.
- Oct 31 2013 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1310.8039v1Since graphene, a single sheet of graphite, has all of its carbon atoms on the surface, its property is very sensitive to materials contacting the surface. Herein, we report novel Raman peaks ob-served in annealed graphene and elucidate their chemical origins by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Graphene annealed in oxygen-free atmosphere revealed very broad additional Raman peaks overlapping the D, G and 2D peaks of graphene itself. Based on the topographic confirmation by AFM, the new Raman peaks were attributed to amorphous carbon formed on the surface of graphene by carbonization of environmental hydrocarbons. While the carbonaceous layers were formed for a wide range of annealing temperature and time, they could be effectively removed by prolonged annealing in vacuum. This study underlines that spectral features of graphene and presumably other 2-dimensional ma-terials are highly vulnerable to interference by foreign materials of molecular thickness.
- Oct 08 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.dis-nn arXiv:1310.1534v3A two-dimensional spin-directed $\mathbb{Z}^{\,}_{2}$ network model is constructed that describes the combined effects of dimerization and disorder for the surface states of a weak three-dimensional $\mathbb{Z}^{\,}_{2}$ topological insulator. The network model consists of helical edge states of two-dimensional layers of $\mathbb{Z}^{\,}_{2}$ topological insulators which are coupled by time-reversal symmetric interlayer tunneling. It is argued that, without dimerization of interlayer couplings, the network model has no insulating phase for any disorder strength. However, a sufficiently strong dimerization induces a transition from a metallic phase to an insulating phase. The critical exponent $\nu$ for the diverging localization length at metal-insulator transition points is obtained by finite-size scaling analysis of numerical data from simulations of this network model. It is shown that the phase transition belongs to the two-dimensional symplectic universality class of Anderson transition.
- Sep 17 2013 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1309.3612v1We present a study of the magnetic field tuned superconductor-to-insulator transition (SIT) in the electron gas that forms at the LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ interface. We find that the magnetic field induces a transition into a weakly insulating state, as is observed for the electrostatically tuned SIT at this interface. Finite size scaling of the magnetoresistance yields the critical exponent product $z\nu \simeq$ 7/3, indicating that the transition is governed by quantum percolation effects. While such critical exponents have been reported previously for high resistance films, they have not been reported for a low resistance system like ours, with a maximum sheet resistance of $\approx$ 1.5 k$\Omega$, much less than the quantum of resistance $R_Q \equiv h/4e^2 = 6.45$ k$\Omega$.
- Sep 13 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.dis-nn arXiv:1309.3278v1Diffusion, a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, is a consequence of particle number conservation and locality, in systems with sufficient damping. In this paper we consider diffusive processes in the bulk of Weyl semimetals, which are exotic quantum materials, recently of considerable interest. In order to do this, we first explicitly implement the analytical scheme by which disorder with anisotropic scattering amplitude is incorporated into the diagrammatic response-function formalism for calculating the `diffuson'. The result thus obtained is consistent with transport coefficients evaluated from the Boltzmann transport equation or the renormalized uniform current vertex calculation, as it should be. We thus demonstrate that the computation of the diffusion coefficient should involve the transport lifetime, and not the quasiparticle lifetime. Using this method, we then calculate the density response function in Weyl semimetals and discover an unconventional diffusion process that is significantly slower than conventional diffusion. This gives rise to relaxation processes that exhibit stretched exponential decay, instead of the usual exponential diffusive relaxation. This result is then explained using a model of thermally excited quasiparticles diffusing with diffusion coefficients which are strongly dependent on their energies. We elucidate the roles of the various energy and time scales involved in this novel process and propose an experiment by which this process may be observed.