Mar 07 2018 cs.CL
Clinical notes often describe important aspects of a patient's stay and are therefore critical to medical research. Clinical concept extraction (CCE) of named entities - such as problems, tests, and treatments - aids in forming an understanding of notes and provides a foundation for many downstream clinical decision-making tasks. Historically, this task has been posed as a standard named entity recognition (NER) sequence tagging problem, and solved with feature-based methods using handengineered domain knowledge. Recent advances, however, have demonstrated the efficacy of LSTM-based models for NER tasks, including CCE. This work presents CliNER 2.0, a simple-to-install, open-source tool for extracting concepts from clinical text. CliNER 2.0 uses a word- and character- level LSTM model, and achieves state-of-the-art performance. For ease of use, the tool also includes pre-trained models available for public use.
Learning a better representation with neural networks is a challenging problem, which was tackled extensively from different prospectives in the past few years. In this work, we focus on learning a representation that could be used for a clustering task and introduce two novel loss components that substantially improve the quality of produced clusters, are simple to apply to an arbitrary model and cost function, and do not require a complicated training procedure. We evaluate them on two most common types of models, Recurrent Neural Networks and Convolutional Neural Networks, showing that the approach we propose consistently improves the quality of KMeans clustering in terms of Adjusted Mutual Information score and outperforms previously proposed methods.
In this paper, we propose to use a set of simple, uniform in architecture LSTM-based models to recover different kinds of temporal relations from text. Using the shortest dependency path between entities as input, the same architecture is used to extract intra-sentence, cross-sentence, and document creation time relations. A "double-checking" technique reverses entity pairs in classification, boosting the recall of positive cases and reducing misclassifications between opposite classes. An efficient pruning algorithm resolves conflicts globally. Evaluated on QA-TempEval (SemEval2015 Task 5), our proposed technique outperforms state-of-the-art methods by a large margin.
Dec 30 2016 cs.CL
One of the major goals in automated argumentation mining is to uncover the argument structure present in argumentative text. In order to determine this structure, one must understand how different individual components of the overall argument are linked. General consensus in this field dictates that the argument components form a hierarchy of persuasion, which manifests itself in a tree structure. This work provides the first neural network-based approach to argumentation mining, focusing on the two tasks of extracting links between argument components, and classifying types of argument components. In order to solve this problem, we propose to use a joint model that is based on a Pointer Network architecture. A Pointer Network is appealing for this task for the following reasons: 1) It takes into account the sequential nature of argument components; 2) By construction, it enforces certain properties of the tree structure present in argument relations; 3) The hidden representations can be applied to auxiliary tasks. In order to extend the contribution of the original Pointer Network model, we construct a joint model that simultaneously attempts to learn the type of argument component, as well as continuing to predict links between argument components. The proposed joint model achieves state-of-the-art results on two separate evaluation corpora, achieving far superior performance than a regular Pointer Network model. Our results show that optimizing for both tasks, and adding a fully-connected layer prior to recurrent neural network input, is crucial for high performance.
Dec 13 2016 cs.CL
In this work, we present a new dataset for computational humor, specifically comparative humor ranking, which attempts to eschew the ubiquitous binary approach to humor detection. The dataset consists of tweets that are humorous responses to a given hashtag. We describe the motivation for this new dataset, as well as the collection process, which includes a description of our semi-automated system for data collection. We also present initial experiments for this dataset using both unsupervised and supervised approaches. Our best supervised system achieved 63.7% accuracy, suggesting that this task is much more difficult than comparable humor detection tasks. Initial experiments indicate that a character-level model is more suitable for this task than a token-level model, likely due to a large amount of puns that can be captured by a character-level model.
Dec 13 2016 cs.CL
Language generation tasks that seek to mimic human ability to use language creatively are difficult to evaluate, since one must consider creativity, style, and other non-trivial aspects of the generated text. The goal of this paper is to develop evaluation methods for one such task, ghostwriting of rap lyrics, and to provide an explicit, quantifiable foundation for the goals and future directions of this task. Ghostwriting must produce text that is similar in style to the emulated artist, yet distinct in content. We develop a novel evaluation methodology that addresses several complementary aspects of this task, and illustrate how such evaluation can be used to meaningfully analyze system performance. We provide a corpus of lyrics for 13 rap artists, annotated for stylistic similarity, which allows us to assess the feasibility of manual evaluation for generated verse.
We analyze the RI-TIMEXes in temporally annotated corpora and propose two hypotheses regarding the normalization of RI-TIMEXes in the clinical narrative domain: the anchor point hypothesis and the anchor relation hypothesis. We annotate the RI-TIMEXes in three corpora to study the characteristics of RI-TMEXes in different domains. This informed the design of our RI-TIMEX normalization system for the clinical domain, which consists of an anchor point classifier, an anchor relation classifier and a rule-based RI-TIMEX text span parser. We experiment with different feature sets and perform error analysis for each system component. The annotation confirmed the hypotheses that we can simplify the RI-TIMEXes normalization task using two multi-label classifiers. Our system achieves anchor point classification, anchor relation classification and rule-based parsing accuracy of 74.68%, 87.71% and 57.2% (82.09% under relaxed matching criteria) respectively on the held-out test set of the 2012 i2b2 temporal relation challenge. Experiments with feature sets reveals some interesting findings such as the verbal tense feature does not inform the anchor relation classification in clinical narratives as much as the tokens near the RI-TIMEX. Error analysis shows that underrepresented anchor point and anchor relation classes are difficult to detect. We formulate the RI-TIMEX normalization problem as a pair of multi-label classification problems. Considering only the RI-TIMEX extraction and normalization, the system achieves statistically significant improvement over the RI-TIMEX results of the best systems in the 2012 i2b2 challenge.
Sep 04 2002 cs.CL
In this paper, we discuss the utility and deficiencies of existing ontology resources for a number of language processing applications. We describe a technique for increasing the semantic type coverage of a specific ontology, the National Library of Medicine's UMLS, with the use of robust finite state methods used in conjunction with large-scale corpus analytics of the domain corpus. We call this technique "semantic rerendering" of the ontology. This research has been done in the context of Medstract, a joint Brandeis-Tufts effort aimed at developing tools for analyzing biomedical language (i.e., Medline), as well as creating targeted databases of bio-entities, biological relations, and pathway data for biological researchers. Motivating the current research is the need to have robust and reliable semantic typing of syntactic elements in the Medline corpus, in order to improve the overall performance of the information extraction applications mentioned above.