results for au:Roy_S in:quant-ph

- Mar 01 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.10398v1Quantum states can be efficiently transferred over a long distance if the entire quantum channel can be divided into several small blocks. We consider a scenario in which each block consists of two copies of a multiparty state -- one is used for distributing an arbitrary quantum state to multiple parties while the other channel is required to concentrate it back to a single party. Both in noiseless and local noisy scenarios, we find one-shot quantum capacities of these channels in terms of fidelity, when the initial shared states in each block are the generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and the generalized W states. We also consider a situation where optimal local measurements transform multipartite states to bipartite ones which can then be used as single-path channels for quantum state transmission in each segment. We show that in some parameter ranges, the former protocol provides strictly better fidelities than that of the latter, thereby establishing the importance of distributing and concentrating arbitrary quantum states via multipartite entangled states in long distance quantum communication, over the local measurement based protocol. Moreover, we show that in presence of bit flip or bit-phase flip noise, shared generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states possess an inherent noise detection and correction mechanism, leading to the same fidelity as in the noiseless case. We consider further noise models also, which do not enjoy the same mechanism.
- Dec 08 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1712.02726v1An interesting aspect of antiferromagnetic quantum spin ladders, with complete dimer coverings, is that the wave function can be recursively generated by estimating the number of coverings in the valence bond basis, which follow the fabled Fibonacci sequence. In this work, we show that generalized forms of such sequences can also be derived for multi-legged and doped quantum spin ladders, which allows the corresponding dimer covered state to be recursively generated. This simplifies the investigation and estimation of several important quantities in these many-body quantum systems. In particular, we show that the valence bond entanglement entropy, which is a substantial figure of merit for understanding critical behavior, can be conveniently derived for large spin ladders.
- Nov 29 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.10261v5There are heuristic arguments proposing that the accuracy of monitoring position of a free mass $m$ is limited by the standard quantum limit (SQL):$\sigma^2 (X(t)) \geq \sigma^2 (X(0)) +(t^2/m^2) \sigma^2 (P(0))\geq \hbar t/m$, where $\sigma^2 (X(t))$ and $\sigma^2 (P(t))$ denote variances of the Heisenberg representation position and momentum operators. Yuen discovered that there are contractive states for which this result is incorrect. Here I prove universally valid rigorous quantum limits (RQL) viz. rigorous upper and lower bounds on $\sigma^2 (X(t))$ in terms of $\sigma^2 (X(0))$ and $\sigma^2 (P(0))$ for a free mass, and for an oscillator. I also obtain the `maximally contractive' and `maximally expanding' states which saturate the RQL, and use the contractive states to set up an Ozawa-type measurement theory with accuracies respecting the RQL but beating the standard quantum limit. The Contractive states for oscillators improve on the SchrÃ¶dinger coherent states of constant variance and may be useful for gravitational wave detection and optical communication.
- Benford's law is an empirical edict stating that the lower digits appear more often than higher ones as the first few significant digits in statistics of natural phenomena and mathematical tables. A marked proportion of such analyses is restricted to the first significant digit. We employ violation of Benford's law, up to the first four significant digits, for investigating magnetization and correlation data of paradigmatic quantum many-body systems to detect cooperative phenomena, focusing on the finite-size scaling exponents thereof. We find that for the transverse field quantum XY model, behavior of the very first significant digit of an observable, at an arbitrary point of the parameter space, is enough to capture the quantum phase transition in the model with a relatively high scaling exponent. A higher number of significant digits do not provide an appreciable further advantage, in particular, in terms of an increase in scaling exponents. Since the first significant digit of a physical quantity is relatively simple to obtain in experiments, the results have potential implications for laboratory observations in noisy environments.
- Oct 31 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1710.11037v1We report all phases and corresponding critical lines of the quantum anisotropic transverse XY model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction along with uniform and alternating transverse magnetic fields (ATXY) by using appropriately chosen order parameters. We prove that when DM interaction is weaker than the anisotropy parameter, it has no effect at all on the zero-temperature states of the XY model with uniform transverse magnetic field which is not the case for the ATXY model. However, when DM interaction is stronger than the anisotropy parameter, we show appearance of a new gapless phase - a chiral phase - in the XY model with uniform as well as alternating field. We further report that first derivatives of nearest neighbor two-site entanglement with respect to magnetic fields can detect all the critical lines present in the system. We also observe that the factorization surface at zero-temperature present in this model without DM interaction becomes a volume on the introduction of the later. We find that DM interaction can generate bipartite entanglement sustainable at large times, leading to a proof of ergodic nature of bipartite entanglement in this system, and can induce a transition from non-monotonicity of entanglement with temperature to a monotonic one.
- Oct 31 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.10469v2Measurement Device Independent Quantum Private Query (MDI QPQ) with qutrits is presented. We identified that this variant of QPQ protocol resists the optimization of both database security and client's privacy simultaneously. We compare the database security and client's privacy in MDI QPQ for qubits with qutrits. For some instances, we observe that qutrit will provide better security for database than qubit. However, when it comes to the question of client's privacy qubit will provide better security than qutrit. Hence we conclude that though in case of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) higher dimension provides better security but in case of QPQ this is not obvious.
- Oct 31 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.10717v3In quantum information theory, entropic inequalities act as the necessary and sufficient conditions to noncontextuality. Here, we first experimentally demonstrate the violation of the entropic noncontextual inequality in a four-level quantum system, by using the five-qubit IBM quantum computer. The experimental result disproves the existence of a local realist model.
- We investigate the behavior of entanglement in the ground state of a doped one-dimensional lattice, where the particles interact via the quantum t-J model, which can be obtained from the Hubbard Hamiltonian with large onsite interactions. For different values of the electron concentration, the rich phase diagram exhibits both polynomial and exponential decay of bipartite quantum entanglement, with increasing lattice distance. This respectively characterizes the properties of the Luttinger liquid and the electron-hole phase separation regions of the phase diagram. Interestingly, at low electron concentration, where the spin-gap opens, the ground state turns out to be a long-ranged resonating valence bond gas. We observe that the phase diagram remains qualitatively unchanged even when additional next-nearest-neighbor spin couplings are introduced, though the phase boundaries are dependent on the relative strength between the nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions, which the decay patterns of entanglement can capture. A key finding of the study relates to the genuine multipartite entanglement of the ground state of the model at low electron densities. We observe that for fixed values of the electron density, multipartite entanglement remains immutable under perturbative or sudden changes of system parameters, a phenomenon termed as adiabatic freezing. The phenomenon is absent in the anisotropic undoped limit of the system. It is to be noted that multipartite entanglement, in general, is sensitive to external perturbation, as observed in several systems, and hitherto, no freezing behavior has been reported.
- Jul 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.02449v1We consider the scenario of deterministic classical information transmission between multiple senders and a single receiver, when they a priori share a multipartite quantum state -- an attempt towards building a deterministic dense coding network. Specifically, we prove that in case of two or three senders and a single receiver, generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states are not beneficial for sending classical information deterministically beyond the classical limit, except when the shared state is the GHZ state. On the other hand, three and four qubit generalized W states with specific parameters as well as the four qubit Dicke states can provide quantum advantage in deterministic dense coding. Interestingly however, numerical simulations in the three-qubit scenario reveal that the percentage of states from the GHZ class that are deterministic dense codeable is higher than that of states from the W class.
- Wave-particle duality employing quantum coherence in superposition with non-distinguishable pointersMay 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.04343v2We propose the notion of quantum coherence for superpositions over states which are not necessarily mutually distinguishable. This anticipatedly leads to a resource theory of non-orthogonal coherence. We characterize free states and free operations in this theory, and connect the latter with free operations in the resource theory of quantum coherence for distinguishable bases. We show that the concept of non-orthogonal coherence naturally furnishes us with a wave-particle duality in quantum double-slit experiments where the channels beyond the slits are leaky between them. Furthermore, we demonstrate existence of a unique maximally coherent qubit state corresponding to any given purity. In addition, and in contradistinction with the case of distinguishable bases, there appears a non-trivial minimally coherent qubit state for a given purity. We also study the behavior of quantum coherence for some typical configurations of non-orthogonal bases which have no analogs for orthogonal bases. We further investigate the problem of determining the energy cost of creating non-orthogonal coherence, and find that it scales linearly with the non-orthogonal coherence created.
- We review concepts and methods associated with quantum discord and related topics. We also describe their possible connections with other aspects of quantum information and beyond, including quantum communication, quantum computation, many-body physics, and open quantum dynamics. Quantum discord in the multiparty regime and its applications are also discussed.
- Creativity, defined as the tendency to generate or recognize new ideas or alternatives and to make connections between seemingly unrelated phenomena, is too vast a horizon to be summed up in such a simple sentence. The extreme abstractness of creativity makes it harder to quantify in its entirety. Yet, a lot of efforts have been made both by psychologists and neurobiologists to identify its signature. A general conformity is expressed in the Free association theory, i.e. the more freely a persons conceptual nodes are connected, the more divergent thinker (also, creative) he or she is. Also, tolerance of ambiguity is found to be related to divergent thinking. In this study, we approach the problem of creativity from a theoretical physics standpoint. Theoretically, for the initial conceptual state, the next jump to any other node is equally probable and non-deterministic. Repeated intervention of external stimulus (analogous to a measurement) is responsible for such jumps. And to study such a non-deterministic system with continuous measurements, Quantum theory has been proven the most successful, time and again. We suggest that this collection of nodes form a system which is likely to be governed by quantum physics and specify the transformations which could help explain the conceptual jump between states. Our argument, from the point of view of physics is that the initial evolution of the creative process is identical, person or field independent. To answer the next obvious question about individual creativity, we hypothesize that the quantum system, under continuous measurements (in the form of external stimuli) evolves with chaotic dynamics, hence separating a painter from a musician. Possible experimental methodology of these effects has also been suggested using ambiguous figures.
- Quantum parameter estimation plays a key role in many fields like quantum computation, communication and metrology. Optimal estimation allows one to achieve the most precise parameter estimates, but requires accurate knowledge of the model. Any inevitable uncertainty in the model parameters may heavily degrade the quality of the estimate. It is therefore desired to make the estimation process robust to such uncertainties. Robust estimation was previously studied for a varying phase, where the goal was to estimate the phase at some time in the past, using the measurement results from both before and after that time within a fixed time interval up to current time. Here, we consider a robust guaranteed-cost filter yielding robust estimates of a varying phase in real time, where the current phase is estimated using only past measurements. Our filter minimizes the largest (worst-case) variance in the allowable range of the uncertain model parameter(s) and this determines its guaranteed cost. It outperforms in the worst case the optimal Kalman filter designed for the model with no uncertainty, that corresponds to the center of the possible range of the uncertain parameter(s). Moreover, unlike the Kalman filter, our filter in the worst case always performs better than the best achievable variance for heterodyne measurements, that we consider as the tolerable threshold for our system. Furthermore, we consider effective quantum efficiency and effective noise power, and show that our filter provides the best results by these measures in the worst case.
- Jan 05 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.01087v3In Quantum Private Query (QPQ), a client obtains values corresponding to his query only and nothing else from the server and the server does not get any information about the queries. Giovannetti et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008) gave the first QPQ protocol and since then quite a few variants and extensions have been proposed. However, none of the existing protocols are device independent, i.e., all of them assume implicitly that the entangled states supplied to the client and the server are as prescribed. In this work, we exploit the idea of local CHSH game and connect it with the scheme of Yang et al. (Quantum Inf. Process., 2014) to present the concept of device independent QPQ protocol for the first time.
- Dec 21 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1612.06831v1Phase transition in quantum many-body systems inevitably causes changes in certain physical properties which then serve as potential indicators of critical phenomena. Besides the traditional order parameters, characterization of quantum entanglement has proven to be a computationally efficient and successful method for detection of phase boundaries, especially in one-dimensional models. Here we determine the rich phase diagram of the ground states of a quantum spin-1/2 XXZ ladder by analyzing the variation of bipartite and multipartite entanglements. Our study characterizes the different ground state phases and notes the correspondence with known results, while highlighting the finer details that emerge from the behavior of ground state entanglement. Analysis of entanglement in the ground state provides a clearer picture of the complex ground state phase diagram of the system using only a moderate-size model.
- Dec 13 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.03405v2We study entanglement generation between a system qubit and three apparatus qubits using an exactly soluble Arthurs-Kelly type model. We demonstrate the possibility of generating an EPR- like maximally entangled system-apparatus state, in which the second qubit of the usual EPR state is replaced by a three qubit state. We design a very simple teleportation protocol to transfer the unknown state of the system onto one of the apparatus qubits which can then be teleported via a quantum channel.
- We consider a generalized double Jaynes-Cummings model consisting of two isolated two-level atoms, each contained in a lossless cavity, with the cavities interacting with each other through a controlled photon hopping mechanism. The temporal dynamics of entanglement between the two atoms, as the atom-cavity system evolves with time, is investigated for different values of the mediated cavity-cavity interaction. We analytically show that at low values of such an interaction, entanglement between the atoms evolves under the effects of cavity perturbation and exhibits the well-known phenomenon of entanglement sudden death. Interestingly, using moderately large values of the interaction, a complete preclusion of sudden death of entanglement can be achieved, irrespective of its value in the initial two-atom state. Our results, thus allow us to design a model to sustain bipartite entanglement between two atomic qubits under the adverse effect of cavity induced environmental perturbation, by introducing a non-intrusive inter-cavity photon exchange that can be physically realized through cavity-QED setups in contemporary experiments. For completeness, we also compare the effects of inter-cavity interaction on entanglement with the case of direct spin-exchange interaction between the two isolated atoms.
- Aug 25 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.06914v1The monogamy relation for quantum correlations is not satisfied by all measures for all multiparty quantum states. We prove that an arbitrary quantum state which is nonmonogamous for negativity will become monogamous if a finite number of copies of the same state is provided. We refer this as activation of nonmonogamous states. We also show that multiple copies of a state satisfy monogamy for negativity if it does so for a single copy. The results are true for all quantum states of an arbitrary number of parties. Moreover, we find that two different three-qubit pure states which individually violate monogamy relation for negativity, taken together can satisfy the three-party monogamy relation. This holds for almost all three-qubit pure states while it is true for all three-qubit pure states when a four-party monogamy relation is used to check for their activation. We finally connect monogamy of negativity with genuine multipartite entanglement.
- We explore the physics of a Chern insulator subjected to a two step Floquet drive. We analytically obtain the phase diagram and show that the system can exhibit different topological phases characterized by presence and chirality of edge-modes in the two bulk gaps of the Floquet quasienergy spectrum, around $0$ and $\pi$. We find that the phase of the system depends on the mean but not on the amplitude of the drive. The bulk topological invariants characterizing the phases can be extracted by mapping the unitary evolution within a time period to an energetically trivial but topologically non-trivial time evolution. An extensive numerical study of the bulk topological invariants in the presence of quenched disorder reveals new transitions induced by strong disorder (i) from the different topological to trivial insulator phases and (ii) from a trivial to a topological Anderson insulator phase at intermediate disorder strengths. Careful analysis of level statistics of the quasienergy spectrum indicates a `levitation-annihilation' mechanism near these transitions.
- Jul 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.08187v3In this paper, we provide an operational criterion for controlled dense coding with a general class of three-qubit partially entangled states. A general three-qubit pure entangled state can be classified into two inequivalent classes according to their genuine tripartite entanglement. We claim that if a three-qubit state shows entanglement characteristic similar to $GHZ$-class then such non-trivial tripartite states are useful in \it controlled dense coding whereas states belonging to $W$-class are not useful for that. We start with a particular class of non-trivial partially entangled states belonging to $GHZ$-class and show that they are effective in controlled dense coding. Then we cite several other examples of different types of tripartite entangled states to support our conjecture.
- Jul 19 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1607.05195v1Quantum networks are an integral component in performing efficient computation and communication tasks that are not accessible using classical systems. A key aspect in designing an effective and scalable quantum network is generating entanglement between its nodes, which is robust against defects in the network. We consider an isotropic quantum network of spin-1/2 particles with a finite fraction of defects, where the corresponding wave function of the network is rotationally invariant under the action of local unitaries, and we show that any reduced density matrix also remains unaltered under the local actions. By using quantum information-theoretic concepts like strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy and approximate quantum telecloning, we prove analytically that in the presence of defects, caused by loss of a finite fraction of spins, the network sustains genuine multisite entanglement, and at the same time may exhibit finite moderate-range bipartite entanglement, in contrast to the network with no defects.
- Jun 22 2016 cond-mat.stat-mech quant-ph arXiv:1606.06673v2Topological quantum phases cannot be characterized by local order parameters in the bulk. In this work however, we show that signatures of a topological quantum critical point do remain in local observables in the bulk, and manifest themselves as non-analyticities in their expectation values taken over a family of non-equilibrium states generated using a quantum quench protocol. The signature can be used for precisely locating the critical points in parameter space. A large class of initial states can be chosen for the quench (including finite temperature states), the sufficient condition being existence of a finite occupation-gradient with respect to energy for the single-particle critical mode. We demonstrate these results in tractable models of non-interacting fermions exhibiting topological phase transitions in one and two spatial dimensions. We also show that the non-analyticities can be absent if the gap-closing is non-topological, i.e., when it corresponds to no phase transition.
- We study robust $H_\infty$ coherent-classical estimation for a class of physically realizable linear quantum systems with parameter uncertainties. Such a robust coherent-classical estimator, with or without coherent feedback, can yield better disturbance-to-error performance than the corresponding robust purely-classical estimator for an uncertain plant. Moreover, coherent feedback allows for such a robust coherent-classical estimator to be more robust to uncertainty in comparison to the robust classical-only estimator.
- Apr 25 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1604.06683v2We formulate an analytical recursive method to generate the wave function of doped short-range resonating valence bond (RVB) states as a tool to efficiently estimate multisite entanglement as well as other physical quantities in doped quantum spin ladders. We prove that doped RVB ladder states are always genuine multipartite entangled. Importantly, our results show that within specific doping concentration and model parameter regimes, the doped RVB state essentially characterizes the trends of genuine multiparty entanglement in the exact ground states of the Hubbard model with large onsite interactions, in the limit which yields the $t$-$J$ Hamiltonian.
- Apr 05 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.00852v1Mixed state can be used in dense coding. We have analyzed here that maximally entangled mixed states like Werner state is dense codeable for a certain range of state parameter whereas for some wider range of the state parameter the state is $`$steerable' but cannot be used in dense coding. For qutrit system we consider isotropic states and have found similar characteristics, like the states are $`$steerable' for a range of state parameter but for a sub range of that steerability range only, the states are dense-codeable.
- This paper attempts to address the question that whether the present physical or mathematical theories are sufficient to understand the complexities of human brain when it interacts with the external environment in the form of an auditory stimulus.There have been efforts reporting that the introduction of ambiguity in visual stimuli causes effects which can't be explained classically.In this paper,it is investigated whether ambiguity in auditory stimuli can introduce any non-classical effects in human brain.Simple experiments were performed on normal subjects where they listened to an ambiguous auditory signal and responded to a question with 'yes' or 'no'.The outcome of the test showed that the classical formula of total probability does not hold true in this case.Results were interesting and indicate that there is a definite non-classicality in mental states in perception of ambiguous audio stimuli.
- Mar 10 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1603.02801v3We investigate the action of local and global noise on monogamy of quantum correlations, when monogamy scores are considered as observables, and three-qubit systems are subjected to global noise and various local noisy channels, namely, amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels. We show that the dynamics of monogamy scores corresponding to negativity and quantum discord, in the case of generalized W states, as inputs to the noisy channels, can exhibit non-monotonic dynamics with respect to increasing noise parameter, which is in contrast to the monotonic decay of monogamy scores when generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states are exposed to noise. We quantify the persistence of monogamy against noise via a characteristic value of the noise parameter, and show that depolarizing noise destroys monogamy of quantum correlation faster compared to other noisy channels. We demonstrate that the negativity monogamy score is more robust than the quantum discord monogamy score, when the noise is of the phase-damping type. We also investigate the variation of monogamy with increasing noise for arbitrary three-qubit pure states as inputs. Finally, depending on these results, we propose a two-step protocol, which can conclusively identify the type of noise applied to the quantum system, by using generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and generalized W states as resource states. We discuss a possible generalization of the results to higher number of parties.
- Nov 13 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1511.03998v2Multiparty quantum states are useful for a variety of quantum information and computation protocols. We define a multiparty entanglement measure based on local measurements on a multiparty quantum state, and an entanglement measure averaged on the post-measurement ensemble. Using the generalized geometric measure as the measure of multipartite entanglement for the ensemble, we demonstrate, in the case of several well-known classes of multipartite pure states, that the localized multipartite entanglement can exceed the entanglement present in the original state. We also show that measurement over multiple parties may be beneficial in enhancing localizable multipartite entanglement. We point out that localizable generalized geometric measure faithfully signals quantum critical phenomena in well-known quantum spin models even when considerable finite-size effect is present in the system.
- Sep 08 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.02085v2Computing entanglement of an arbitrary bipartite or multipartite mixed state is in general not an easy task as it usually involves complex optimization. Here we show that exploiting symmetries of certain mixed states, we can compute a genuine multiparty entanglement measure, the generalized geometric measure for these classes of mixed states. The chosen states have different ranks and consist of an arbitrary number of parties.
- Aug 04 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1508.00238v2In this paper we discuss mainly with our proposed non maximally entangled mixed state defined in (Adhikari \textitet. al, \textitQuant. Inf. Comp.\textbf10, No. 5, 0398, (2010)). We show that such non maximal entangled state is dependent on its characteristic parameter. As has been already shown, that for certain parameter range, the state could be used as a teleportation channel, we show here that for some other ranges of parameter the state behaves as a bound entangled state. We also show that for all values of the characteristic parameter of the state, coherent information is always less than zero, so that the state can never used in dense coding protocols. We conjectured the existence of witnesses which can categorize dense codeable states.
- Jun 12 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1506.03756v4We constructed a class of non-maximally entangled mixed states \citeroy2010 and extensively studied its entanglement properties and also their usefulness as teleportation channels. In this article, we revisited our constructed state and have studied it from three different perspectives. Since every entangled state is associated with an witness operator, we have found a suitable entanglement as well as teleportation witness for our non-maximally entangled mixed states. We considered the noisy channel's effects on our constructed state and to see whether it affects the states' capacity as teleportation channel. For this purpose we have mainly emphasized on amplitude damping channel. A comparative study with concurrence and quantum discord of the state of ref. \citeroy2010 has also been carried out here.
- We consider classical estimators for a class of physically realizable linear quantum systems. Optimal estimation using a complex Kalman filter for this problem has been previously explored. Here, we study robust $H_\infty$ estimation for uncertain linear quantum systems. The estimation problem is solved by converting it to a suitably scaled $H_\infty$ control problem. The solution is obtained in the form of two algebraic Riccati equations. Relevant examples involving dynamic squeezers are presented to illustrate the efficacy of our method.
- May 25 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1505.06083v2We investigate finite-size scaling of genuine multisite entanglement in the ground state of quantum spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladders. We obtain the ground states of odd- and even-legged Heisenberg ladder Hamiltonians and compute genuine multisite entanglement, the generalized geometric measure (GGM), which shows that for even rungs, GGM increases for odd-legged ladder while it decreases for even ones. Interestingly, the ground state obtained by short-range dimer coverings, under the resonating valence bond (RVB) ansatz, encapsulates the qualitative features of GGM for both the ladders. We find that while the GGMs for higher legged odd- and even-ladders converge to a single value in the asymptotic limit of a large number of rungs, the finite-size scaling exponents of the same tend to diverge. The scaling exponent of GGM obtained by employing density matrix recursion method is therefore a reliable quantity in distinguishing the odd-even dichotomy in Heisenberg ladders, even when the corresponding multisite entanglements merge.
- Classical correlations of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively for gapped and gapless short-ranged quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder.
- Feb 18 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1502.04856v1In this paper, we have estimated the temperature dependent path predictability for an electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The increment of path predictability can directly be associated with stronger decoherence process. We have also theoretically predicted that placing two detectors in both the paths, which are at the same equilibrium temperature with the system, erases all the memory of path information and hence acts like a quantum eraser.
- We study a coherent-classical estimation scheme for a class of linear quantum systems, where the estimator is a mixed quantum-classical system that may or may not involve coherent feedback. We show that when the quantum plant or the quantum part of the estimator (coherent controller) is an annihilation operator only system, coherent-classical estimation without coherent feedback can provide no improvement over purely-classical estimation. Otherwise, coherent-classical estimation without feedback can be better than classical-only estimation for certain homodyne detector angles, although the former is inferior to the latter for the best choice of homodyne detector angle. Moreover, we show that coherent-classical estimation with coherent feedback is no better than classical-only estimation, when both the plant and the coherent controller are annihilation operator only systems. Otherwise, coherent-classical estimation with coherent feedback can be superior to purely-classical estimation, and in this case, the former is better than the latter for the optimal choice of homodyne detector angle.
- Quantum parameter estimation is central to many fields such as quantum computation, communications and metrology. Optimal estimation theory has been instrumental in achieving the best accuracy in quantum parameter estimation, which is possible when we have very precise knowledge of and control over the model. However, uncertainties in key parameters underlying the system are unavoidable and may impact the quality of the estimate. We show here how quantum optical phase estimation of a squeezed state of light exhibits improvement when using a robust fixed-interval smoother designed with uncertainties explicitly introduced in parameters underlying the phase noise.
- We present a horizontal gravity gradiometer atom interferometer for precision gravitational tests. The horizontal configuration is superior for maximizing the inertial signal in the atom interferometer from a nearby proof mass. In our device, we have suppressed spurious noise associated with the horizonal configuration to achieve a differential acceleration sensitivity of 4.2$\times10^{-9}g/\sqrt{Hz}$ over a 70 cm baseline or 3.0$\times10^{-9}g/\sqrt{Hz}$ inferred per accelerometer. Using the performance of this instrument, we characterize the results of possible future gravitational tests. We complete a proof-of-concept measurement of the gravitational constant with a precision of 3$\times10^{-4}$ that is competitive with the present limit of 1.2$\times10^{-4}$ using other techniques. From this measurement, we provide a statistical constraint on a Yukawa-type fifth force at 8$\times$10$^{-3}$ near the poorly known length scale of 10 cm. Limits approaching 10$^{-5}$ appear feasible. We discuss improvements that can enable uncertainties falling well below 10$^{-5}$ for both experiments.
- Aug 19 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1408.3831v2The paper presents the detailed study of controlled dense coding scheme for different types of $3$ and $4-$ particle states. It consists of GHZ state, GHZ type states, Maximal Slice state, Four particle GHZ state and W class of states. It is shown that GHZ-type states can be used for controlled dense coding in a probabilistic sense. We have shown relations among parameter of GHZ type state, concurrence of the shared bipartite state by two parties with respect to GHZ type and Charlie's measurement angle $\theta$. We have seen that tripartite W state and quadripartite W state cannot be used in controlled dense coding whereas $\vert W_{n}\rangle_{ABC}$ states can be used probabilistically. Finally, we have investigated controlled dense coding scheme for tripartite qutrit states.
- There exist diverse no-go theorems, ranging from no-cloning to monogamies of quantum correlations and Bell inequality violations, which restrict the processing of information in the quantum world. In a multipartite scenario, monogamy of Bell inequality violation and exclusion principle of dense coding are such theorems, which impede the ability of the system to have quantum advantage between all its parts. In ordered spin systems, the twin restrictions of translation invariance and monogamy of quantum correlations, in general, enforce the bipartite states to be neither Bell inequality violating nor dense-codeable. We show that these quantum characteristics, viz. Bell inequality violation and dense-codeability, can be resurrected, and thereby the no-go theorems overcome, by having quenched disorder in the system parameters leading to quantum spin glass or quantum random field models. We show that the quantum characteristics are regained even though the quenched averaging keeps the disordered spin chains translationally invariant at the physically relevant level of observables. The results show that it is possible to conquer constraints imposed by quantum mechanics in ordered systems by introducing impurities.
- Jun 17 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1406.3981v1The Zeno time has been calculated for a metastable two level atom tunneling through a interacting thermal magnetic field. The process of weak measurement has been utilized for the the estimation of the timescale. The temperature dependence of the Zeno time has been shown. From the calculation it is evident that the Zeno time decreases with the increase of temperature. Moreover, the result restricts the Zeno time to a maximum limiting value, irrespective of how frequent is the measurement process.
- We consider a coherent-classical estimation scheme for a class of linear quantum systems. It comprises an estimator that is a mixed quantum-classical system without involving coherent feedback. The estimator yields a classical estimate of a variable for the quantum plant. We demonstrate that for a passive plant that can be characterized by annihilation operators only, such coherent-classical estimation provides no improvement over purely-classical estimation. An example is also given which shows that if the plant is not assumed to be an annihilation operator only quantum system, it is possible to get better estimates with such coherent-classical estimation compared with purely-classical estimation.
- Feb 14 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1402.3031v1We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the success probability of a secret sharing protocol using a quantum cloning circuit. The cloning circuit is used to clone the qubits containing the encoded information and \em en route to the intended receipients. The success probability of the protocol depends on the cloning parameters used to clone the qubits. We also establish a relation between the concurrence of initially prepared state, entanglement of the mixed state received by the receivers after cloning scheme and the cloning parameters of cloning machine.
- Jan 29 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1401.7167v2Tunneling of a two-state particle through a squeezed vacuum is considered. It has been shown that repetitive measurement or interaction with the external field can preserve the coherence. Moreover, the coherence time in terms of the squeezing parameters has been calculated. A specific condition is derived, under which the coherence is sustainable.
- Aug 14 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.2852v2Teleportation usually involves entangled particles 1,2 shared by Alice and Bob, Bell-state measurement on particle 1 and system particle by Alice, classical communication to Bob, and unitary transformation by Bob on particle 2. We propose a novel method: interaction-based remote tomography. Alice arranges an entanglement generating von Neumann-Arthurs-Kelly interaction between the system and two apparatus particles, and then teleports the latter to Bob. Bob reconstructs the unknown initial state of the system not received by him by quadrature measurements on the apparatus particles .
- May 07 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.0885v2We, in this paper, analyze the efficacy of an output as a resource from a universal quantum cloning machine in information processing tasks such as teleportation and dense coding. For this, we have considered the $3\otimes 3$ dimensional system (or qutrit system). The output states are found to be NPT states for certain ranges of machine parameters. Using the output state as an entangled resource, we have also studied the optimal fidelities of teleportation and capacities of dense coding protocols with respect to the machine parameters and have made a few interesting observations. Our work is mainly motivated from the fact that the cloning output can be used as a resource in quantum information processing and adds a valuable dimension to the applications of cloning machines.
- May 03 2013 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1305.0410v1We demonstrate that for two canonically conjugate operators $\hat{q},\hat {p} $,the global correlation $\langle \hat{q} \hat {p} + \hat{p} \hat {q} \rangle -2 \langle \hat{q}\rangle \langle \hat {p}\rangle$, and the local correlations $\langle \hat{q} \rangle (p) - \langle \hat{q}\rangle$ and $\langle \hat{p} \rangle (q)-\langle \hat {p}\rangle$ can be measured exactly by Von Neumann-Arthurs-Kelly joint quadrature measurements . These correlations provide a sensitive experimental test of quantum phase space probabilities quite distinct from the probability densities of $ q,p $. E.g. for EPR states, and entangled generalized coherent states, phase space probabilities which reproduce the correct position and momentum probability densities have to be modified to reproduce these correlations as well.
- We determine a positive normalised phase space probability distribution $P$ with minimum mean square fractional deviation from the Wigner distribution $W$ .The minimum deviation, an invariant under phase space rotations, is a quantitative measure of the quantumness of the state.The positive distribution closest to $W$ will be useful in quantum mechanics and in time frequency analysis .
- Continuous phase estimation is known to be superior in accuracy as compared to static estimation. The estimation process is, however, desired to be made robust to uncertainties in the underlying parameters. Here, homodyne phase estimation of coherent and squeezed states of light, evolving continuously under the influence of a second-order resonant noise process, are made robust to parameter uncertainties using a robust fixed-interval smoother, designed for uncertain systems satisfying a certain integral quadratic constraint. We observe that such a robust smoother provides improved worst-case performance over the optimal smoother and also performs better than a robust filter for the uncertain system.
- Mar 11 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1303.1905v2We showed that quantum mechanical superposition can sustain in the process of ion transfer in protein membrane for a substantial period, in spite of the presence of the interactions with environmental modes of molecular vibration. The spectral temperature, as defined in quantum thermodynamical framework plays a significant role in maintaining the coherence. The ratio of decoherence time and dwell time has been calculated, which can be directly related to the degree of coherence. The results shead new light to build quantum information system of entangled ionic states in the voltage gated biological channels.
- It is well-known that adaptive homodyne estimation of continuously varying optical phase provides superior accuracy in the phase estimate as compared to adaptive or non-adaptive static estimation. However, most phase estimation schemes rely on precise knowledge of the underlying parameters of the system under measurement, and performance deteriorates significantly with changes in these parameters; hence it is desired to develop robust estimation techniques immune to such uncertainties. In related works, we have already shown how adaptive homodyne estimation can be made robust to uncertainty in an underlying parameter of the phase varying as a simplistic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic noise process. Here, we demonstrate robust phase estimation for a more complicated resonant noise process using a guaranteed cost robust filter.
- Optimal phase estimation of a phase-squeezed quantum state of light has been recently shown to beat the coherent-state limit. Here, the estimation is made robust to uncertainties in underlying parameters using a robust fixed-interval smoother.
- Adaptive homodyne estimation of a continuously evolving optical phase using time-symmetric quantum smoothing has been demonstrated experimentally to provide superior accuracy in the phase estimate compared to adaptive or nonadaptive estimation using filtering alone. Here, we illustrate how the mean-square error in the adaptive phase estimate may be further reduced below the standard quantum limit for the stochastic noise process considered by using a Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother as the estimator, alongwith an optimal Kalman filter in the feedback loop. Further, the estimation using smoothing can be made robust to uncertainties in the underlying parameters of the noise process modulating the system phase to be estimated. This has been done using a robust fixed-interval smoother designed for uncertain systems satisfying a certain integral quadratic constraint.
- Jan 08 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1301.1127v2Decoherence time has been calculated for an optical ion trap of Be atoms in a bistable potential model. Comparison has been made between decoherence time and Zeno time for double well potential as a special case. Zeno time is considered as a lower limit of decoherence time for sustainable quantum coherence. Equality of the respective timescales provides a certain transitional temperature, below which decoherence can be asymptotically minimized.
- We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a one-dimensional system of hard core bosons (HCBs) in the presence of an onsite potential (with an alternating sign between the odd and even sites) which shows a quantum phase transition (QPT) from the superfluid (SF) phase to the so-called "Mott Insulator" (MI) phase. The ground state quantum fidelity shows a sharp dip at the quantum critical point (QCP) while the fidelity susceptibility shows a divergence right there with its scaling given in terms of the correlation length exponent of the QPT. We then study the evolution of this bosonic system following a quench in which the magnitude of the alternating potential is changed starting from zero (the SF phase) to a non-zero value (the MI phase) according to a half Rosen Zener (HRZ) scheme or brought back to the initial value following a full Rosen Zener (FRZ) scheme. The local von Neumann entropy density is calculated in the final MI phase (following the HRZ quench) and is found to be less than the equilibrium value ($\log 2$) due to the defects generated in the final state as a result of the quenching starting from the QCP of the system. We also briefly dwell on the FRZ quenching scheme in which the system is finally in the SF phase through the intermediate MI phase and calculate the reduction in the supercurrent and the non-zero value of the residual local entropy density in the final state. Finally, the loss of coherence of a qubit (globally and weekly coupled to the HCB system) which is initially in a pure state is investigated by calculating the time-dependence of the decoherence factor when the HCB chain evolves under a HRZ scheme starting from the SF phase. This result is compared with that of the sudden quench limit of the half Rosen-Zener scheme where an exact analytical form of the decoherence factor can be derived.
- Recently, it has been demonstrated experimentally that adaptive estimation of a continuously varying optical phase provides superior accuracy in the phase estimate compared to static estimation. Here, we show that the mean-square error in the adaptive phase estimate may be further reduced for the stochastic noise process considered by using an optimal Kalman filter in the feedback loop. Further, the estimation process can be made robust to fluctuations in the underlying parameters of the noise process modulating the system phase to be estimated. This has been done using a guaranteed cost robust filter.
- Nov 27 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1211.5927v3Administratively withdrawn.
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) forms a natural test-bed to perform quantum information processing (QIP) and has so far proven to be one of the most successful quantum information processors. The nuclear spins in a molecule treated as quantum bits or qubits which are the basic building blocks of a quantum computer. The development of NMR over half a century puts it in a platform where we can utilize its excellent control techniques over an ensemble of spin systems and perform quantum computation in a highly controlled way. Apart from a successful quantum information processor, NMR is also a highly powerful quantum platform where many of the potentially challenging quantum mechanical experiments can be performed.
- Sep 05 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1209.0993v2The dwell time for dissipative quantum system is shown to increase with barrier width. It clearly precludes Hartman effect for dissipative systems. Here calculation has been done for inverted parabolic potential barrier.
- Sep 04 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1209.0279v2A generalized expression for weak value of dwell time in dissipative systems has been constructed using the approach of Caldirola and Montaldi. An approximate measure of Zeno time has been found taking an asymmetric double well potential. Atomic tunneling between two surfaces is taken as a practical example. The formalism can be used for any solvable potential with exact or approximate energy eigenvalues.
- Sep 04 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1209.0299v1The dwell time is calculated within the framework of time dependent weak measurement considering dissipative interaction between a spin half system and the environment. Caldirola and Montaldi's method of retarded Schroedinger equation is used to study the dissipative system. The result shows that inclusion of dissipative interaction prevents zero time tunneling.
- We report the realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of 39K atoms without the aid of an additional atomic coolant. Our route to Bose-Einstein condensation comprises Sub Doppler laser cooling of large atomic clouds with more than 10^10 atoms and evaporative cooling in optical dipole traps where the collisional cross section can be increased using magnetic Feshbach resonances. Large condensates with almost 10^6 atoms can be produced in less than 15 seconds. Our achievements eliminate the need for sympathetic cooling with Rb atoms which was the usual route implemented till date due to the unfavourable collisional property of 39K. Our findings simplify the experimental set-up for producing Bose-Einstein condensates of 39K atoms with tunable interactions, which have a wide variety of promising applications including atom-interferometry to studies on the interplay of disorder and interactions in quantum gases.
- Mar 09 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1203.1756v2We investigate evolution of quantum correlations in ensembles of two-qubit nuclear spin systems via nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. We use discord as a measure of quantum correlations and the Werner state as an explicit example. We first introduce different ways of measuring discord and geometric discord in two-qubit systems and then describe the following experimental studies: (a) We quantitatively measure discord for Werner-like states prepared using an entangling pulse sequence. An initial thermal state with zero discord is gradually and periodically transformed into a mixed state with maximum discord. The experimental and simulated behavior of rise and fall of discord agree fairly well. (b) We examine the efficiency of dynamical decoupling sequences in preserving quantum correlations. In our experimental setup, the dynamical decoupling sequences preserved the traceless parts of the density matrices at high fidelity. But they could not maintain the purity of the quantum states and so were unable to keep the discord from decaying. (c) We observe the evolution of discord for a singlet-triplet mixed state during a radio-frequency spin-lock. A simple relaxation model describes the evolution of discord, and the accompanying evolution of fidelity of the long-lived singlet state, reasonably well.
- Dec 16 2011 quant-ph physics.atom-ph arXiv:1112.3524v2We report the first experimental demonstration of quantum delayed-choice experiment via nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. An ensemble of molecules each with two spin-1/2 nuclei are used as target and the ancilla qubits to perform the quantum circuit corresponding the delayed-choice setup. As expected in theory, our experiments clearly demonstrate the continuous morphing of the target qubit between particle-like and wave-like behaviors. The experimental visibility of the interference patterns shows good agreement with the theory.
- Recently, a novel GHZ/W graphical calculus has been established to study and reason more intuitively about interacting quantum systems. The compositional structure of this calculus was shown to be well-equipped to sufficiently express arbitrary mutlipartite quantum states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). However, it is still not clear how to explicitly identify which graphical properties lead to what states. This can be achieved if we have well-behaved normal forms for arbitrary graphs within this calculus. This article lays down a first attempt at realizing such normal forms for a restricted class of such graphs, namely simple and regular graphs. These results should pave the way for the most general cases as part of future work.
- Mar 18 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1103.3386v1The long-lived singlet states are useful to study a variety of interesting quantum phenomena. In this work we study electromagnetically induced transparency using a two-qubit system. The singlet state acts as a `dark state' which does not absorb a probe radiation in the presence of a control radiation. Further we demonstrate that the simultaneous irradiation of probe and control radiations acts as a dynamical decoupling preserving the singlet state at higher correlation for longer durations.
- Graphical calculi for representing interacting quantum systems serve a number of purposes: compositionally, intuitive graphical reasoning, and a logical underpinning for automation. The power of these calculi stems from the fact that they embody generalized symmetries of the structure of quantum operations, which, for example, stretch well beyond the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism. One such calculus takes the GHZ and W states as its basic generators. Here we show that this language allows one to encode standard rational calculus, with the GHZ state as multiplication, the W state as addition, the Pauli X gate as multiplicative inversion, and the Pauli Z gate as additive inversion.
- Feb 18 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1102.3560v3Stroboscopic spin flips have already been shown to prolong the coherence times of quantum systems under noisy environments. Uhrig's dynamical decoupling scheme provides an optimal sequence for a quantum system interacting with a dephasing bath. Several experimental demonstrations have already verified the efficiency of such dynamical decoupling schemes in preserving single qubit coherences. In this work we describe the experimental study of Uhrig's dynamical decoupling in preserving two-qubit entangled states using an ensemble of spin-1/2 nuclear pairs in solution state. We find that the performance of odd-order Uhrig sequences in preserving entanglement is superior to both even-order Uhrig sequences and periodic spin-flip sequences. We also find that there exists an optimal length of the Uhrig sequence at which the decoherence time gets boosted from a few seconds to about 30 seconds.
- Aug 12 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1008.1876v1An ensemble of nuclear spin-pairs under certain conditions is known to exhibit singlet state life-times much longer than other non-equilibrium states. This property of singlet state can be exploited in quantum information processing for efficient initialization of quantum registers. Here we describe a general method of initialization and experimentally demonstrate it with two-, three-, and four-qubit nuclear spin registers.
- Jul 28 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1007.4649v1Non-locality without inequality is an elegant argument introduced by L. Hardy for two qubit systems, and later generalised to $n$ qubits, to establish contradiction of quantum theory with local realism. Interestingly, for $n=2$ this argument is actually a corollary of Bell-type inequalities, viz. the CH-Hardy inequality involving Bell correlations, but for $n$ greater than 2 it involves $n$-particle probabilities more general than Bell-correlations. In this paper, we first derive a chain of completely new local realistic inequalities involving joint probabilities for $n$ qubits, and then, associated to each such inequality, we provide a new Hardy-type local reality constraint without inequalities. Quantum mechanical maximal violations of the chain of inequalities and of the associated constraints are also studied by deriving appropriate Cirel'son type theorems. These results involving joint probabilities more general than Bell correlations are expected to provide a new systematic tool to investigate entanglement.