results for au:Rowell_E in:math

- We study novel invariants of modular categories that are beyond the modular data, with an eye towards a simple set of complete invariants for modular categories. Our focus is on the $W$-matrix $-$the quantum invariant of a colored framed Whitehead link from the associated TQFT of a modular category. We prove that the $W$-matrix and the set of punctured $S$-matrices are strictly beyond the modular data $(S,T)$. Whether or not the triple $(S,T,W)$ constitutes a complete invariant of modular categories remains an open question.
- Jan 16 2018 math.QA arXiv:1801.04296v1Acyclic anyon models are non-abelian anyon models for which thermal anyon errors can be corrected. In this note, we characterize acyclic anyon models and raise the question if the restriction to acyclic anyon models is a deficiency of the current protocol or could it be intrinsically related to the computational power of non-abelian anyons. We also obtain general results on acyclic anyon models and find new acyclic anyon models such as $SO(8)_2$ and untwisted Dijkgraaf-Witten theories of nilpotent finite groups.
- Oct 31 2017 math.QA arXiv:1710.10284v3We discuss several useful interpretations of the categorical dimension of objects in a braided fusion category, as well as some conjectures demonstrating the value of quantum dimension as a quantum statistic for detecting certain behaviors of anyons in topological phases of matter. From this discussion we find that objects in braided fusion categories with integral squared dimension have distinctive properties. A large and interesting class of non-integral modular categories such that every simple object has integral squared-dimensions are the metaplectic categories that have the same fusion rules as $SO(N)_2$ for some $N$. We describe and complete their classification and enumeration, by recognizing them as $\mathbb{Z}_2$-gaugings of cyclic modular categories (i.e. metric groups). We prove that any modular category of dimension $2^km$ with $m$ square-free and $k\leq 4$, satisfying some additional assumptions, is a metaplectic category. This illustrates anew that dimension can, in some circumstances, determine a surprising amount of the category's structure.
- In topological quantum computing, information is encoded in "knotted" quantum states of topological phases of matter, thus being locked into topology to prevent decay. Topological precision has been confirmed in quantum Hall liquids by experiments to an accuracy of $10^{-10}$, and harnessed to stabilize quantum memory. In this survey, we discuss the conceptual development of this interdisciplinary field at the juncture of mathematics, physics and computer science. Our focus is on computing and physical motivations, basic mathematical notions and results, open problems and future directions related to and/or inspired by topological quantum computing.
- May 16 2017 math.QA arXiv:1705.05293v2We pursue a classification of low-rank super-modular categories parallel to that of modular categories. We classify all super-modular categories up to rank=$6$, and spin modular categories up to rank=$11$. In particular, we show that, up to fusion rules, there is exactly one non-split super-modular category of rank $2,4$ and $6$, namely $PSU(2)_{4k+2}$ for $k=0,1$ and $2$. This classification is facilitated by adapting and extending well-known constraints from modular categories to super-modular categories, such as Verlinde and Frobenius-Schur indicator formulae.
- Apr 10 2017 math.QA arXiv:1704.02041v2A super-modular category is a unitary pre-modular category with Müger center equivalent to the symmetric unitary category of super-vector spaces. Super-modular categories are important alternatives to modular categories as any unitary pre-modular category is the equivariantization of a either a modular or super-modular category. Physically, super-modular categories describe universal properties of quasiparticles in fermionic topological phases of matter. In general one does not have a representation of the modular group $\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb{Z})$ associated to a super-modular category, but it is possible to obtain a representation of the (index 3) $\theta$-subgroup: $\Gamma_\theta<\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb{Z})$. We study the image of this representation and conjecture a super-modular analogue of the Ng-Schauenburg Congruence Subgroup Theorem for modular categories, namely that the kernel of the $\Gamma_\theta$ representation is a congruence subgroup. We prove this conjecture for any super-modular category that is a subcategory of modular category of twice its dimension, i.e. admitting a minimal modular extension. Conjecturally, every super-modular category admits (precisely 16) minimal modular extensions and, therefore, our conjecture would be a consequence.
- Sep 19 2016 math.QA arXiv:1609.04896v3We give a complete classification of modular categories of dimension $p^3m$ where $p$ is prime and $m$ is a square-free integer. When $p$ is odd, all such categories are pointed. For $p=2$ one encounters modular categories with the same fusion ring as orthogonal quantum groups at certain roots of unity, namely $SO(2m)_2$. As an immediate step we classify a more general class of so-called even metaplectic modular categories with the same fusion rules as $SO(2N)_2$ with $N$ odd.
- Apr 22 2016 math.QA arXiv:1604.06429v1We provide an elementary introduction to topological quantum computation based on the Jones representation of the braid group. We first cover the Burau representation and Alexander polynomial. Then we discuss the Jones representation and Jones polynomial and their application to anyonic quantum computation. Finally we outline the approximation of the Jones polynomial and explicit localizations of braid group representations.
- Mar 31 2016 math.QA arXiv:1603.09294v3We study spin and super-modular categories systematically as inspired by fermionic topological phases of matter, which are always fermion parity enriched and modelled by spin TQFTs at low energy. We formulate a $16$-fold way conjecture for the minimal modular extensions of super-modular categories to spin modular categories, which is a categorical formulation of gauging the fermion parity. We investigate general properties of super-modular categories such as fermions in twisted Drinfeld doubles, Verlinde formulas for naive quotients, and explicit extensions of $PSU(2)_{4m+2}$ with an eye towards a classification of the low-rank cases.
- Jan 22 2016 math.QA arXiv:1601.05460v1We obtain a classification of metaplectic modular categories: every metaplectic modular category is a gauging of the particle-hole symmetry of a cyclic modular category. Our classification suggests a conjecture that every weakly-integral modular category can be obtained by gauging a symmetry of a pointed modular category.
- Two-dimensional topological states of matter offer a route to quantum computation that would be topologically protected against the nemesis of the quantum circuit model: decoherence. Research groups in industry, government and academic institutions are pursuing this approach. We give a mathematician's perspective on some of the advantages and challenges of this model, highlighting some recent advances. We then give a short description of how we might extend the theory to three-dimensional materials.
- Aug 21 2015 cond-mat.str-el math.QA arXiv:1508.04793v3A non-abelian anyon can only occur in the presence of ground state degeneracy in the plane. It is conceivable that for some strange anyon with quantum dimension $>1$ that the resulting representations of all $n$-strand braid groups $B_n$ are overall phases, even though the ground state manifolds for $n$ such anyons in the plane are in general Hilbert spaces of dimensions $>1$. We observe that degeneracy is all that is needed: for an anyon with quantum dimension $>1$ the non-abelian statistics cannot all be overall phases on the degeneracy ground state manifold. Therefore, degeneracy implies non-abelian statistics, which justifies defining a non-abelian anyon as one with quantum dimension $>1$. Since non-abelian statistics presumes degeneracy, degeneracy is more fundamental than non-abelian statistics.
- Aug 04 2015 math.RT arXiv:1508.00005v1Motivated by physical and topological applications, we study representations of the group $\mathcal{LB}_3$ of motions of $3$ unlinked oriented circles in $\mathbb{R}^3$. Our point of view is to regard the three strand braid group $\mathcal{B}_3$ as a subgroup of $\mathcal{LB}_3$ and study the problem of extending $\mathcal{B}_3$ representations. We introduce the notion of a \emphstandard extension and characterize $\mathcal{B}_3$ representations admiting such an extension. In particular we show, using a classification result of Tuba and Wenzl, that every irreducible $\mathcal{B}_3$ representation of dimension at most $5$ has a (standard) extension. We show that this result is sharp by exhibiting an irreducible $6$-dimensional $\mathcal{B}_3$ representation that has no extensions (standard or otherwise). We obtain complete classifications of (1) irreducible $2$-dimensional $\mathcal{LB}_3$ representations (2) extensions of irreducible $3$-dimensional $\mathcal{B}_3$ representations and (3) irreducible $\mathcal{LB}_3$ representations whose restriction to $\mathcal{B}_3$ has abelian image.
- Jul 21 2015 math.QA arXiv:1507.05139v2The feasibility of a classification-by-rank program for modular categories follows from the Rank-Finiteness Theorem. We develop arithmetic, representation theoretic and algebraic methods for classifying modular categories by rank. As an application, we determine all possible fusion rules for all rank=$5$ modular categories and describe the corresponding monoidal equivalence classes.
- We study representations of the loop braid group $LB_n$ from the perspective of extending representations of the braid group $B_n$. We also pursue a generalization of the braid/Hecke/Temperlely-Lieb paradigm---uniform finite dimensional quotient algebras of the loop braid group algebras.
- We classify all modular categories of dimension $4m$, where $m$ is an odd square-free integer, and all ranks $6$ and $7$ weakly integral modular categories. This completes the classification of weakly integral modular categories through rank $7$. Our results imply that all integral modular categories of rank at most $7$ are pointed (that is, every simple object has dimension $1$). All strictly weakly integral (weakly integral but non-integral) modular categories of ranks $6$ and $7$ have dimension $4m$, with $m$ an odd square free integer, so their classification is an application of our main result. The classification of rank $7$ integral modular categories is facilitated by an analysis of two actions on modular categories: the Galois group of the field generated by the entries of the $S$-matrix and the group of isomorphism classes of invertible simple objects. The interplay of these two actions is of independent interest, and we derive some valuable arithmetic consequences from their actions.
- We find unitary solutions $\tilde{R}(a)$ to the (multipicative parameter-dependent) $(z,N)$-generalized Yang-Baxter equation that carry the standard measurement basis to $m$-level $N$-partite states that generalize the Bell states corresponding to $\tilde{R}(0)$ in the case $m=N=2$. This is achieved by a careful study of solutions to the Yang-Baxter equation discovered by Fateev and Zamolodchikov in 1982.
- We give a description of the centralizer algebras for tensor powers of spin objects in the pre-modular categories $SO(N)_2$ (for $N$ odd) and $O(N)_2$ (for $N$ even) in terms of quantum $(n-1)$-tori, via non-standard deformations of $U\mathfrak{so}_N$. As a consequence we show that the corresponding braid group representations are Gaussian representations, the images of which are finite groups. This verifies special cases of a conjecture that braid group representations coming from weakly integral braided fusion categories have finite image.
- Dec 20 2013 math.QA arXiv:1312.5557v1We investigate braid group representations associated with unitary braided vector spaces, focusing on a conjecture that such representations should have virtually abelian images in general and finite image provided the braiding has finite order. We verify this conjecture for the two infinite families of Gaussian and group-type braided vector spaces, as well as the generalization to quasi-braided vector spaces of group-type.
- We prove a rank-finiteness conjecture for modular categories: up to equivalence, there are only finitely many modular categories of any fixed rank. Our technical advance is a generalization of the Cauchy theorem in group theory to the context of spherical fusion categories. For a modular category $\mathcal{C}$ with $N=ord(T)$, the order of the modular $T$-matrix, the Cauchy theorem says that the set of primes dividing the global quantum dimension $D^2$ in the Dedekind domain $\mathbb{Z}[e^{\frac{2\pi i}{N}}]$ is identical to that of $N$.
- We classify integral modular categories of dimension pq^4 and p^2q^2 where p and q are distinct primes. We show that such categories are always group-theoretical except for categories of dimension 4q^2. In these cases there are well-known examples of non-group-theoretical categories, coming from centers of Tambara-Yamagami categories and quantum groups. We show that a non-group-theoretical integral modular category of dimension 4q^2 is equivalent to either one of these well-known examples or is of dimension 36 and is twist-equivalent to fusion categories arising from a certain quantum group.
- We develop a theory of localization for braid group representations associated with objects in braided fusion categories and, more generally, to Yang-Baxter operators in monoidal categories. The essential problem is to determine when a family of braid representations can be uniformly modelled upon a tensor power of a fixed vector space in such a way that the braid group generators act "locally". Although related to the notion of (quasi-)fiber functors for fusion categories, remarkably, such localizations can exist for representations associated with objects of non-integral dimension. We conjecture that such localizations exist precisely when the object in question has dimension the square-root of an integer and prove several key special cases of the conjecture.
- Dec 06 2010 math.QA arXiv:1012.0814v2It is a well-known result of Etingof, Nikshych and Ostrik that there are finitely many inequivalent integral modular categories of any fixed rank $n$. This follows from a double-exponential bound on the maximal denominator in an Egyptian fraction representation of 1. A naïve computer search approach to the classification of rank $n$ integral modular categories using this bound quickly overwhelms the computer's memory (for $n\geq 7$). We use a modified strategy: find general conditions on modular categories that imply integrality and study the classification problem in these limited settings. The first such condition is that the order of the twist matrix is 2,3,4 or 6 and we obtain a fairly complete description of these classes of modular categories. The second condition is that the unit object is the only simple non-self-dual object, which is equivalent to odd-dimensionality. In this case we obtain a (linear) improvement on the bounds and employ number-theoretic techniques to obtain a classification for rank at most 11 for odd-dimensional modular categories.
- Governed by locality, we explore a connection between unitary braid group representations associated to a unitary $R$-matrix and to a simple object in a unitary braided fusion category. Unitary $R$-matrices, namely unitary solutions to the Yang-Baxter equation, afford explicitly local unitary representations of braid groups. Inspired by topological quantum computation, we study whether or not it is possible to reassemble the irreducible summands appearing in the unitary braid group representations from a unitary braided fusion category with possibly different positive multiplicities to get representations that are uniformly equivalent to the ones from a unitary R-matrix. Such an equivalence will be called a localization of the unitary braid group representations. We show that the q=exp(\pi i/6) specialization of the unitary Jones representation of the braid groups can be localized by a unitary $9\times 9$ R-matrix. Actually this Jones representation is the first one in a family of theories (SO(N),2) for an odd prime N>1, which are conjectured to be localizable. We formulate several general conjectures and discuss possible connections to physics and computer science.
- We show that the braid group representations associated with the $(3,6)$-quotients of the Hecke algebras factor over a finite group. This was known to experts going back to the 1980s, but a proof has never appeared in print. Our proof uses an unpublished quaternionic representation of the braid group due to Goldschmidt and Jones. Possible topological and categorical generalizations are discussed.
- Apr 26 2010 math.QA arXiv:1004.4133v1We study the problem of determining if the braid group representations obtained from quantum groups of types $E, F$ and $G$ at roots of unity have infinite image or not. In particular we show that when the fusion categories associated with these quantum groups are not weakly integral, the braid group images are infinite. This provides further evidence for a recent conjecture that weak integrality is necessary and sufficient for the braid group representations associated with any braided fusion category to have finite image.
- Jul 07 2009 math.QA arXiv:0907.1051v2We develop a symbolic computational approach to classifying low-rank modular categories. We use this technique to classify pseudo-unitary modular categories of rank at most 5 that are non-self-dual, i.e. those for which some object is not isomorphic to its dual object.
- We introduce a finiteness property for braided fusion categories, describe a conjecture that would characterize categories possessing this, and verify the conjecture in a number of important cases. In particular we say a category has F if the associated braid group representations factor over a finite group, and suggest that categories of integral Frobenius-Perron dimension are precisely those with property F.
- We study the problem of deciding whether or not the image of an irreducible representation of the braid group $\B_3$ of degree $\leq 5$ has finite image if we are only given the eigenvalues of a generator. We provide a partial algorithm that determines when the images are finite or infinite in all but finitely many cases, and use these results to study examples coming from quantum groups. Our technique uses two classification theorems and the computational group theory package GAP.
- May 29 2008 math.GR arXiv:0805.4222v1We characterize unitary representations of braid groups $B_n$ of degree linear in $n$ and finite images of such representations of degree exponential in $n$.
- We present two paradigms relating algebraic, topological and quantum computational statistics for the topological model for quantum computation. In particular we suggest correspondences between the computational power of topological quantum computers, computational complexity of link invariants and images of braid group representations. While at least parts of these paradigms are well-known to experts, we provide supporting evidence for them in terms of recent results. We give a fairly comprehensive list of known examples and formulate two conjectures that would further support the paradigms.
- We classify all unitary modular tensor categories (UMTCs) of rank $\leq 4$. There are a total of 70 UMTCs of rank $\leq 4$ (Note that some authors would have counted as 35 MTCs.) In our convention there are two trivial unitary MTCs distinguished by the modular $S$ matrix $S=(\pm1)$. Each such UMTC can be obtained from 10 non-trivial prime UMTCs by direct product, and some symmetry operations. UMTCs encode topological properties of anyonic quantum systems and can be used to build fault-tolerant quantum computers. We conjecture that there are only finitely many equivalence classes of MTCs for any given rank, and a UMTC is universal for anyonic quantum computation if and only if its global quantum dimension $D^2$ is \emphnot an integer. Discovery of non-abelain anyons in Nature will be a landmark in condensed matter physics. The non-abelian anyons in UMTCs of rank $\leq 4$ are the simplest, and, therefore, are most likely to be found. G. Moore and N. Read proposed that non-abelian statistics could occur in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) liquids. The Read-Rezayi conjecture predicts the existence of anyons related to $SU(2)_k$ in FQH liquids at filling fractions $\nu=2+\frac{k}{k+2}$ for $k=1,2,3$. For $\nu={5/2}$ and $SU(2)_2$, there is a numerical proof and experimental evidence for this conjecture. The Ising anyons might exist in chiral superconductors (strontium ruthenate). There are theoretical designs for the toric code MTC using Josephson junction array, for the $Fib\times Fib$ MTC using optical lattice, and for the $SU(2)_k$ using cold trapped bosonic atoms.
- It has been conjectured that every $(2+1)$-TQFT is a Chern-Simons-Witten (CSW) theory labelled by a pair $(G,\lambda)$, where $G$ is a compact Lie group, and $\lambda \in H^4(BG;Z)$ a cohomology class. We study two TQFTs constructed from Jones' subfactor theory which are believed to be counterexamples to this conjecture: one is the quantum double of the even sectors of the $E_6$ subfactor, and the other is the quantum double of the even sectors of the Haagerup subfactor. We cannot prove mathematically that the two TQFTs are indeed counterexamples because CSW TQFTs, while physically defined, are not yet mathematically constructed for every pair $(G,\lambda)$. The cases that are constructed mathematically include: 1. $G$ is a finite group--the Dijkgraaf-Witten TQFTs; 2. $G$ is torus $T^n$; 3. $G$ is a connected semi-simple Lie group--the Reshetikhin-Turaev TQFTs. We prove that the two TQFTs are not among those mathematically constructed TQFTs or their direct products. Both TQFTs are of the Turaev-Viro type: quantum doubles of spherical tensor categories. We further prove that neither TQFT is a quantum double of a braided fusion category, and give evidence that neither is an orbifold or coset of TQFTs above. Moreover, representation of the braid groups from the half $E_6$ TQFT can be used to build universal topological quantum computers, and the same is expected for the Haagerup case.
- Oct 09 2007 math.QA arXiv:0710.1621v3We study the unitarizability of premodular categories constructed from representations of quantum group at roots of unity. We introduce \emphGrothendieck unitarizability as a natural generalization of unitarizability to any class of premodular categories with a common Grothendieck semiring. We obtain new results for quantum groups of Lie types $F_4$ and $G_2$, and improve the known results for Lie types $B$ and $C$.
- In this paper we describe connections among extraspecial 2-groups, unitary representations of the braid group and multi-qubit braiding quantum gates. We first construct new representations of extraspecial 2-groups. Extending the latter by the symmetric group, we construct new unitary braid representations, which are solutions to generalized Yang-Baxter equations and use them to realize new braiding quantum gates. These gates generate the GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) states, for an arbitrary (particularly an \emphodd) number of qubits, from the product basis. We also discuss the Yang-Baxterization of the new braid group representations, which describes unitary evolution of the GHZ states. Our study suggests that through their connection with braiding gates, extraspecial 2-groups and the GHZ states may play an important role in quantum error correction and topological quantum computing.
- We investigate the braid group representations arising from categories of representations of twisted quantum doubles of finite groups. For these categories, we show that the resulting braid group representations always factor through finite groups, in contrast to the categories associated with quantum groups at roots of unity. We also show that in the case of p-groups, the corresponding pure braid group representations factor through a finite p-group, which answers a question asked of the first author by V. Drinfeld.
- May 17 2006 math.QA arXiv:math/0605455v1We establish isomorphisms between certain specializations of Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras and the symmetric squares of Temperley-Lieb algebras. These isomorphisms imply a link-polynomial identity due to W. B. R. Lickorish. As an application, we compute the closed images of the irreducible braid group representations factoring over these specialized BMW algebras.
- We derive generating functions for the ranks of pre-modular categories associated to quantum groups at roots of unity.
- We consider the classification problem for compact Lie groups $G\subset U(n)$ which are generated by a single conjugacy class with a fixed number $N$ of distinct eigenvalues. We give an explicit classification when N=3, and apply this to extract information about Galois representations and braid group representations.
- We investigate a family of (reducible) representations of Artin's braid groups corresponding to a specific solution to the Yang-Baxter equation. The images of the braid groups under these representations are finite groups, and we identify them precisely as extensions of extra-special 2-groups. The decompositions of the representations into their irreducible constituents are determined, which allows us to relate them to the well-known Jones representations of the braid groups factoring over Temperley-Lieb algebras and the corresponding link invariants.
- Modular tensor categories are generalizations of the representation categories of quantum groups at roots of unity axiomatizing the properties necessary to produce 3-dimensional TQFTs. Although other constructions have since been found, quantum groups remain the most prolific source. Recently proposed applications to quantum computing have provided an impetus to understand and describe these examples as explicitly as possible, especially those that are "physically feasible." We survey the current status of the problem of producing unitary modular tensor categories from quantum groups, emphasizing explicit computations.
- We consider the problem of decomposing tensor powers of the fundamental level 1 highest weight representation $V$ of the affine Kac-Moody algebra $\g(E_9)$. We describe an elementary algorithm for determining the decomposition of the submodule of $\Vn$ whose irreducible direct summands have highest weights which are maximal with respect to the null-root. This decomposition is based on Littelmann's path algorithm and conforms with the uniform combinatorial behavior recently discovered by H. Wenzl for the series $E_N$, $N\not=9$.
- We consider two families of categories. The first is the family of semisimple quotients of H. Andersen's tilting module categories for quantum groups of Lie type $B$ specialized at odd roots of unity. The second consists of categories constructed from a particular family of finite-dimensional quotients of the group algebra of Artin's braid group known as $BMW$-algebras of type $BC$. Our main result is to show that these families coincide as braided tensor categories using a recent theorem of Tuba and Wenzl. The morphism spaces in these categories can be equipped with a Hermitian form, and we are able to show that these categories are never unitary, and no braided tensor category sharing the Grothendieck semiring common to these families is unitarizable.