results for au:Roetteler_M in:quant-ph

- Recent developments in quantum hardware indicate that systems featuring more than 50 physical qubits are within reach. At this scale, classical simulation will no longer be feasible and there is a possibility that such quantum devices may outperform even classical supercomputers at certain tasks. With the rapid growth of qubit numbers and coherence times comes the increasingly difficult challenge of quantum program compilation. This entails the translation of a high-level description of a quantum algorithm to hardware-specific low-level operations which can be carried out by the quantum device. Some parts of the calculation may still be performed manually due to the lack of efficient methods. This, in turn, may lead to a design gap, which will prevent the programming of a quantum computer. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in fully-automatic quantum compilation. We motivate directions for future research to tackle these challenges. Yet, with the algorithms and approaches that exist today, we demonstrate how to automatically perform the quantum programming flow from algorithm to a physical quantum computer for a simple algorithmic benchmark, namely the hidden shift problem. We present and use two tool flows which invoke RevKit. One which is based on ProjectQ and which targets the IBM Quantum Experience or a local simulator, and one which is based on Microsoft's quantum programming language Q$\#$.
- Quantum computing exploits quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to realize a form of parallelism that is not available to traditional computing. It offers the potential of significant computational speed-ups in quantum chemistry, materials science, cryptography, and machine learning. The dominant approach to programming quantum computers is to provide an existing high-level language with libraries that allow for the expression of quantum programs. This approach can permit computations that are meaningless in a quantum context; prohibits succinct expression of interaction between classical and quantum logic; and does not provide important constructs that are required for quantum programming. We present Q#, a quantum-focused domain-specific language explicitly designed to correctly, clearly and completely express quantum algorithms. Q# provides a type system, a tightly constrained environment to safely interleave classical and quantum computations; specialized syntax, symbolic code manipulation to automatically generate correct transformations of quantum operations, and powerful functional constructs which aid composition.
- We give precise quantum resource estimates for Shor's algorithm to compute discrete logarithms on elliptic curves over prime fields. The estimates are derived from a simulation of a Toffoli gate network for controlled elliptic curve point addition, implemented within the framework of the quantum computing software tool suite LIQ$Ui|\rangle$. We determine circuit implementations for reversible modular arithmetic, including modular addition, multiplication and inversion, as well as reversible elliptic curve point addition. We conclude that elliptic curve discrete logarithms on an elliptic curve defined over an $n$-bit prime field can be computed on a quantum computer with at most $9n + 2\lceil\log_2(n)\rceil+10$ qubits using a quantum circuit of at most $448 n^3 \log_2(n) + 4090 n^3$ Toffoli gates. We are able to classically simulate the Toffoli networks corresponding to the controlled elliptic curve point addition as the core piece of Shor's algorithm for the NIST standard curves P-192, P-224, P-256, P-384 and P-521. Our approach allows gate-level comparisons to recent resource estimates for Shor's factoring algorithm. The results also support estimates given earlier by Proos and Zalka and indicate that, for current parameters at comparable classical security levels, the number of qubits required to tackle elliptic curves is less than for attacking RSA, suggesting that indeed ECC is an easier target than RSA.
- Integer arithmetic is the underpinning of many quantum algorithms, with applications ranging from Shor's algorithm over HHL for matrix inversion to Hamiltonian simulation algorithms. A basic objective is to keep the required resources to implement arithmetic as low as possible. This applies in particular to the number of qubits required in the implementation as for the foreseeable future this number is expected to be small. We present a reversible circuit for integer multiplication that is inspired by Karatsuba's recursive method. The main improvement over circuits that have been previously reported in the literature is an asymptotic reduction of the amount of space required from $O(n^{1.585})$ to $O(n^{1.427})$. This improvement is obtained in exchange for a small constant increase in the number of operations by a factor less than $2$ and a small asymptotic increase in depth for the parallel version. The asymptotic improvement are obtained from analyzing pebble games on complete ternary trees.
- We present a synthesis framework to map logic networks into quantum circuits for quantum computing. The synthesis framework is based on LUT networks (lookup-table networks), which play a key role in conventional logic synthesis. Establishing a connection between LUTs in a LUT network and reversible single-target gates in a reversible network allows us to bridge conventional logic synthesis with logic synthesis for quantum computing, despite several fundamental differences. We call our synthesis framework LUT-based Hierarchical Reversible Logic Synthesis (LHRS). Input to LHRS is a classical logic network; output is a quantum network (realized in terms of Clifford+$T$ gates). The framework offers to trade-off the number of qubits for the number of quantum gates. In a first step, an initial network is derived that only consists of single-target gates and already completely determines the number of qubits in the final quantum network. Different methods are then used to map each single-target gate into Clifford+$T$ gates, while aiming at optimally using available resources. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in automatically synthesizing IEEE compliant floating point networks up to double precision. As many quantum algorithms target scientific simulation applications, they can make rich use of floating point arithmetic components. But due to the lack of quantum circuit descriptions for those components, it can be difficult to find a realistic cost estimation for the algorithms. Our synthesized benchmarks provide cost estimates that allow quantum algorithm designers to provide the first complete cost estimates for a host of quantum algorithms. Thus, the benchmarks and, more generally, the LHRS framework are an essential step towards the goal of understanding which quantum algorithms will be practical in the first generations of quantum computers.
- In this paper we improve the layered implementation of arbitrary stabilizer circuits introduced by Aaronson and Gottesman in Phys. Rev. A 70(052328), 2004: to implement a general stabilizer circuit, we reduce their 11-stage computation -H-C-P-C-P-C-H-P-C-P-C- over the gate set consisting of Hadamard, Controlled-NOT, and Phase gates, into a 7-stage computation of the form -C-CZ-P-H-P-CZ-C-. We show arguments in support of using -CZ- stages over the -C- stages: not only the use of -CZ- stages allows a shorter layered expression, but -CZ- stages are simpler and appear to be easier to implement compared to the -C- stages. Based on this decomposition, we develop a two-qubit gate depth-$(14n{-}4)$ implementation of stabilizer circuits over the gate library H, P, CNOT, executable in the LNN architecture, improving best previously known depth-$25n$ circuit, also executable in the LNN architecture. Our constructions rely on Bruhat decomposition of the symplectic group and on folding arbitrarily long sequences of the form $($-P-C-$)^m$ into a 3-stage computation -P-CZ-C-. Our results include the reduction of the $11$-stage decomposition -H-C-P-C-P-C-H-P-C-P-C- into a $9$-stage decomposition of the form -C-P-C-P-H-C-P-C-P-. This reduction is based on the Bruhat decomposition of the symplectic group. This result also implies a new normal form for stabilizer circuits. We show that a circuit in this normal form is optimal in the number of Hadamard gates used. We also show that the normal form has an asymptotically optimal number of parameters.
- We run a selection of algorithms on two state-of-the-art 5-qubit quantum computers that are based on different technology platforms. One is a publicly accessible superconducting transmon device with limited connectivity, and the other is a fully connected trapped-ion system. Even though the two systems have different native quantum interactions, both can be programmed in a way that is blind to the underlying hardware, thus allowing the first comparison of identical quantum algorithms between different physical systems. We show that quantum algorithms and circuits that employ more connectivity clearly benefit from a better connected system of qubits. While the quantum systems here are not yet large enough to eclipse classical computers, this experiment exposes critical factors of scaling quantum computers, such as qubit connectivity and gate expressivity. In addition, the results suggest that co-designing particular quantum applications with the hardware itself will be paramount in successfully using quantum computers in the future.
- A major hurdle to the deployment of quantum linear systems algorithms and recent quantum simulation algorithms lies in the difficulty to find inexpensive reversible circuits for arithmetic using existing hand coded methods. Motivated by recent advances in reversible logic synthesis, we synthesize arithmetic circuits using classical design automation flows and tools. The combination of classical and reversible logic synthesis enables the automatic design of large components in reversible logic starting from well-known hardware description languages such as Verilog. As a prototype example for our approach we automatically generate high quality networks for the reciprocal $1/x$, which is necessary for quantum linear systems algorithms.
- We describe an implementation of Shor's quantum algorithm to factor n-bit integers using only 2n+2 qubits. In contrast to previous space-optimized implementations, ours features a purely Toffoli based modular multiplication circuit. The circuit depth and the overall gate count are in O(n^3) and O(n^3 log(n)), respectively. We thus achieve the same space and time costs as Takahashi et al., while using a purely classical modular multiplication circuit. As a consequence, our approach evades most of the cost overheads originating from rotation synthesis and enables testing and localization of faults in both, the logical level circuit and an actual quantum hardware implementation. Our new (in-place) constant-adder, which is used to construct the modular multiplication circuit, uses only dirty ancilla qubits and features a circuit size and depth in O(n log(n)) and O(n), respectively.
- Difference sets are basic combinatorial structures that have applications in signal processing, coding theory, and cryptography. We consider the problem of identifying a shifted version of the characteristic function of a (known) difference set. We present a generic quantum algorithm that can be used to tackle any hidden shift problem for any difference set in any abelian group. We discuss special cases of this framework where the resulting quantum algorithm is efficient. This includes: a) Paley difference sets based on quadratic residues in finite fields, which allows to recover the shifted Legendre function quantum algorithm, b) Hadamard difference sets, which allows to recover the shifted bent function quantum algorithm, and c) Singer difference sets based on finite geometries. The latter class allows us to define instances of the dihedral hidden subgroup problem that can be efficiently solved on a quantum computer.
- We determine the cost of performing Shor's algorithm for integer factorization on a ternary quantum computer, using two natural models of universal fault-tolerant computing: (i) a model based on magic state distillation that assumes the availability of the ternary Clifford gates, projective measurements, classical control as its natural instrumentation set; (ii) a model based on a metaplectic topological quantum computer (MTQC). A natural choice to implement Shor's algorithm on a ternary quantum computer is to translate the entire arithmetic into a ternary form. However, it is also possible to emulate the standard binary version of the algorithm by encoding each qubit in a three-level system. We compare the two approaches and analyze the complexity of implementing Shor's period finding function in the two models. We also highlight the fact that the cost of achieving universality through magic states in MTQC architecture is asymptotically lower than in generic ternary case.
- The generation of reversible circuits from high-level code is in important problem in several application domains, including low-power electronics and quantum computing. Existing tools compile and optimize reversible circuits for various metrics, such as the overall circuit size or the total amount of space required to implement a given function reversibly. However, little effort has been spent on verifying the correctness of the results, an issue of particular importance in quantum computing. There, compilation allows not only mapping to hardware, but also the estimation of resources required to implement a given quantum algorithm. This resource determination is crucial for identifying which algorithms will outperform their classical counterparts. We present a reversible circuit compiler called ReVer, which has been formally verified in F* and compiles circuits that operate correctly with respect to the input program. Our compiler compiles the Revs language to combinational reversible circuits with as few ancillary bits as possible, and provably cleans temporary values.
- We present quantum circuits to implement an exhaustive key search for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and analyze the quantum resources required to carry out such an attack. We consider the overall circuit size, the number of qubits, and the circuit depth as measures for the cost of the presented quantum algorithms. Throughout, we focus on Clifford$+T$ gates as the underlying fault-tolerant logical quantum gate set. In particular, for all three variants of AES (key size 128, 192, and 256 bit) that are standardized in FIPS-PUB 197, we establish precise bounds for the number of qubits and the number of elementary logical quantum gates that are needed to implement Grover's quantum algorithm to extract the key from a small number of AES plaintext-ciphertext pairs.
- Qutrit (or ternary) structures arise naturally in many quantum systems, particularly in certain non-abelian anyon systems. We present efficient circuits for ternary reversible and quantum arithmetics. Our main result is the derivation of circuits for two families of ternary quantum adders, namely ripple carry adders and carry look-ahead adders. The main difference to the binary case is the more complicated form of the ternary carry, which leads to higher resource counts for implementations over a universal ternary gate set. Our ternary ripple adder circuit has a circuit depth of $O(n)$ and uses only $1$ ancilla, making it more efficient in both, circuit depth and width than previous constructions. Our ternary carry lookahead circuit has a circuit depth of only $O(\log\,n)$, while using with $O(n)$ ancillas. Our approach works on two levels of abstraction: at the first level, descriptions of arithmetic circuits are given in terms of gates sequences that use various types of non-Clifford reflections. At the second level, we break down these reflections further by deriving them either from the two-qutrit Clifford gates and the non-Clifford gate $C(X): |i,j\rangle \mapsto |i, j + \delta_{i,2} \mod 3\rangle$ or from the two-qutrit Clifford gates and the non-Clifford gate $P_9=\mbox{diag}(e^{-2 \pi \, i/9},1,e^{2 \pi \, i/9})$. The two choices of elementary gate sets correspond to two possible mappings onto two different prospective quantum computing architectures which we call the metaplectic and the supermetaplectic basis, respectively. Finally, we develop a method to factor diagonal unitaries using multi-variate polynomial over the ternary finite field which allows to characterize classes of gates that can be implemented exactly over the supermetaplectic basis.
- Oct 15 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.03888v1We present an algorithm for efficiently approximating of qubit unitaries over gate sets derived from totally definite quaternion algebras. It achieves $\varepsilon$-approximations using circuits of length $O(\log(1/\varepsilon))$, which is asymptotically optimal. The algorithm achieves the same quality of approximation as previously-known algorithms for Clifford+T [arXiv:1212.6253], V-basis [arXiv:1303.1411] and Clifford+$\pi/12$ [arXiv:1409.3552], running on average in time polynomial in $O(\log(1/\varepsilon))$ (conditional on a number-theoretic conjecture). Ours is the first such algorithm that works for a wide range of gate sets and provides insight into what should constitute a "good" gate set for a fault-tolerant quantum computer.
- We develop a framework for resource efficient compilation of higher-level programs into lower-level reversible circuits. Our main focus is on optimizing the memory footprint of the resulting reversible networks. This is motivated by the limited availability of qubits for the foreseeable future. We apply three main techniques to keep the number of required qubits small when computing classical, irreversible computations by means of reversible networks: first, wherever possible we allow the compiler to make use of in-place functions to modify some of the variables. Second, an intermediate representation is introduced that allows to trace data dependencies within the program, allowing to clean up qubits early. This realizes an analog to "garbage collection" for reversible circuits. Third, we use the concept of so-called pebble games to transform irreversible programs into reversible programs under space constraints, allowing for data to be erased and recomputed if needed. We introduce REVS, a compiler for reversible circuits that can translate a subset of the functional programming language F# into Toffoli networks which can then be further interpreted for instance in LIQui|>, a domain-specific language for quantum computing and which is also embedded into F#. We discuss a number of test cases that illustrate the advantages of our approach including reversible implementations of SHA-2 and other cryptographic hash-functions, reversible integer arithmetic, as well as a test-bench of combinational circuits used in classical circuit synthesis. Compared to Bennett's method, REVS can reduce space complexity by a factor of $4$ or more, while having an only moderate increase in circuit size as well as in the time it takes to compile the reversible networks.
- We address the task of switching off the Hamiltonian of a system by removing all internal and system-environment couplings. We propose dynamical decoupling schemes, that use only bounded-strength controls, for quantum many-body systems with local system Hamiltonians and local environmental couplings. To do so, we introduce the combinatorial concept of balanced-cycle orthogonal arrays (BOAs) and show how to construct them from classical error-correcting codes. The derived decoupling schemes may be useful as a primitive for more complex schemes, e.g., for Hamiltonian simulation. For the case of $n$ qubits and a $2$-local Hamiltonian, the length of the resulting decoupling scheme scales as $O(n \log n)$, improving over the previously best-known schemes that scaled quadratically with $n$. More generally, using balanced-cycle orthogonal arrays constructed from families of BCH codes, we show that bounded-strength decoupling for any $\ell$-local Hamiltonian, where $\ell \geq 2$, can be achieved using decoupling schemes of length at most $O(n^{\ell-1} \log n)$.
- We consider quantum MDS (QMDS) codes for quantum systems of dimension $q$ with lengths up to $q^2+2$ and minimum distances up to $q+1$. We show how starting from QMDS codes of length $q^2+1$ based on cyclic and constacyclic codes, new QMDS codes can be obtained by shortening. We provide numerical evidence for our conjecture that almost all admissible lengths, from a lower bound $n_0(q,d)$ on, are achievable by shortening. Some additional codes that fill gaps in the list of achievable lengths are presented as well along with a construction of a family of QMDS codes of length $q^2+2$, where $q=2^m$, that appears to be new.
- Recently it has been shown that Repeat-Until-Success (RUS) circuits can approximate a given single-qubit unitary with an expected number of $T$ gates of about $1/3$ of what is required by optimal, deterministic, ancilla-free decompositions over the Clifford+$T$ gate set. In this work, we introduce a more general and conceptually simpler circuit decomposition method that allows for synthesis into protocols that probabilistically implement quantum circuits over several universal gate sets including, but not restricted to, the Clifford+$T$ gate set. The protocol, which we call Probabilistic Quantum Circuits with Fallback (PQF), implements a walk on a discrete Markov chain in which the target unitary is an absorbing state and in which transitions are induced by multi-qubit unitaries followed by measurements. In contrast to RUS protocols, the presented PQF protocols terminate after a finite number of steps. Specifically, we apply our method to the Clifford+$T$, Clifford+$V$, and Clifford+$\pi/12$ gate sets to achieve decompositions with expected gate counts of $\log_b(1/\varepsilon)+O(\log(\log(1/\varepsilon)))$, where $b$ is a quantity related to the expansion property of the underlying universal gate set.
- Jun 10 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1406.2040v2We develop a method for approximate synthesis of single--qubit rotations of the form $e^{-i f(\phi_1,\ldots,\phi_k)X}$ that is based on the Repeat-Until-Success (RUS) framework for quantum circuit synthesis. We demonstrate how smooth computable functions $f$ can be synthesized from two basic primitives. This synthesis approach constitutes a manifestly quantum form of arithmetic that differs greatly from the approaches commonly used in quantum algorithms. The key advantage of our approach is that it requires far fewer qubits than existing approaches: as a case in point, we show that using as few as $3$ ancilla qubits, one can obtain RUS circuits for approximate multiplication and reciprocals. We also analyze the costs of performing multiplication and inversion on a quantum computer using conventional approaches and find that they can require too many qubits to execute on a small quantum computer, unlike our approach.
- Apr 23 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1404.5320v2Recently, it was shown that Repeat-Until-Success (RUS) circuits can achieve a $2.5$ times reduction in expected $T$-count over ancilla-free techniques for single-qubit unitary decomposition. However, the previously best known algorithm to synthesize RUS circuits requires exponential classical runtime. In this paper we present an algorithm to synthesize an RUS circuit to approximate any given single-qubit unitary within precision $\varepsilon$ in probabilistically polynomial classical runtime. Our synthesis approach uses the Clifford+$T$ basis, plus one ancilla qubit and measurement. We provide numerical evidence that our RUS circuits have an expected $T$-count on average $2.5$ times lower than the theoretical lower bound of $3 \log_2 (1/\varepsilon)$ for ancilla-free single-qubit circuit decomposition.
- Network coding is a technique to maximize communication rates within a network, in communication protocols for simultaneous multi-party transmission of information. Linear network codes are examples of such protocols in which the local computations performed at the nodes in the network are limited to linear transformations of their input data (represented as elements of a ring, such as the integers modulo 2). The quantum linear network coding protocols of Kobayashi et al [arXiv:0908.1457 and arXiv:1012.4583] coherently simulate classical linear network codes, using supplemental classical communication. We demonstrate that these protocols correspond in a natural way to measurement-based quantum computations with graph states over over qudits [arXiv:quant-ph/0301052, arXiv:quant-ph/0603226, and arXiv:0704.1263] having a structure directly related to the network.
- In a basic related-key attack against a block cipher, the adversary has access to encryptions under keys that differ from the target key by bit-flips. In this short note we show that for a quantum adversary such attacks are quite powerful: if the secret key is (i) uniquely determined by a small number of plaintext-ciphertext pairs, (ii) the block cipher can be evaluated efficiently, and (iii) a superposition of related keys can be queried, then the key can be extracted efficiently.
- Improving over an earlier construction by Kaye and Zalka, Maslov et al. describe an implementation of Shor's algorithm which can solve the discrete logarithm problem on binary elliptic curves in quadratic depth O(n^2). In this paper we show that discrete logarithms on such curves can be found with a quantum circuit of depth O(log^2 n). As technical tools we introduce quantum circuits for GF(2^n) multiplication in depth O(log n) and for GF(2^n) inversion in depth O(log^2 n).
- Jun 05 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.0719v5We assess the resources needed to identify a reversible quantum gate among a finite set of alternatives, including in our analysis both deterministic and probabilistic strategies. Among the probabilistic strategies we consider unambiguous gate discrimination, where errors are not tolerated but inconclusive outcomes are allowed, and we prove that parallel strategies are sufficient to unambiguously identify the unknown gate with minimum number of queries. This result is used to provide upper and lower bounds on the query complexity and on the minimum ancilla dimension. In addition, we introduce the notion of generalized t-designs, which includes unitary t-designs and group representations as special cases. For gates forming a generalized t-design we give an explicit expression for the maximum probability of correct gate identification and we prove that there is no gap between the performances of deterministic strategies an those of probabilistic strategies. Hence, evaluating of the query complexity of perfect deterministic discrimination is reduced to the easier problem of evaluating the query complexity of unambiguous discrimination. Finally, we consider discrimination strategies where the use of ancillas is forbidden, providing upper bounds on the number of additional queries needed to make up for the lack of entanglement with the ancillas.
- We study the quantum query complexity of the Boolean hidden shift problem. Given oracle access to f(x+s) for a known Boolean function f, the task is to determine the n-bit string s. The quantum query complexity of this problem depends strongly on f. We demonstrate that the easiest instances of this problem correspond to bent functions, in the sense that an exact one-query algorithm exists if and only if the function is bent. We partially characterize the hardest instances, which include delta functions. Moreover, we show that the problem is easy for random functions, since two queries suffice. Our algorithm for random functions is based on performing the pretty good measurement on several copies of a certain state; its analysis relies on the Fourier transform. We also use this approach to improve the quantum rejection sampling approach to the Boolean hidden shift problem.
- Fault-tolerant quantum computation is a technique that is necessary to build a scalable quantum computer from noisy physical building blocks. Key for the implementation of fault-tolerant computations is the ability to perform a universal set of quantum gates that act on the code space of an underlying quantum code. To implement such a universal gate set fault-tolerantly is an expensive task in terms of physical operations, and any possible shortcut to save operations is potentially beneficial and might lead to a reduction in overhead for fault-tolerant computations. We show how the automorphism group of a quantum code can be used to implement some operators on the encoded quantum states in a fault-tolerant way by merely permuting the physical qubits. We derive conditions that a code has to satisfy in order to have a large group of operations that can be implemented transversally when combining transversal CNOT with automorphisms. We give several examples for quantum codes with large groups, including codes with parameters [[8,3,3]], [[15,7,3]], [[22,8,4]], and [[31,11,5]].
- Elliptic curves over finite fields GF(2^n) play a prominent role in modern cryptography. Published quantum algorithms dealing with such curves build on a short Weierstrass form in combination with affine or projective coordinates. In this paper we show that changing the curve representation allows a substantial reduction in the number of T-gates needed to implement the curve arithmetic. As a tool, we present a quantum circuit for computing multiplicative inverses in GF(2^n) in depth O(n log n) using a polynomial basis representation, which may be of independent interest.
- Finite fields of the form GF(2^m) play an important role in coding theory and cryptography. We show that the choice of how to represent the elements of these fields can have a significant impact on the resource requirements for quantum arithmetic. In particular, we show how the use of Gaussian normal basis representations and of `ghost-bit basis' representations can be used to implement inverters with a quantum circuit of depth O(m log(m)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction with subquadratic depth reported in the literature. Our quantum circuit for the computation of multiplicative inverses is based on the Itoh-Tsujii algorithm which exploits that in normal basis representation squaring corresponds to a permutation of the coefficients. We give resource estimates for the resulting quantum circuit for inversion over binary fields GF(2^m) based on an elementary gate set that is useful for fault-tolerant implementation.
- We present an algorithm for computing depth-optimal decompositions of logical operations, leveraging a meet-in-the-middle technique to provide a significant speed-up over simple brute force algorithms. As an illustration of our method we implemented this algorithm and found factorizations of the commonly used quantum logical operations into elementary gates in the Clifford+T set. In particular, we report a decomposition of the Toffoli gate over the set of Clifford and T gates. Our decomposition achieves a total T-depth of 3, thereby providing a 40% reduction over the previously best known decomposition for the Toffoli gate. Due to the size of the search space the algorithm is only practical for small parameters, such as the number of qubits, and the number of gates in an optimal implementation.
- The hidden shift problem is a natural place to look for new separations between classical and quantum models of computation. One advantage of this problem is its flexibility, since it can be defined for a whole range of functions and a whole range of underlying groups. In a way, this distinguishes it from the hidden subgroup problem where more stringent requirements about the existence of a periodic subgroup have to be made. And yet, the hidden shift problem proves to be rich enough to capture interesting features of problems of algebraic, geometric, and combinatorial flavor. We present a quantum algorithm to identify the hidden shift for any Boolean function. Using Fourier analysis for Boolean functions we relate the time and query complexity of the algorithm to an intrinsic property of the function, namely its minimum influence. We show that for randomly chosen functions the time complexity of the algorithm is polynomial. Based on this we show an average case exponential separation between classical and quantum time complexity. A perhaps interesting aspect of this work is that, while the extremal case of the Boolean hidden shift problem over so-called bent functions can be reduced to a hidden subgroup problem over an abelian group, the more general case studied here does not seem to allow such a reduction.
- Rejection sampling is a well-known method to sample from a target distribution, given the ability to sample from a given distribution. The method has been first formalized by von Neumann (1951) and has many applications in classical computing. We define a quantum analogue of rejection sampling: given a black box producing a coherent superposition of (possibly unknown) quantum states with some amplitudes, the problem is to prepare a coherent superposition of the same states, albeit with different target amplitudes. The main result of this paper is a tight characterization of the query complexity of this quantum state generation problem. We exhibit an algorithm, which we call quantum rejection sampling, and analyze its cost using semidefinite programming. Our proof of a matching lower bound is based on the automorphism principle which allows to symmetrize any algorithm over the automorphism group of the problem. Our main technical innovation is an extension of the automorphism principle to continuous groups that arise for quantum state generation problems where the oracle encodes unknown quantum states, instead of just classical data. Furthermore, we illustrate how quantum rejection sampling may be used as a primitive in designing quantum algorithms, by providing three different applications. We first show that it was implicitly used in the quantum algorithm for linear systems of equations by Harrow, Hassidim and Lloyd. Secondly, we show that it can be used to speed up the main step in the quantum Metropolis sampling algorithm by Temme et al.. Finally, we derive a new quantum algorithm for the hidden shift problem of an arbitrary Boolean function and relate its query complexity to "water-filling" of the Fourier spectrum.
- The k-pair problem in network coding theory asks to send k messages simultaneously between k source-target pairs over a directed acyclic graph. In a previous paper [ICALP 2009, Part I, pages 622--633] the present authors showed that if a classical k-pair problem is solvable by means of a linear coding scheme, then the quantum k-pair problem over the same graph is also solvable, provided that classical communication can be sent for free between any pair of nodes of the graph. Here we address the main case that remained open in our previous work, namely whether nonlinear classical network coding schemes can also give rise to quantum network coding schemes. This question is motivated by the fact that there are networks for which there are no linear solutions to the k-pair problem, whereas nonlinear solutions exist. In the present paper we overcome the limitation to linear protocols and describe a new communication protocol for perfect quantum network coding that improves over the previous one as follows: (i) the new protocol does not put any condition on the underlying classical coding scheme, that is, it can simulate nonlinear communication protocols as well, and (ii) the amount of classical communication sent in the protocol is significantly reduced.
- We introduce a new quantum adversary method to prove lower bounds on the query complexity of the quantum state generation problem. This problem encompasses both, the computation of partial or total functions and the preparation of target quantum states. There has been hope for quite some time that quantum state generation might be a route to tackle the \sc Graph Isomorphism problem. We show that for the related problem of \sc Index Erasure our method leads to a lower bound of $\Omega(\sqrt N)$ which matches an upper bound obtained via reduction to quantum search on $N$ elements. This closes an open problem first raised by Shi [FOCS'02]. Our approach is based on two ideas: (i) on the one hand we generalize the known additive and multiplicative adversary methods to the case of quantum state generation, (ii) on the other hand we show how the symmetries of the underlying problem can be leveraged for the design of optimal adversary matrices and dramatically simplify the computation of adversary bounds. Taken together, these two ideas give the new result for \sc Index Erasure by using the representation theory of the symmetric group. Also, the method can lead to lower bounds even for small success probability, contrary to the standard adversary method. Furthermore, we answer an open question due to Špalek [CCC'08] by showing that the multiplicative version of the adversary method is stronger than the additive one for any problem. Finally, we prove that the multiplicative bound satisfies a strong direct product theorem, extending a result by Špalek to quantum state generation problems.
- Most quantum algorithms that give an exponential speedup over classical algorithms exploit the Fourier transform in some way. In Shor's algorithm, sampling from the quantum Fourier spectrum is used to discover periodicity of the modular exponentiation function. In a generalization of this idea, quantum Fourier sampling can be used to discover hidden subgroup structures of some functions much more efficiently than it is possible classically. Another problem for which the Fourier transform has been recruited successfully on a quantum computer is the hidden shift problem. Quantum algorithms for hidden shift problems usually have a slightly different flavor from hidden subgroup algorithms, as they use the Fourier transform to perform a correlation with a given reference function, instead of sampling from the Fourier spectrum directly. In this paper we show that hidden shifts can be extracted efficiently from Boolean functions that are quadratic forms. We also show how to identify an unknown quadratic form on n variables using a linear number of queries, in contrast to the classical case were this takes Theta(n^2) many queries to a black box. What is more, we show that our quantum algorithm is robust in the sense that it can also infer the shift if the function is close to a quadratic, where we consider a Boolean function to be close to a quadratic if it has a large Gowers U_3 norm.
- This paper considers the problem of efficiently transmitting quantum states through a network. It has been known for some time that without additional assumptions it is impossible to achieve this task perfectly in general -- indeed, it is impossible even for the simple butterfly network. As additional resource we allow free classical communication between any pair of network nodes. It is shown that perfect quantum network coding is achievable in this model whenever classical network coding is possible over the same network when replacing all quantum capacities by classical capacities. More precisely, it is proved that perfect quantum network coding using free classical communication is possible over a network with $k$ source-target pairs if there exists a classical linear (or even vector linear) coding scheme over a finite ring. Our proof is constructive in that we give explicit quantum coding operations for each network node. This paper also gives an upper bound on the number of classical communication required in terms of $k$, the maximal fan-in of any network node, and the size of the network.
- This paper considers a problem of quantum communication between parties that are connected through a network of quantum channels. The model in this paper assumes that there is no prior entanglement shared among any of the parties, but that classical communication is free. The task is to perfectly transfer an unknown quantum state from a source subsystem to a target subsystem, where both source and target are formed by ordered sets of some of the nodes. It is proved that a lower bound of the rate at which this quantum communication task is possible is given by the classical min-cut max-flow theorem of network coding, where the capacities in question are the quantum capacities of the edges of the network.
- Attempts to separate the power of classical and quantum models of computation have a long history. The ultimate goal is to find exponential separations for computational problems. However, such separations do not come a dime a dozen: while there were some early successes in the form of hidden subgroup problems for abelian groups--which generalize Shor's factoring algorithm perhaps most faithfully--only for a handful of non-abelian groups efficient quantum algorithms were found. Recently, problems have gotten increased attention that seek to identify hidden sub-structures of other combinatorial and algebraic objects besides groups. In this paper we provide new examples for exponential separations by considering hidden shift problems that are defined for several classes of highly non-linear Boolean functions. These so-called bent functions arise in cryptography, where their property of having perfectly flat Fourier spectra on the Boolean hypercube gives them resilience against certain types of attack. We present new quantum algorithms that solve the hidden shift problems for several well-known classes of bent functions in polynomial time and with a constant number of queries, while the classical query complexity is shown to be exponential. Our approach uses a technique that exploits the duality between bent functions and their Fourier transforms.
- Many exponential speedups that have been achieved in quantum computing are obtained via hidden subgroup problems (HSPs). We show that the HSP over Weyl-Heisenberg groups can be solved efficiently on a quantum computer. These groups are well-known in physics and play an important role in the theory of quantum error-correcting codes. Our algorithm is based on non-commutative Fourier analysis of coset states which are quantum states that arise from a given black-box function. We use Clebsch-Gordan decompositions to combine and reduce tensor products of irreducible representations. Furthermore, we use a new technique of changing labels of irreducible representations to obtain low-dimensional irreducible representations in the decomposition process. A feature of the presented algorithm is that in each iteration of the algorithm the quantum computer operates on two coset states simultaneously. This is an improvement over the previously best known quantum algorithm for these groups which required four coset states.
- Recently, quantum error-correcting codes were proposed that capitalize on the fact that many physical error models lead to a significant asymmetry between the probabilities for bit flip and phase flip errors. An example for a channel which exhibits such asymmetry is the combined amplitude damping and dephasing channel, where the probabilities of bit flips and phase flips can be related to relaxation and dephasing time, respectively. We give systematic constructions of asymmetric quantum stabilizer codes that exploit this asymmetry. Our approach is based on a CSS construction that combines BCH and finite geometry LDPC codes.
- Jan 17 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0801.2461v1We introduce techniques to analyze unitary operations in terms of quadratic form expansions, a form similar to a sum over paths in the computational basis when the phase contributed by each path is described by a quadratic form over $\mathbb R$. We show how to relate such a form to an entangled resource akin to that of the one-way measurement model of quantum computing. Using this, we describe various conditions under which it is possible to efficiently implement a unitary operation U, either when provided a quadratic form expansion for U as input, or by finding a quadratic form expansion for U from other input data.
- We present a family of non-additive quantum codes based on Goethals and Preparata codes with parameters ((2^m,2^2^m-5m+1,8)). The dimension of these codes is eight times higher than the dimension of the best known additive quantum codes of equal length and minimum distance.
- We extend the stabilizer formalism to a class of non-additive quantum codes which are constructed from non-linear classical codes. As an example, we present infinite families of non-additive codes which are derived from Goethals and Preparata codes.
- We present a construction of self-orthogonal codes using product codes. From the resulting codes, one can construct both block quantum error-correcting codes and quantum convolutional codes. We show that from the examples of convolutional codes found, we can derive ordinary quantum error-correcting codes using tail-biting with parameters [[42N,24N,3]]_2. While it is known that the product construction cannot improve the rate in the classical case, we show that this can happen for quantum codes: we show that a code [[15,7,3]]_2 is obtained by the product of a code [[5,1,3]]_2 with a suitable code.
- We address the problems of constructing quantum convolutional codes (QCCs) and of encoding them. The first construction is a CSS-type construction which allows us to find QCCs of rate 2/4. The second construction yields a quantum convolutional code by applying a product code construction to an arbitrary classical convolutional code and an arbitrary quantum block code. We show that the resulting codes have highly structured and efficient encoders. Furthermore, we show that the resulting quantum circuits have finite depth, independent of the lengths of the input stream, and show that this depth is polynomial in the degree and frame size of the code.
- We show that any stabilizer code over a finite field is equivalent to a graphical quantum code. Furthermore we prove that a graphical quantum code over a finite field is a stabilizer code. The technique used in the proof establishes a new connection between quantum codes and quadratic forms. We provide some simple examples to illustrate our results.
- Quantum convolutional codes can be used to protect a sequence of qubits of arbitrary length against decoherence. We introduce two new families of quantum convolutional codes. Our construction is based on an algebraic method which allows to construct classical convolutional codes from block codes, in particular BCH codes. These codes have the property that they contain their Euclidean, respectively Hermitian, dual codes. Hence, they can be used to define quantum convolutional codes by the stabilizer code construction. We compute BCH-like bounds on the free distances which can be controlled as in the case of block codes, and establish that the codes have non-catastrophic encoders.
- We present an algorithm to construct quantum circuits for encoding and inverse encoding of quantum convolutional codes. We show that any quantum convolutional code contains a subcode of finite index which has a non-catastrophic encoding circuit. Our work generalizes the conditions for non-catastrophic encoders derived in a paper by Ollivier and Tillich (quant-ph/0401134) which are applicable only for a restricted class of quantum convolutional codes. We also show that the encoders and their inverses constructed by our method naturally can be applied online, i.e., qubits can be sent and received with constant delay.
- Nov 17 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0511148v1It has been known for some time that graph isomorphism reduces to the hidden subgroup problem (HSP). What is more, most exponential speedups in quantum computation are obtained by solving instances of the HSP. A common feature of the resulting algorithms is the use of quantum coset states, which encode the hidden subgroup. An open question has been how hard it is to use these states to solve graph isomorphism. It was recently shown by Moore, Russell, and Schulman that only an exponentially small amount of information is available from one, or a pair of coset states. A potential source of power to exploit are entangled quantum measurements that act jointly on many states at once. We show that entangled quantum measurements on at least \Omega(n log n) coset states are necessary to get useful information for the case of graph isomorphism, matching an information theoretic upper bound. This may be viewed as a negative result because highly entangled measurements seem hard to implement in general. Our main theorem is very general and also rules out using joint measurements on few coset states for some other groups, such as GL(n, F_p^m) and G^n where G is finite and satisfies a suitable property.
- Apr 01 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0503239v1We address the problem of constructing positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) in finite dimension $n$ consisting of $n^2$ operators of rank one which have an inner product close to uniform. This is motivated by the related question of constructing symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC-POVMs) for which the inner products are perfectly uniform. However, SIC-POVMs are notoriously hard to construct and despite some success of constructing them numerically, there is no analytic construction known. We present two constructions of approximate versions of SIC-POVMs, where a small deviation from uniformity of the inner products is allowed. The first construction is based on selecting vectors from a maximal collection of mutually unbiased bases and works whenever the dimension of the system is a prime power. The second construction is based on perturbing the matrix elements of a subset of mutually unbiased bases. Moreover, we construct vector systems in $\C^n$ which are almost orthogonal and which might turn out to be useful for quantum computation. Our constructions are based on results of analytic number theory.
- Mar 14 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0503114v1The hidden subgroup problem (HSP) provides a unified framework to study problems of group-theoretical nature in quantum computing such as order finding and the discrete logarithm problem. While it is known that Fourier sampling provides an efficient solution in the abelian case, not much is known for general non-abelian groups. Recently, some authors raised the question as to whether post-processing the Fourier spectrum by measuring in a random orthonormal basis helps for solving the HSP. Several negative results on the shortcomings of this random strong method are known. In this paper however, we show that the random strong method can be quite powerful under certain conditions on the group G. We define a parameter r(G) for a group G and show that O((\log |G| / r(G))^2) iterations of the random strong method give enough classical information to identify a hidden subgroup in G. We illustrate the power of the random strong method via a concrete example of the HSP over finite Heisenberg groups. We show that r(G) = \Omega(1) for these groups; hence the HSP can be solved using polynomially many random strong Fourier samplings followed by a possibly exponential classical post-processing without further queries. The quantum part of our algorithm consists of a polynomial computation followed by measuring in a random orthonormal basis. This gives the first example of a group where random representation bases do help in solving the HSP and for which no explicit representation bases are known that solve the problem with (\log G)^O(1) Fourier samplings. As an interesting by-product of our work, we get an algorithm for solving the state identification problem for a set of nearly orthogonal pure quantum states.
- Feb 23 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0502138v1The Mean King's problem asks to determine the outcome of a measurement that is randomly selected from a set of complementary observables. We review this problem and offer a combinatorial solution. More generally, we show that whenever an affine resolvable design exists, then a state reconstruction problem similar to the Mean King's problem can be defined and solved. As an application of this general framework we consider a problem involving three qubits in which the outcome of nine different measurements can be determined without using ancillary qubits. The solution is based on a measurement derived from Hadamard designs.
- Feb 17 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0502101v1We calculate the error threshold for the linear optics quantum computing proposal by Knill, Laflamme and Milburn [Nature 409, pp. 46--52 (2001)] under an error model where photon detectors have efficiency <100% but all other components -- such as single photon sources, beam splitters and phase shifters -- are perfect and introduce no errors. We make use of the fact that the error model induced by the lossy hardware is that of an erasure channel, i.e., the error locations are always known. Using a method based on a Markov chain description of the error correction procedure, our calculations show that, with the 7 qubit CSS quantum code, the gate error threshold for fault tolerant quantum computation is bounded below by a value between 1.78% and 11.5% depending on the construction of the entangling gates.
- Feb 07 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0502031v2Mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) are a primitive used in quantum information processing to capture the principle of complementarity. While constructions of maximal sets of d+1 such bases are known for systems of prime power dimension d, it is unknown whether this bound can be achieved for any non-prime power dimension. In this paper we demonstrate that maximal sets of MUBs come with a rich combinatorial structure by showing that they actually are the same objects as the complex projective 2-designs with angle set 0,1/d. We also give a new and simple proof that symmetric informationally complete POVMs are complex projective 2-designs with angle set 1/(d+1).
- Sep 22 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0409135v1We consider the problem of switching off unwanted interactions in a given multi-partite Hamiltonian. This is known to be an important primitive in quantum information processing and several schemes have been presented in the literature to achieve this task. A method to construct decoupling schemes for quantum systems of pairwise interacting qubits was introduced by M. Stollsteimer and G. Mahler and is based on orthogonal arrays. Another approach based on triples of Hadamard matrices that are closed under pointwise multiplication was proposed by D. Leung. In this paper, we show that both methods lead to the same class of decoupling schemes. Moreover, we establish a characterization of orthogonal arrays by showing that they are equivalent to decoupling schemes which allow a refinement into equidistant time-slots. Furthermore, we show that decoupling schemes for networks of higher-dimensional quantum systems with t-local Hamiltonians can be constructed from classical error-correcting codes.
- Aug 13 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0408078v1Decoupling the interactions in a spin network governed by a pair-interaction Hamiltonian is a well-studied problem. Combinatorial schemes for decoupling and for manipulating the couplings of Hamiltonians have been developed which use selective pulses. In this paper we consider an additional requirement on these pulse sequences: as few \em different control operations as possible should be used. This requirement is motivated by the fact that optimizing each individual selective pulse will be expensive, i. e., it is desirable to use as few different selective pulses as possible. For an arbitrary $d$-dimensional system we show that the ability to implement only two control operations is sufficient to turn off the time evolution. In case of a bipartite system with local control we show that four different control operations are sufficient. Turning to networks consisting of several $d$-dimensional nodes which are governed by a pair-interaction Hamiltonian, we show that decoupling can be achieved if one is able to control a number of different control operations which is logarithmic in the number of nodes.
- Jul 08 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0407054v1We consider group-covariant positive operator valued measures (POVMs) on a finite dimensional quantum system. Following Neumark's theorem a POVM can be implemented by an orthogonal measurement on a larger system. Accordingly, our goal is to find an implementation of a given group-covariant POVM by a quantum circuit using its symmetry. Based on representation theory of the symmetry group we develop a general approach for the implementation of group-covariant POVMs which consist of rank-one operators. The construction relies on a method to decompose matrices that intertwine two representations of a finite group. We give several examples for which the resulting quantum circuits are efficient. In particular, we obtain efficient quantum circuits for a class of POVMs generated by Weyl-Heisenberg groups. These circuits allow to implement an approximative simultaneous measurement of the position and crystal momentum of a particle moving on a cyclic chain.
- Jan 01 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0312228v1Clifford codes are a class of quantum error control codes that form a natural generalization of stabilizer codes. These codes were introduced in 1996 by Knill, but only a single Clifford code was known, which is not already a stabilizer code. We derive a necessary and sufficient condition that allows to decide when a Clifford code is a stabilizer code, and compile a table of all true Clifford codes for error groups of small order.
- Dec 22 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0312164v1We present families of quantum error-correcting codes which are optimal in the sense that the minimum distance is maximal. These maximum distance separable (MDS) codes are defined over q-dimensional quantum systems, where q is an arbitrary prime power. It is shown that codes with parameters [[n,n-2d+2,d]]_q exist for all 3 <= n <= q and 1 <= d <= n/2+1. We also present quantum MDS codes with parameters [[q^2,q^2-2d+2,d]]_q for 1 <= d <= q which additionally give rise to shortened codes [[q^2-s,q^2-2d+2-s,d]]_q for some s.
- Sep 16 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0309120v1Two orthonormal bases B and B' of a d-dimensional complex inner-product space are called mutually unbiased if and only if |<b|b'>|^2=1/d holds for all b in B and b' in B'. The size of any set containing (pairwise) mutually unbiased bases of C^d cannot exceed d+1. If d is a power of a prime, then extremal sets containing d+1 mutually unbiased bases are known to exist. We give a simplified proof of this fact based on the estimation of exponential sums. We discuss conjectures and open problems concerning the maximal number of mutually unbiased bases for arbitrary dimensions.
- Sep 16 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0309121v2The design of efficient quantum circuits is an important issue in quantum computing. It is in general a formidable task to find a highly optimized quantum circuit for a given unitary matrix. We propose a quantum circuit design method that has the following unique feature: It allows to construct efficient quantum circuits in a systematic way by reusing and combining a set of highly optimized quantum circuits. Specifically, the method realizes a quantum circuit for a given unitary matrix by implementing a linear combination of representing matrices of a group, which have known fast quantum circuits. We motivate and illustrate this method by deriving extremely efficient quantum circuits for the discrete Hartley transform and for the fractional Fourier transforms. The sound mathematical basis of this design method allows to give meaningful and natural interpretations of the resulting circuits. We demonstrate this aspect by giving a natural interpretation of known teleportation circuits.
- Mar 17 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0303091v2This is a comment on two wrong Phys. Rev. Letters papers by C.A. Trugenberger. Trugenberger claimed that quantum registers could be used as exponentially large "associative" memories. We show that his scheme is no better than one where the quantum register is replaced with a classical one of equal size. We also point out that the Holevo bound and more recent bounds on "quantum random access codes" pretty much rule out powerful memories (for classical information) based on quantum states.
- Jan 17 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0301078v1Unitary error bases generalize the Pauli matrices to higher dimensional systems. Two basic constructions of unitary error bases are known: An algebraic construction by Knill, which yields nice error bases, and a combinatorial construction by Werner, which yields shift-and-multiply bases. An open problem posed by Schlingemann and Werner (see http://www.imaph.tu-bs.de/qi/problems/6.html) relates these two constructions and asks whether each nice error basis is equivalent to a shift-and-multiply basis. We solve this problem and show that the answer is negative. However, we also show that it is always possible to find a fairly sparse representation of a nice error basis.
- Nov 06 2002 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0211014v1We present two methods for the construction of quantum circuits for quantum error-correcting codes (QECC). The underlying quantum systems are tensor products of subsystems (qudits) of equal dimension which is a prime power. For a QECC encoding k qudits into n qudits, the resulting quantum circuit has O(n(n-k)) gates. The running time of the classical algorithm to compute the quantum circuit is O(n(n-k)^2).
- Aug 22 2002 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0208130v1Suppose that a quantum circuit with K elementary gates is known for a unitary matrix U, and assume that U^m is a scalar matrix for some positive integer m. We show that a function of U can be realized on a quantum computer with at most O(mK+m^2log m) elementary gates. The functions of U are realized by a generic quantum circuit, which has a particularly simple structure. Among other results, we obtain efficient circuits for the fractional Fourier transform.
- Nov 08 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0111038v1A classical computer does not allow to calculate a discrete cosine transform on N points in less than linear time. This trivial lower bound is no longer valid for a computer that takes advantage of quantum mechanical superposition, entanglement, and interference principles. In fact, we show that it is possible to realize the discrete cosine transforms and the discrete sine transforms of size NxN and types I,II,III, and IV with as little as O(log^2 N) operations on a quantum computer, whereas the known fast algorithms on a classical computer need O(N log N) operations.
- Nov 08 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0111039v1We show that many well-known signal transforms allow highly efficient realizations on a quantum computer. We explain some elementary quantum circuits and review the construction of the Quantum Fourier Transform. We derive quantum circuits for the Discrete Cosine and Sine Transforms, and for the Discrete Hartley transform. We show that at most O(log^2 N) elementary quantum gates are necessary to implement any of those transforms for input sequences of length N.
- Sep 20 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0109088v1We address the problem of simulating pair-interaction Hamiltonians in n node quantum networks where the subsystems have arbitrary, possibly different, dimensions. We show that any pair-interaction can be used to simulate any other by applying sequences of appropriate local control sequences. Efficient schemes for decoupling and time reversal can be constructed from orthogonal arrays. Conditions on time optimal simulation are formulated in terms of spectral majorization of matrices characterizing the coupling parameters. Moreover, we consider a specific system of n harmonic oscillators with bilinear interaction. In this case, decoupling can efficiently be achieved using the combinatorial concept of difference schemes. For this type of interactions we present optimal schemes for inversion.
- Sep 14 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0109063v1Any quantum system with a non-trivial Hamiltonian is able to simulate any other Hamiltonian evolution provided that a sufficiently large group of unitary control operations is available. We show that there exist finite groups with this property and present a sufficient condition in terms of group characters. We give examples of such groups in dimension 2 and 3. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to simulate an arbitrary bipartite interaction by a given one using such groups acting locally on the subsystems.
- Oct 25 2000 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0010076v2Knill introduced a generalization of stabilizer codes, in this note called Clifford codes. It remained unclear whether or not Clifford codes can be superior to stabilizer codes. We show that Clifford codes are stabilizer codes provided that the abstract error group has an abelian index group. In particular, if the errors are modelled by tensor products of Pauli matrices, then the associated Clifford codes are necessarily stabilizer codes.