Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) suffers from data sparsity problem in sequence prediction tasks where training resource is rare. In order to alleviate this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel generative bridging network (GBN) to train sequence prediction models, which contains a generator and a bridge. Unlike MLE directly maximizing the likelihood of the ground truth, the bridge extends the point-wise ground truth to a bridge distribution (containing inexhaustible examples), and the generator is trained to minimize their KL-divergence. In order to guide the training of generator with additional signals, the bridge distribution can be set or trained to possess specific properties, by using different constraints. More specifically, to increase output diversity, enhance language smoothness and relieve learning burden, three different regularization constraints are introduced to construct bridge distributions. By combining these bridges with a sequence generator, three independent GBNs are proposed, namely uniform GBN, language-model GBN and coaching GBN. Experiment conducted on two recognized sequence prediction tasks (machine translation and abstractive text summarization) shows that our proposed GBNs can yield significant improvements over strong baseline systems. Furthermore, by analyzing samples drawn from bridge distributions, expected influences on the sequence model training are verified.
Mobile edge computing (a.k.a. fog computing) has recently emerged to enable in-situ processing of delay-sensitive applications at the edge of mobile networks. Providing grid power supply in support of mobile edge computing, however, is costly and even infeasible (in certain rugged or under-developed areas), thus mandating on-site renewable energy as a major or even sole power supply in increasingly many scenarios. Nonetheless, the high intermittency and unpredictability of renewable energy make it very challenging to deliver a high quality of service to users in energy harvesting mobile edge computing systems. In this paper, we address the challenge of incorporating renewables into mobile edge computing and propose an efficient reinforcement learning-based resource management algorithm, which learns on-the-fly the optimal policy of dynamic workload offloading (to the centralized cloud) and edge server provisioning to minimize the long-term system cost (including both service delay and operational cost). Our online learning algorithm uses a decomposition of the (offline) value iteration and (online) reinforcement learning, thus achieving a significant improvement of learning rate and run-time performance when compared to standard reinforcement learning algorithms such as Q-learning. We prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm and analytically show that the learned policy has a simple monotone structure amenable to practical implementation. Our simulation results validate the efficacy of our algorithm, which significantly improves the edge computing performance compared to fixed or myopic optimization schemes and conventional reinforcement learning algorithms.
Sep 19 2016 cs.DC
Mobile edge computing (a.k.a. fog computing) has recently emerged to enable \emphin-situ processing of delay-sensitive applications at the edge of mobile networks. Providing grid power supply in support of mobile edge computing, however, is costly and even infeasible (in certain rugged or under-developed areas), thus mandating on-site renewable energy as a major or even sole power supply in increasingly many scenarios. Nonetheless, the high intermittency and unpredictability of renewable energy make it very challenging to deliver a high quality of service to users in renewable-powered mobile edge computing systems. In this paper, we address the challenge of incorporating renewables into mobile edge computing and propose an efficient reinforcement learning-based resource management algorithm, which learns on-the-fly the optimal policy of dynamic workload offloading (to centralized cloud) and edge server provisioning to minimize the long-term system cost (including both service delay and operational cost). Our online learning algorithm uses a decomposition of the (offline) value iteration and (online) reinforcement learning, thus achieving a significant improvement of learning rate and run-time performance when compared to standard reinforcement learning algorithms such as Q-learning.
Aug 17 2016 cs.CY
There is a great divide between rural and urban areas, particularly in medical emergency care. Although medical best practice guidelines exist in hospital handbooks, they are often lengthy and difficult to apply clinically. The challenges are exaggerated for doctors in rural areas and emergency medical technicians (EMT) during patient transport. In this paper, we propose the concept of distributed executable medical best practice guidance systems to assist adherence to best practice from the time that a patient first presents at a rural hospital, through diagnosis and ambulance transfer to arrival and treatment at a regional tertiary hospital center. We codify complex medical knowledge in the form of simplified distributed executable disease automata, from the thin automata at rural hospitals to the rich automata in the regional center hospitals. However, a main challenge is how to efficiently and safely synchronize distributed best practice models as the communication among medical facilities, devices, and professionals generates a large number of messages. This complex problem of patient diagnosis and transport from rural to center facility is also fraught with many uncertainties and changes resulting in a high degree of dynamism. To address this situation, we propose a pathophysiological model-driven message exchange communication architecture that ensures the real-time and dynamic requirements of synchronization among distributed emergency best-practice models are met in a reliable and safe manner. Taking the signs, symptoms, and progress of stroke patients transported across a geographically distributed healthcare network as the motivating use case, we implement our communication system and apply it to our developed best practice automata using laboratory simulations. Our proof-of-concept experiments shows there is potential for the use of our system in a wide variety of domains.
Mar 30 2016 cs.CV
Fully convolutional networks (FCNs) have been proven very successful for semantic segmentation, but the FCN outputs are unaware of object instances. In this paper, we develop FCNs that are capable of proposing instance-level segment candidates. In contrast to the previous FCN that generates one score map, our FCN is designed to compute a small set of instance-sensitive score maps, each of which is the outcome of a pixel-wise classifier of a relative position to instances. On top of these instance-sensitive score maps, a simple assembling module is able to output instance candidate at each position. In contrast to the recent DeepMask method for segmenting instances, our method does not have any high-dimensional layer related to the mask resolution, but instead exploits image local coherence for estimating instances. We present competitive results of instance segment proposal on both PASCAL VOC and MS COCO.
Mar 21 2016 cs.DC
Participating in demand response programs is a promising tool for reducing energy costs in data centers by modulating energy consumption. Towards this end, data centers can employ a rich set of resource management knobs, such as workload shifting and dynamic server provisioning. Nonetheless, these knobs may not be readily available in a cloud data center (CDC) that serves cloud tenants/users, because workloads in CDCs are managed by tenants themselves who are typically charged based on a usage-based or flat-rate pricing and often have no incentive to cooperate with the CDC operator for demand response and cost saving. Towards breaking such "split incentive" hurdle, a few recent studies have tried market-based mechanisms, such as dynamic pricing, inside CDCs. However, such mechanisms often rely on complex designs that are hard to implement and difficult to cope with by tenants. To address this limitation, we propose a novel incentive mechanism that is not dynamic, i.e., it keeps pricing for cloud resources unchanged for a long period. While it charges tenants based on a Usage-based Pricing (UP) as used by today's major cloud operators, it rewards tenants proportionally based on the time length that tenants set as deadlines for completing their workloads. This new mechanism is called Usage-based Pricing with Monetary Reward (UPMR). We demonstrate the effectiveness of UPMR both analytically and empirically. We show that UPMR can reduce the CDC operator's energy cost by 12.9% while increasing its profit by 4.9%, compared to the state-of-the-art approaches used by today's CDC operators to charge their tenants.
Deep residual networks have emerged as a family of extremely deep architectures showing compelling accuracy and nice convergence behaviors. In this paper, we analyze the propagation formulations behind the residual building blocks, which suggest that the forward and backward signals can be directly propagated from one block to any other block, when using identity mappings as the skip connections and after-addition activation. A series of ablation experiments support the importance of these identity mappings. This motivates us to propose a new residual unit, which makes training easier and improves generalization. We report improved results using a 1001-layer ResNet on CIFAR-10 (4.62% error) and CIFAR-100, and a 200-layer ResNet on ImageNet. Code is available at: https://github.com/KaimingHe/resnet-1k-layers
Dec 11 2015 cs.CV
Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers---8x deeper than VGG nets but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.
Jun 05 2015 cs.CV
State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet and Fast R-CNN have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. The RPN is trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. We further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutional features---using the recently popular terminology of neural networks with 'attention' mechanisms, the RPN component tells the unified network where to look. For the very deep VGG-16 model, our detection system has a frame rate of 5fps (including all steps) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012, and MS COCO datasets with only 300 proposals per image. In ILSVRC and COCO 2015 competitions, Faster R-CNN and RPN are the foundations of the 1st-place winning entries in several tracks. Code has been made publicly available.
Apr 29 2015 cs.GT
Data centers have emerged as promising resources for demand response, particularly for emergency demand response (EDR), which saves the power grid from incurring blackouts during emergency situations. However, currently, data centers typically participate in EDR by turning on backup (diesel) generators, which is both expensive and environmentally unfriendly. In this paper, we focus on "greening" demand response in multi-tenant data centers, i.e., colocation data centers, by designing a pricing mechanism through which the data center operator can efficiently extract load reductions from tenants during emergency periods to fulfill energy reduction requirement for EDR. In particular, we propose a pricing mechanism for both mandatory and voluntary EDR programs, ColoEDR, that is based on parameterized supply function bidding and provides provably near-optimal efficiency guarantees, both when tenants are price-taking and when they are price-anticipating. In addition to analytic results, we extend the literature on supply function mechanism design, and evaluate ColoEDR using trace-based simulation studies. These validate the efficiency analysis and conclude that the pricing mechanism is both beneficial to the environment and to the data center operator (by decreasing the need for backup diesel generation), while also aiding tenants (by providing payments for load reductions).
Apr 24 2015 cs.CV
Most object detectors contain two important components: a feature extractor and an object classifier. The feature extractor has rapidly evolved with significant research efforts leading to better deep convolutional architectures. The object classifier, however, has not received much attention and many recent systems (like SPPnet and Fast/Faster R-CNN) use simple multi-layer perceptrons. This paper demonstrates that carefully designing deep networks for object classification is just as important. We experiment with region-wise classifier networks that use shared, region-independent convolutional features. We call them "Networks on Convolutional feature maps" (NoCs). We discover that aside from deep feature maps, a deep and convolutional per-region classifier is of particular importance for object detection, whereas latest superior image classification models (such as ResNets and GoogLeNets) do not directly lead to good detection accuracy without using such a per-region classifier. We show by experiments that despite the effective ResNets and Faster R-CNN systems, the design of NoCs is an essential element for the 1st-place winning entries in ImageNet and MS COCO challenges 2015.
Rectified activation units (rectifiers) are essential for state-of-the-art neural networks. In this work, we study rectifier neural networks for image classification from two aspects. First, we propose a Parametric Rectified Linear Unit (PReLU) that generalizes the traditional rectified unit. PReLU improves model fitting with nearly zero extra computational cost and little overfitting risk. Second, we derive a robust initialization method that particularly considers the rectifier nonlinearities. This method enables us to train extremely deep rectified models directly from scratch and to investigate deeper or wider network architectures. Based on our PReLU networks (PReLU-nets), we achieve 4.94% top-5 test error on the ImageNet 2012 classification dataset. This is a 26% relative improvement over the ILSVRC 2014 winner (GoogLeNet, 6.66%). To our knowledge, our result is the first to surpass human-level performance (5.1%, Russakovsky et al.) on this visual recognition challenge.
Cross-domain recommendation has been proposed to transfer user behavior pattern by pooling together the rating data from multiple domains to alleviate the sparsity problem appearing in single rating domains. However, previous models only assume that multiple domains share a latent common rating pattern based on the user-item co-clustering. To capture diversities among different domains, we propose a novel Probabilistic Cluster-level Latent Factor (PCLF) model to improve the cross-domain recommendation performance. Experiments on several real world datasets demonstrate that our proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for the cross-domain recommendation task.
Jun 19 2014 cs.CV
Existing deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) require a fixed-size (e.g., 224x224) input image. This requirement is "artificial" and may reduce the recognition accuracy for the images or sub-images of an arbitrary size/scale. In this work, we equip the networks with another pooling strategy, "spatial pyramid pooling", to eliminate the above requirement. The new network structure, called SPP-net, can generate a fixed-length representation regardless of image size/scale. Pyramid pooling is also robust to object deformations. With these advantages, SPP-net should in general improve all CNN-based image classification methods. On the ImageNet 2012 dataset, we demonstrate that SPP-net boosts the accuracy of a variety of CNN architectures despite their different designs. On the Pascal VOC 2007 and Caltech101 datasets, SPP-net achieves state-of-the-art classification results using a single full-image representation and no fine-tuning. The power of SPP-net is also significant in object detection. Using SPP-net, we compute the feature maps from the entire image only once, and then pool features in arbitrary regions (sub-images) to generate fixed-length representations for training the detectors. This method avoids repeatedly computing the convolutional features. In processing test images, our method is 24-102x faster than the R-CNN method, while achieving better or comparable accuracy on Pascal VOC 2007. In ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) 2014, our methods rank #2 in object detection and #3 in image classification among all 38 teams. This manuscript also introduces the improvement made for this competition.
May 30 2014 cs.NI
The power consumption of enormous network devices in data centers has emerged as a big concern to data center operators. Despite many traffic-engineering-based solutions, very little attention has been paid on performance-guaranteed energy saving schemes. In this paper, we propose a novel energy-saving model for data center networks by scheduling and routing "deadline-constrained flows" where the transmission of every flow has to be accomplished before a rigorous deadline, being the most critical requirement in production data center networks. Based on speed scaling and power-down energy saving strategies for network devices, we aim to explore the most energy efficient way of scheduling and routing flows on the network, as well as determining the transmission speed for every flow. We consider two general versions of the problem. For the version of only flow scheduling where routes of flows are pre-given, we show that it can be solved polynomially and we develop an optimal combinatorial algorithm for it. For the version of joint flow scheduling and routing, we prove that it is strongly NP-hard and cannot have a Fully Polynomial-Time Approximation Scheme (FPTAS) unless P=NP. Based on a relaxation and randomized rounding technique, we provide an efficient approximation algorithm which can guarantee a provable performance ratio with respect to a polynomial of the total number of flows.
Apr 20 2012 cs.GT
Focusing on a femtocell communications market, we study the entrant network service provider's (NSP's) long-term decision: whether to enter the market and which spectrum sharing technology to select to maximize its profit. This long-term decision is closely related to the entrant's pricing strategy and the users' aggregate demand, which we model as medium-term and short-term decisions, respectively. We consider two markets, one with no incumbent and the other with one incumbent. For both markets, we show the existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point in the user subscription dynamics, and provide a sufficient condition for the convergence of the dynamics. For the market with no incumbent, we derive upper and lower bounds on the optimal price and market share that maximize the entrant's revenue, based on which the entrant selects an available technology to maximize its long-term profit. For the market with one incumbent, we model competition between the two NSPs as a non-cooperative game, in which the incumbent and the entrant choose their market shares independently, and provide a sufficient condition that guarantees the existence of at least one pure Nash equilibrium. Finally, we formalize the problem of entry and spectrum sharing scheme selection for the entrant and provide numerical results to complement our analysis.
Apr 26 2011 cs.SI
Sep 01 2010 cs.GT
An updated version of this paper (but with a different title) can be found at arXiv:1204.4262
This paper has been withdrawn by the authors as they feel it inappropriate to publish this paper for the time being.