We explore the fidelity susceptibility and the quantum coherence along with the entanglement entropy in the ground-state of one-dimensional spin-1 XXZ chains with the rhombic single-ion anisotropy. By using the techniques of density matrix renormalization group, effects of the rhombic single-ion anisotropy on a few information theoretical measures are investigated, such as the fidelity susceptibility, the quantum coherence and the entanglement entropy. Their relations with the quantum phase transitions are also analyzed. The phase transitions from the Y-Néel phase to the Large-$E_x$ or the Haldane phase can be well characterized by the fidelity susceptibility. The second-order derivative of the ground-state energy indicates all the transitions are of second order. We also find that the quantum coherence, the entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap can be used to detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions. Conclusions drawn from these quantum information observables agree well with each other. Finally we provide a ground-state phase diagram as functions of the exchange anisotropy $\Delta$ and the rhombic single-ion anisotropy $E$.
We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
The theoretical method to study strong coupling between an ensemble of quantum emitters (QEs) and surface plasmons excited by the nanoparticle cluster has been presented by using a rigorous first-principles electromagnetic Green's tensor technique. We have demonstrated that multi-qubit entanglement for two-level QEs can be produced at different frequencies simultaneously, when they locate in hot spots of metallic nanoparticle clusters. The duration of quantum beats for such an entanglement can reach two orders longer than that for the entanglement in a photonic cavity. The phenomenon originates from collective coupling resonance excitation of the cluster. At the frequency of single scattering resonance, the entanglement cannot be produced although the single QE spontaneous decay rate is very big
Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between the Earth and Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is that we can perform Bell test with human supply the random measurement settings and record the results while still maintaining space-like intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of the Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for the ultimate test of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
We investigate the nonequilibrium quantum heat transfer in a triangle-coupled spin-boson system within a three-terminal setup. By including the nonequilibrium noninteracting blip approximation approach combined with the full counting statistics, we analytically obtain the steady state populations and heat currents. The negative differential thermal conductance and giant heat amplification factor are clearly observed at strong qubit-bath coupling. %and the heat amplification is dramatically suppressed in the moderate coupling regime. Moreover, the strong interaction between the gating qubit and gating thermal bath is unraveled to be compulsory to exhibit these far-from equilibrium features.
Long-distance entanglement distribution is essential both for foundational tests of quantum physics and scalable quantum networks. Owing to channel loss, however, the previously achieved distance was limited to ~100 km. Here, we demonstrate satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs to two locations separated by 1203 km on the Earth, through satellite-to-ground two-downlink with a sum of length varies from 1600 km to 2400 km. We observe a survival of two-photon entanglement and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.37+/-0.09 under strict Einstein locality conditions. The obtained effective link efficiency at 1200 km in this work is over 12 orders of magnitude higher than the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through the best commercial telecommunication fibers with a loss of 0.16 dB/km.
An arbitrary unknown quantum state cannot be precisely measured or perfectly replicated. However, quantum teleportation allows faithful transfer of unknown quantum states from one object to another over long distance, without physical travelling of the object itself. Long-distance teleportation has been recognized as a fundamental element in protocols such as large-scale quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. However, the previous teleportation experiments between distant locations were limited to a distance on the order of 100 kilometers, due to photon loss in optical fibres or terrestrial free-space channels. An outstanding open challenge for a global-scale "quantum internet" is to significantly extend the range for teleportation. A promising solution to this problem is exploiting satellite platform and space-based link, which can conveniently connect two remote points on the Earth with greatly reduced channel loss because most of the photons' propagation path is in empty space. Here, we report the first quantum teleportation of independent single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a low Earth orbit satellite - through an up-link channel - with a distance up to 1400 km. To optimize the link efficiency and overcome the atmospheric turbulence in the up-link, a series of techniques are developed, including a compact ultra-bright source of multi-photon entanglement, narrow beam divergence, high-bandwidth and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing, and tracking (APT). We demonstrate successful quantum teleportation for six input states in mutually unbiased bases with an average fidelity of 0.80+/-0.01, well above the classical limit. This work establishes the first ground-to-satellite up-link for faithful and ultra-long-distance quantum teleportation, an essential step toward global-scale quantum internet.
Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
The Lieb Lattice exhibits intriguing properties that are of general interest in both the fundamental physics and practical applications. Here, we investigate the topological Landau-Zener Bloch oscillation in a photonic Floquet Lieb lattice, where the dimerized helical waveguides is constructed to realize the synthetic spin-orbital interaction through the Floquet mechanism, rendering us to study the impacts of topological transition from trivial gaps to non-trivial ones. The compact localized states of flat bands supported by the local symmetry of Lieb lattice will be associated with other bands by topological invariants, Chern number, and involved into Landau-Zener transition during Bloch oscillation. Importantly, the non-trivial geometrical phases after topological transitions will be taken into account for constructive and destructive interferences of wave functions. The numerical calculations of continuum photonic medium demonstrate reasonable agreements with theoretical tight-binding model. Our results provide an ongoing effort to realize designed quantum materials with tailored properties.
To study the full counting statistics of quantum heat transfer in a driven nonequilibrium spin-boson model, we develop a generalized nonequilibrium polaron-transformed Redfield equation with an auxiliary counting field. This enables us to study the impact of qubit-bath coupling ranging from weak to strong regimes. Without external modulations, we observe maximal values of both steady state heat flux and noise power at moderate coupling regimes, below which we find those two transport quantities are enhanced by the finite qubit energy bias. With external modulations, the geometric-phase-induced heat flux shows monotonic decrease as increasing the qubit-bath coupling at zero qubit energy bias (without bias). While under finite qubit energy bias (with bias), the geometric-phase-induced heat flux exhibits an interesting reversal behavior in strong coupling regime. Our results unify the seemingly contradictory results in weak and strong qubit-bath coupling regimes, and provide detailed dissections for the quantum fluctuation of nonequilibrium heat transfer.
Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global real-time quantum communication. In such a SC, most of the satellites will work in sunlight. Unfortunately, none of previous ground testing experiments could be implemented at daytime. During daytime, the bright sunlight background prohibits quantum communication in transmission over long distances. In this letter, by choosing a working wavelength of 1550 nm and developing free-space single-mode fibre coupling technology and ultralow noise up-conversion single photon detectors, we overcome the noise due to sunlight and demonstrate a 53-km free space quantum key distribution (QKD) in the daytime through a 48-dB loss channel. Our system not only shows the feasibility of satellite based quantum communication in daylight, but also has the ability to naturally adapt to ground fibre optics, representing an essential step towards a SC-based global quantum network.
Random numbers are indispensable for a variety of applications ranging from testing physics foundation to information encryption. In particular, nonlocality tests provide a strong evidence to our current understanding of nature -- quantum mechanics. All the random number generators (RNG) used for the existing tests are constructed locally, making the test results vulnerable to the freedom-of-choice loophole. We report an experimental realization of RNGs based on the arrival time of cosmic photons. The measurement outcomes (raw data) pass the standard NIST statistical test suite. We present a realistic design to employ these RNGs in a Bell test experiment, which addresses the freedom-of-choice loophole.
Using the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method, we numerically investigate the expansion dynamics of bosons in a one-dimensional hard-core boson model with three-body interactions. It is found that the bosons expand ballistically with weak interaction, which are obtained by local density and the radius $R_n$. It is shown that the expansion velocity $V$, obtained from $R_n=Vt$, is dependent on the number of bosons. As a prominent result, the expansion velocity decreases with the enhancement of three-body interaction. We further study the dynamics of the system, which quenches from the ground state with two-thirds filling, the results indicate the expansion is also ballistic in the gapless phase regime. It could help us detect the phase transition in the system.
We study the fidelity susceptibility in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 XXZ chain numerically. By using the density-matrix renormalization group method, the effects of the alternating single-site anisotropy $D$ on fidelity susceptibility are investigated. Its relation with the quantum phase transition is analyzed. It is found that the quantum phase transition from the Haldane spin liquid to periodic Néel spin solid can be well characterized by the fidelity. Finite size scaling of fidelity susceptibility shows a power-law divergence at criticality, which indicates the quantum phase transition is of second order. The results are confirmed by the second derivative of the ground-state energy. We also study the relationship between the entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap and quantum phase transitions. Conclusions drawn from these quantum information observables agree well with each other.
The Dicke subradiance and superradiance resulting from the interaction between surface plasmons of a nanosphere and an ensemble of quantum emitters have been investigated using a Green function approach. Based on such an investigation, we propose a scheme for a deterministic multiqubit quantum phase gate. As an example, twoqubit, threequbit, and fourqubit quantum phase gates have been designed and analyzed in detail. Phenomena due to the losses in the metal are discussed. Potential applications of these phenomena to quantuminformation processing are anticipated.
The spin Seebeck effect is studied across a charge insulating magnetic junction, in which thermal-spin conjugate transport is assisted by the exchange interactions between the localized spin in the center and electrons in metallic leads. We show that, in contrast with bulk spin Seebeck effect, the figure of merit of such nanoscale thermal-spin conversion can be infinite, leading to the ideal Carnot efficiency in the linear response regime. We also find that in the nonlinear spin Seebeck transport regime, the device possesses the asymmetric and negative differential spin Seebeck effects. In the last, the situations with leaking electron tunneling are also discussed. This nanoscale thermal spin rectifier, by tuning the junction parameters, can act as a spin Seebeck diode, spin Seebeck transistor and spin Seebeck switch, which could have substantial implications for flexible thermal and information control in molecular spin caloritronics.
When the interaction of a quantum system with a detector is changing from weak to strong coupling limits, the system experiences a transition from the regime with quantum mechanical coherent oscillations to the regime with a frozen dynamics. In addition to this quantum Zeno transition, we show that the full counting statistics of detector signal events experiences a topological phase transition at the boundary between two phases at intermediate coupling of a quantum system to the detector. We demonstrate that this transition belongs to the class of topological phase transitions that can be classified by elements of the braid group. We predict that this transition can be explored experimentally by means of the optical spin noise spectroscopy.
We report a free-space entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment, implementing the biased basis protocol between two sites which are 15.3 km apart. Photon pairs from a polarization-entangled source are distributed through two 7.8-km free-space optical links. An optimal bias 20:80 between the X and Z basis is used. A post-processing scheme with finite-key analysis is applied to extract the final secure key. After three-hour continuous operation at night, a 4293-bit secure key is obtained, with a final key rate of 0.124 bit per raw key bit which increases the final key rate by 14.8% comparing to the standard BB84 case. Our results experimentally demonstrate that the efficient BB84 protocol, which increases key generation efficiency by biasing Alice and Bob's basis choices, is potentially useful for the ground-satellite quantum communication.
In the well-known EPR paper, Einstein et al. called the nonlocal correlation in quantum entanglement as `spooky action at a distance'. If the spooky action does exist, what is its speed? All previous experiments along this direction have locality loopholes and thus can be explained without having to invoke any `spooky action' at all. Here, we strictly closed the locality loopholes by observing a 12-hour continuous violation of Bell inequality and concluded that the lower bound speed of `spooky action' was four orders of magnitude of the speed of light if the Earth's speed in any inertial reference frame was less than 10^(-3) times of the speed of light.
The entanglement entropy and quantum fidelity in a hard-core-boson model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions are studied numerically. By using exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group, the effects of interactions on entanglement entropy and fidelity susceptibility in the model are investigated. We focus our attention on looking for three quantum phase transitions. It is found that the first derivative of the entanglement entropy can indicate all of three phase transitions, while the fidelity susceptibility cannot predict the transition from superfluid to bond-order in a finite-size system.
We study thermalization in a one-dimensional quantum system consisting of a noninteracting fermionic chain with each site of the chain coupled to an additional bath site. Using a density matrix renormalization group algorithm we investigate the time evolution of observables in the chain after a quantum quench. For low densities we show that the intermediate time dynamics can be quantitatively described by a system of coupled equations of motion. For higher densities our numerical results show a prethermalization for local observables at intermediate times and a full thermalization to the grand canonical ensemble at long times. For the case of a weak bath-chain coupling we find, in particular, a Fermi momentum distribution in the chain in equilibrium in spite of the seemingly oversimplified bath in our model.
We study the quantum geometric heat flux in the nonequilibrium spin-boson model. By adopting the noninteracting-blip approximation that is able to accommodate the strong system-bath coupling, we show that there exists a nonzero geometric heat flux only when the two-level system is nondegenerate. Moreover, the pumping, no pumping, and dynamic control of geometric heat flux are discussed in detail, compared to the results with Redfield weak-coupling approximation. In particular, the geometric energy transfer induced by modulation of two system-bath couplings is identified, which is exclusive to quantum transport in the strong system-bath coupling regime.
Quantum key distribution (QKD), provides the only intrinsically unconditional secure method for communication based on principle of quantum mechanics. Compared with fiber-based demonstrations-, free-space links could provide the most appealing solution for much larger distance. Despite of significant efforts, so far all realizations rely on stationary sites. Justifications are therefore extremely crucial for applications via a typical Low Earth Orbit Satellite (LEOS). To achieve direct and full-scale verifications, we demonstrate here three independent experiments with a decoy-state QKD system overcoming all the demanding conditions. The system is operated in a moving platform through a turntable, a floating platform through a hot-air balloon, and a huge loss channel, respectively, for substantiating performances under rapid motion, attitude change, vibration, random movement of satellites and in high-loss regime. The experiments cover expanded ranges for all the leading parameters of LEOS. Our results pave the way towards ground-satellite QKD and global quantum communication network.
Using the adaptive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group method, the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord of a one-dimensional spin-1/2 XXZ chain is studied when anisotropic interaction quenches are applied at different temperatures. The dynamics of the quantum discord and pairwise entanglement between the nearest qubits shows that the entanglement and quantum discord will first oscillate and then approach to a constant value. The quantum discord can be used to predict the quantum phase transition, while the entanglement cannot.
A long standing goal for quantum communication is to transfer a quantum state over arbitrary distances. Free-space quantum communication provides a promising solution towards this challenging goal. Here, through a 97-km free space channel, we demonstrate long distance quantum teleportation over a 35-53 dB loss one-link channel, and entanglement distribution over a 66-85 dB high-loss two-link channel. We achieve an average fidelity of 80.4(9)% for teleporting six distinct initial states and observe the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality after distributing entanglement. Besides being of fundamental interest, our result represents a significant step towards a global quantum network. Moreover, the high-frequency and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing and tracking technique developed in our experiment provides an essential tool for future satellite-based quantum communication.
We investigate a model system for the injection of fermionic particles from filled source sites into an empty chain. We study the ensuing dynamics for Hermitian as well as for non-Hermitian time evolution where the particles cannot return to the bath sites (quantum ratchet). A non-homogeneous hybridization between bath and chain sites permits transient currents in the chain. Non-interacting particles show decoherence in the thermodynamic limit: the average particle number and the average current density in the chain become stationary for long times, whereas the single-particle density matrix displays large fluctuations around its mean value. Using the numerical time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group ($t$-DMRG) method we demonstrate, on the other hand, that sizable density-density interactions between the particles introduce relaxation which is by orders of magnitudes faster than the decoherence processes.
We introduce a numerical method of the adaptive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group to compute one-dimensional quantum spin systems with periodic boundary condition. We check our algorithm to study the dynamic correlation in spin-1/2 Heisenberg XX chain at zero temperature, and the numerical analysis of errors indicates that this method could be used to efficiently simulate the time-dependent properties of low-energy dynamics in an arbitrary one-dimensional quantum many-body systems with the nearest-neighbor interaction.
We present a systematic theory of the phonon Hall effect in a ballistic crystal lattice system, and apply it on the kagome lattice which is ubiquitous in various real materials. By proposing a proper second quantization for the non-Hermite Hamiltonian in the polarization-vector space, we obtain a new heat current density operator with two separate contributions: the normal velocity responsible for the longitudinal phonon transport, and the anomalous velocity manifesting itself as the Hall effect of transverse phonon transport. As exemplified in kagome lattices, our theory predicts that the direction of Hall conductivity at low magnetic field can be reversed by tuning temperatures, which we hope can be verified by experiments in the future. Three phonon-Hall-conductivity singularities induced by phonon-band-topology change are discovered as well, which correspond to the degeneracies at three different symmetric center points, \Gamma, K, X, in the wave-vector space of the kagome lattice.
The time evolution of the entanglement of a pair of two spin qubits is investigated when the two qubits simultaneously couple to an environment of an anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin chain. The entanglement of the two spin qubits can be created and is a periodic function of the time if the magnetic ?eld is greater than a critical value. If the two spin qubits are in the Bell state, the entanglement can be stored with relatively large value even when the magnetic ?eld is large.
The effects of boundary impurities on the entanglement entropy in an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg opened spin-$1/2$ chain are investigated. The method of density-matrix renormalization-group is used to obtain the bipartite entanglement. The entropy increases when the length of the subsystem increases. It will approach to a constant when system length is very large. With the same impurity interaction, qutrit impurities of spin-$1$ can increase the entanglement entropy.
The fidelity and entropy in an easy-axis antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-1 chain are studied numerically. By using the method of density-matrix renormalization group, the effects of anisotropy on fidelity and entanglement entropy are investigated. Their relations with quantum phase transition are analyzed. It is found that the quantum phase transition from the Haldane spin liquid to Néel spin solid can be well characterized by the fidelity. The phase transition can be hardly detected by the entropy but it can be successfully detected by the first deviation of the entropy.
The quantum entanglement dynamics of a one-dimensional spin-1/2 anisotropic XXZ model is studied using the method of the adaptive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group when two cases of quenches are performed in the system. An anisotropic interaction quench and the maximum number of domain walls of staggered magnetization quench are considered. The dynamics of pairwise entanglement between the nearest two qubits in the spin chain is investigated. The entanglement of the two-spin qubits can be created and oscillates in both cases of the quench. The anisotropic interaction has a strong influence on the oscillation frequency of entanglement.
The fidelity susceptibility and entanglement entropy in a system of two-leg $XXZ$ spin ladder with rung coupling is investigated by using exact diagonalization of the system. The effects of rung coupling on fidelity susceptibility, entanglement entropy and quantum phase transition are analyzed. It is found that the quantum phase transition between two different $XY$ phases can be well characterized by the fidelity susceptibility. Though the quantum phase transition from $XY$ phase to rung singlet phase can be hardly detected by fidelity susceptibility, it can be predicted by the first derivative of the entanglement entropy of the system.
The long-range entanglement dynamics of an one-dimensional spin-1/2 anisotropic XXZ model are studied using the method of the adaptive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group. The long-range entanglement can be generated when a local quench on one of boundary bonds is performed in the system. The anisotropic interaction has a strong influence both on the maximal value of long-range entanglement and the time of reaching the maximum long-range entanglement. The local coupling has a notable impact on the long-range entanglement, but it can be neglected in the time of reaching the maximal long-range entanglement.