results for au:Rams_M in:quant-ph

- May 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1805.05462v1We conduct experimental simulations of many body quantum systems using a \emphhybrid classical-quantum algorithm. In our setup, the wave function of the transverse field quantum Ising model is represented by a restricted Boltzmann machine. This neural network is then trained using variational Monte Carlo assisted by a D-Wave quantum sampler to find the ground state energy. Our results clearly demonstrate that already the first generation of quantum computers can be harnessed to tackle non-trivial problems concerning physics of many body quantum systems.
- May 01 2018 quant-ph cond-mat.dis-nn arXiv:1804.11037v1We introduce a phenomenological theory for many-body control of critical phenomena by engineering causally-induced gaps for quantum Hamiltonian systems. The core mechanisms are controlling information flow within and/or between clusters that are created near a quantum critical point. To this end, we construct inhomogeneous quantum phase transitions via designing spatio-temporal quantum fluctuations. We show how non-equilibrium evolution of disordered quantum systems can create new effective correlation length scales and effective dynamical critical exponents. In particular, we construct a class of causally-induced non-adiabatic quantum annealing transitions for strongly disordered quantum Ising chains leading to exponential suppression of topological defects beyond standard Kibble-Zurek predictions. Using exact numerical techniques for 1D quantum Hamiltonian systems, we demonstrate that our approach exponentially outperform adiabatic quantum computing. Using Strong-Disorder Renormalization Group (SDRG), we demonstrate the universality of inhomogeneous quantum critical dynamics and exhibit the causal zones reconstructions during SDRG flow. We derive a scaling relation for minimal causal gaps showing they narrow more slowly than any polynomial with increasing size of system, in contrast to stretched exponential scaling in standard adiabatic evolution. Furthermore, we demonstrate similar scaling behaviour for random cluster-Ising Hamiltonians with higher order interactions.
- Jan 29 2018 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1801.08554v1We analyze the problem of extracting the correlation length from infinite matrix product states (MPS) and corner transfer matrix (CTM) simulations. When the correlation length is calculated directly from the transfer matrix, it is typically significantly underestimated for finite bond dimensions used in numerical simulation. This is true even when one considers ground states at a distance from the critical point. In this article we introduce extrapolation procedure to overcome this problem. To that end we quantify how much the dominant part of the MPS/CTM transfer matrix spectrum deviates from being continuous. The latter is necessary to capture the exact asymptotics of the correlation function where the exponential decay is typically modified by an additional algebraic term. By extrapolating such a refinement parameter to zero, we show that we are able to recover the exact value of the correlation length with high accuracy. In a generic setting, our method reduces the error by a factor of $\sim 100$ as compared to the results obtained without extrapolation and a factor of $\sim 10$ as compared to simple extrapolation schemes employing bond dimension. We test our approach in a number of solvable models both in 1d and 2d. Subsequently, we apply it to one-dimensional XXZ spin-$\frac{3}{2}$ and the Bose-Hubbard models in a massive regime in the vicinity of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical point. We then fit the scaling form of the correlation length and extract the position of the critical point and obtain results comparable or better than those of other state-of-the-art numerical methods. Finally, we show how the algebraic part of the correlation function asymptotics can be directly recovered from the scaling of the dominant form factor within our approach.
- Feb 21 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1702.05660v3We address the question whether the super-Heisenberg scaling for quantum estimation is realizable. We unify the results of two approaches. In the first one, the original system is compared with its copy rotated by the parameter dependent dynamics. If the parameter is coupled to the one-body part of the Hamiltonian the precision of its estimation is known to scale at most as $N^{-1}$ (Heisenberg scaling) in terms of the number of elementary subsystems used, $N$. The second approach considers fidelity at criticality often leading to an apparent super-Heisenberg scaling. However, scaling of time needed to ensure adiabaticity of the evolution brings back the the Heisenberg limit. We illustrate the general theory on a ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain which exhibits such super-Heisenberg scaling of fidelity around the critical value of the magnetic field. Even an elementary estimator represented by a single-site magnetization already outperforms the Heisenberg behavior providing the $N^{-1.5}$ scaling. In this case Fisher information sets the ultimate scaling as $N^{-1.75}$ which can be saturated by measuring magnetization on all sites simultaneously. We discuss universal scaling predictions of the estimation precision offered by such observables, both at zero and finite temperatures, and support them with numerical simulations in the model. We provide an experimental proposal of realization of the considered model via mapping the system to ultra-cold bosons in periodically shaken optical lattice. We explicitly derive that the Heisenberg limit is recovered when time needed for preparation of quantum states involved is taken into acocunt.
- We compare the time evolution of entanglement measures after local operator excitation in the critical Ising model with predictions from conformal field theory. For the spin operator and its descendants we find that Renyi entropies of a block of spins increase by a constant that matches the logarithm of the quantum dimension of the conformal family. However, for the energy operator we find a small constant contribution that differs from the conformal field theory answer equal to zero. We argue that the mismatch is caused by the subtleties in the identification between the local operators in conformal field theory and their lattice counterpart. Our results indicate that evolution of entanglement measures in locally excited states not only constraints this identification, but also can be used to extract non-trivial data about the conformal field theory that governs the critical point. We generalize our analysis to the Ising model away from the critical point, states with multiple local excitations, as well as the evolution of the relative entropy after local operator excitation and discuss universal features that emerge from numerics.
- Jul 15 2016 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1607.04016v2A Gibbs operator $e^{-\beta H}$ for a 2D lattice system with a Hamiltonian $H$ can be represented by a 3D tensor network, the third dimension being the imaginary time (inverse temperature) $\beta$. Coarse-graining the network along $\beta$ results in an accurate 2D projected entangled-pair operator (PEPO) with a finite bond dimension. The coarse-graining is performed by a tree tensor network of isometries that are optimized variationally to maximize the accuracy of the PEPO. The algorithm is applied to the two-dimensional Hubbard model on an infinite square lattice. Benchmark results are obtained that are consistent with the best cluster dynamical mean-field theory and power series expansion in the regime of parameters where they yield mutually consistent results.
- Jun 27 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1606.07740v2We introduce an inhomogeneous protocol to drive a weakly disordered quantum spin chain quasi-adiabatically across a quantum phase transition and minimize the residual energy of the final state. The number of spins that simultaneously reach the critical point is controlled by the length scale in which the magnetic field is modulated, introducing an effective size that favors adiabatic dynamics. The dependence of the residual energy on this length scale and the velocity at which the magnetic field sweeps out the chain is shown to be nonmonotonic. We determine the conditions for an optimal suppression of the residual energy of the final state and show that inhomogeneous driving can outperform conventional adiabatic schemes based on homogeneous control fields by several orders of magnitude.
- The truncation or compression of the spectrum of Schmidt values is inherent to the matrix product state (MPS) approximation of one-dimensional quantum ground states. We provide a renormalization group picture by interpreting this compression as an application of Wilson's numerical renormalization group along the imaginary time direction appearing in the path integral representation of the state. The location of the physical index is considered as an impurity in the transfer matrix and static MPS correlation functions are reinterpreted as dynamical impurity correlations. Coarse-graining the transfer matrix is performed using a hybrid variational ansatz based on matrix product operators, combining ideas of MPS and the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz. Through numerical comparison with conventional MPS algorithms, we explicitly verify the impurity interpretation of MPS compression, as put forward by [V. Zauner et al., New J. Phys. 17, 053002 (2015)] for the transverse-field Ising model. Additionally, we motivate the conceptual usefulness of endowing MPS with an internal layered structure by studying restricted variational subspaces to describe elementary excitations on top of the ground state, which serves to elucidate a transparent renormalization group structure ingrained in MPS descriptions of ground states.
- Aug 13 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1508.02814v1We re-examine the well-studied one dimensional spin-1/2 $XY$ model to reveal its nontrivial energy spectrum, in particular the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state. In the case of the isotropic $XY$ model -- the $XX$ model -- the gap behaves very irregularly as a function of the system size at a second order transition point. This is in stark contrast to the usual power-law decay of the gap and is reminiscent of the similar behavior at the first order phase transition in the infinite-range quantum $XY$ model. The gap also shows nontrivial oscillatory behavior for the phase transitions in the anisotropic model in the incommensurate phase. We observe a close relation between this anomalous behavior of the gap and the correlation functions. These results, those for the isotropic case in particular, are important from the viewpoint of quantum annealing where the efficiency of computation is strongly affected by the size dependence of the energy gap.
- Nov 12 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1411.2607v2We discuss how to analytically obtain an -- essentially infinite -- Matrix Product State (MPS) representation of the ground state of the XY model. On the one hand this allows to illustrate how the Ornstein-Zernike form of the correlation function emerges in the exact case using standard MPS language. On the other hand we study the consequences of truncating the bond dimension of the exact MPS, which is also part of many tensor network algorithms, and analyze how the truncated MPS transfer matrix is representing the dominant part of the exact quantum transfer matrix. In the gapped phase we observe that the correlation length obtained from a truncated MPS approaches the exact value following a power law in effective bond dimension. In the gapless phase we find a good match between a state obtained numerically from standard MPS techniques with finite bond dimension, and a state obtained by effective finite imaginary time evolution in our framework. This provides a direct hint for a geometric interpretation of Finite Entanglement Scaling at the critical point in this case. Finally, by analyzing the spectra of transfer matrices, we support the interpretation put forward by [V. Zauner at. al., New J. Phys. 17, 053002 (2015)] that the MPS transfer matrix emerges from the quantum transfer matrix though the application of Wilson's Numerical Renormalisation Group along the imaginary-time direction.
- Aug 25 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1408.5140v2We investigate the relation between static correlation functions in the ground state of local quantum many-body Hamiltonians and the dispersion relations of the corresponding low energy excitations using the formalism of tensor network states. In particular, we show that the Matrix Product State Transfer Matrix (MPS-TM) - a central object in the computation of static correlation functions - provides important information about the location and magnitude of the minima of the low energy dispersion relation(s) and present supporting numerical data for one-dimensional lattice and continuum models as well as two-dimensional lattice models on a cylinder. We elaborate on the peculiar structure of the MPS-TM's eigenspectrum and give several arguments for the close relation between the structure of the low energy spectrum of the system and the form of static correlation functions. Finally, we discuss how the MPS-TM connects to the exact Quantum Transfer Matrix (QTM) of the model at zero temperature. We present a renormalization group argument for obtaining finite bond dimension approximations of MPS, which allows to reinterpret variational MPS techniques (such as the Density Matrix Renormalization Group) as an application of Wilson's Numerical Renormalization Group along the virtual (imaginary time) dimension of the system.
- We derive an exact closed-form expression for fidelity susceptibility of even- and odd-sized quantum Ising chains in the transverse field. To this aim, we diagonalize the Ising Hamiltonian and study the gap between its positive and negative parity subspaces. We derive an exact closed-form expression for the gap and use it to identify the parity of the ground state. We point out misunderstanding in some of the former studies of fidelity susceptibility and discuss its consequences. Last but not least, we rigorously analyze the properties of the gap. For example, we derive analytical expressions showing its exponential dependence on the ratio between the system size and the correlation length.
- Jun 13 2012 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1206.2670v1The dynamics of a quantum phase transition is inextricably woven with the formation of excitations, as a result of the critical slowing down in the neighborhood of the critical point. We design a transitionless quantum driving through a quantum critical point that allows one to access the ground state of the broken-symmetry phase by a finite-rate quench of the control parameter. The method is illustrated in the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Driving through the critical point is assisted by an auxiliary Hamiltonian, for which the interplay between the range of the interaction and the modes where excitations are suppressed is elucidated.
- We study an Ising chain undergoing a quantum phase transition in a quantum magnetic field. Such a field can be emulated by coupling the chain to a central spin initially in a superposition state. We show that - by adiabatically driving such a system - one can prepare a quantum superposition of any two ground states of the Ising chain. In particular, one can end up with the Ising chain in a superposition of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases -- a scenario with no analogue in prior studies of quantum phase transitions. Remarkably, the resulting magnetization of the chain encodes the position of the critical point and universal critical exponents, as well as the ground state fidelity.
- We study ground state fidelity defined as the overlap between two ground states of the same quantum system obtained for slightly different values of the parameters of its Hamiltonian. We focus on the thermodynamic regime of the XY model and the neighborhood of its critical points. We describe in detail cases when fidelity is dominated by the universal contribution reflecting quantum criticality of the phase transition. We show that proximity to the multicritical point leads to anomalous scaling of fidelity. We also discuss fidelity in a regime characterized by pronounced oscillations resulting from the change of either the system size or the parameters of the Hamiltonian. Moreover, we show when fidelity is dominated by non-universal contributions, study fidelity in the extended Ising model, and illustrate how our results provide additional insight into dynamics of quantum phase transitions. Special attention is put to studies of fidelity from the momentum space perspective. All our main results are obtained analytically. They are in excellent agreement with numerics.
- We study quantum fidelity, the overlap between two ground states of a many-body system, focusing on the thermodynamic regime. We show how drop of fidelity near a critical point encodes universal information about a quantum phase transition. Our general scaling results are illustrated in the quantum Ising chain for which a remarkably simple expression for fidelity is found.
- We consider an inhomogeneous quantum phase transition across a multicritical point of the XY quantum spin chain. This is an example of a Lifshitz transition with a dynamical exponent z = 2. Just like in the case z = 1 considered in New J. Phys. 12, 055007 (2010) when a critical front propagates much faster than the maximal group velocity of quasiparticles vq, then the transition is effectively homogeneous: density of excitations obeys a generalized Kibble-Zurek mechanism and scales with the sixth root of the transition rate. However, unlike for z = 1, the inhomogeneous transition becomes adiabatic not below vq but a lower threshold velocity v', proportional to inhomogeneity of the transition, where the excitations are suppressed exponentially. Interestingly, the adiabatic threshold v' is nonzero despite vanishing minimal group velocity of low energy quasiparticles. In the adiabatic regime below v' the inhomogeneous transition can be used for efficient adiabatic quantum state preparation in a quantum simulator: the time required for the critical front to sweep across a chain of N spins adiabatically is merely linear in N, while the corresponding time for a homogeneous transition across the multicritical point scales with the sixth power of N. What is more, excitations after the adiabatic inhomogeneous transition, if any, are brushed away by the critical front to the end of the spin chain.
- Apr 13 2010 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1004.1975v1We observe signatures of disorder-induced order in 1D XY spin chains with an external, site-dependent uni-axial random field within the XY plane. We numerically investigate signatures of a quantum phase transition at T=0, in particular an upsurge of the magnetization in the direction orthogonal to the external magnetic field, and the scaling of the block-entropy with the amplitude of this field. Also, we discuss possible realizations of this effect in ultra-cold atom experiments.
- Apr 02 2009 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.quant-gas cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.str-el arXiv:0904.0115v3We argue that in a second order quantum phase transition driven by an inhomogeneous quench density of quasiparticle excitations is suppressed when velocity at which a critical point propagates across a system falls below a threshold velocity equal to the Kibble-Zurek correlation length times the energy gap at freeze-out divided by $\hbar$. This general prediction is supported by an analytic solution in the quantum Ising chain. Our results suggest, in particular, that adiabatic quantum computers can be made more adiabatic when operated in an "inhomogeneous" way.
- Dec 09 2008 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:0812.1455v1We consider a linear quench from the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase in the quantum Ising chain interacting with a static spin environment. Both decoherence from the environment and non-adiabaticity of the evolution near a critical point excite the system from the final ferromagnetic ground state. For weak decoherence and relatively fast quenches the excitation energy, proportional to the number of kinks in the final state, decays like an inverse square root of a quench time, but slow transitions or strong decoherence make it decay in a much slower logarithmic way. We also find that fidelity between the final ferromagnetic ground state and a final state after a quench decays exponentially with a size of a chain, with a decay rate proportional to average density of excited kinks, and a proportionality factor evolving from 1.3 for weak decoherence and fast quenches to approximately 1 for slow transitions or strong decoherence. Simultaneously, correlations between kinks randomly distributed along the chain evolve from a near-crystalline anti-bunching to a Poissonian distribution of kinks in a number of isolated Anderson localization centers randomly scattered along the chain.
- Oct 23 2007 cond-mat.other cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.str-el physics.comp-ph quant-ph arXiv:0710.3829v4We propose a symmetric version of the multi-scale entanglement renormalization Ansatz (MERA) in two spatial dimensions (2D) and use this Ansatz to find an unknown ground state of a 2D quantum system. Results in the simple 2D quantum Ising model on the $8\times8$ square lattice are found to be very accurate even with the smallest non-trivial truncation parameter.
- Quantum Ising model in one dimension is an exactly solvable example of a quantum phase transition. We investigate its behavior during a quench from a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase caused by a gradual turning off of the transverse field at a fixed rate characterized by the quench time $\tau_Q$. In agreement with Kibble-Zurek mechanism, quantum state of the system after the transition exhibits a characteristic correlation length $\hat\xi$ proportional to the square root of the quench time $\tau_Q$. The inverse of this correlation length determines average density of defects after the transition. In this paper, we show that $\hat\xi$ also controls the entropy of entanglement of a block of $L$ spins with the rest of the system. For large $L$, this entropy saturates at $\frac16\log_2\hat\xi$, as might have been expected from the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. Close to the critical point, the entropy saturates when the block size $L\approx\hat\xi$, but -- in the subsequent evolution in the ferromagnetic phase -- a somewhat larger length scale $l=\sqrt{\tau_Q}\ln\tau_Q$ develops as a result of quantum dephasing, and the entropy saturates when $L\approx l$. We also study the spin-spin correlation. We find that close to the critical point ferromagnetic correlations decay exponentially with the dynamical correlation length $\hat\xi$, but in the following evolution this correlation function becomes oscillatory at distances less than this scale. However, both the wavelength and the correlation length of these oscillations are still determined by $\hat\xi$. We also derive probability distribution for the number of kinks in a finite spin chain after the transition.