We present a simple nearest-neighbor (NN) approach that synthesizes high-frequency photorealistic images from an "incomplete" signal such as a low-resolution image, a surface normal map, or edges. Current state-of-the-art deep generative models designed for such conditional image synthesis lack two important things: (1) they are unable to generate a large set of diverse outputs, due to the mode collapse problem. (2) they are not interpretable, making it difficult to control the synthesized output. We demonstrate that NN approaches potentially address such limitations, but suffer in accuracy on small datasets. We design a simple pipeline that combines the best of both worlds: the first stage uses a convolutional neural network (CNN) to maps the input to a (overly-smoothed) image, and the second stage uses a pixel-wise nearest neighbor method to map the smoothed output to multiple high-quality, high-frequency outputs in a controllable manner. We demonstrate our approach for various input modalities, and for various domains ranging from human faces to cats-and-dogs to shoes and handbags.
Aug 11 2017 cs.CV
Visual object tracking is a fundamental and time-critical vision task. Recent years have seen many shallow tracking methods based on real-time pixel-based correlation filters, as well as deep methods that have top performance but need a high-end GPU. In this paper, we learn to improve the speed of deep trackers without losing accuracy. Our fundamental insight is to take an adaptive approach, where easy frames are processed with cheap features (such as pixel values), while challenging frames are processed with invariant but expensive deep features. We formulate the adaptive tracking problem as a decision-making process, and learn an agent to decide whether to locate objects with high confidence on an early layer, or continue processing subsequent layers of a network. This significantly reduces the feed-forward cost for easy frames with distinct or slow-moving objects. We train the agent offline in a reinforcement learning fashion, and further demonstrate that learning all deep layers (so as to provide good features for adaptive tracking) can lead to near real-time average tracking speed of 23 fps on a single CPU while achieving state-of-the-art performance. Perhaps most tellingly, our approach provides a 100X speedup for almost 50% of the time, indicating the power of an adaptive approach.
Aug 09 2017 cs.CV
Face detection and recognition benchmarks have shifted toward more difficult environments. The challenge presented in this paper addresses the next step in the direction of automatic detection and identification of people from outdoor surveillance cameras. While face detection has shown remarkable success in images collected from the web, surveillance cameras include more diverse occlusions, poses, weather conditions and image blur. Although face verification or closed-set face identification have surpassed human capabilities on some datasets, open-set identification is much more complex as it needs to reject both unknown identities and false accepts from the face detector. We show that unconstrained face detection can approach high detection rates albeit with moderate false accept rates. By contrast, open-set face recognition is currently weak and requires much more attention.
Jul 25 2017 cs.CV
Person detection from vehicles has made rapid progress recently with the advent of multiple highquality datasets of urban and highway driving, yet no large-scale benchmark is available for the same problem in off-road or agricultural environments. Here we present the NREC Agricultural Person-Detection Dataset to spur research in these environments. It consists of labeled stereo video of people in orange and apple orchards taken from two perception platforms (a tractor and a pickup truck), along with vehicle position data from RTK GPS. We define a benchmark on part of the dataset that combines a total of 76k labeled person images and 19k sampled person-free images. The dataset highlights several key challenges of the domain, including varying environment, substantial occlusion by vegetation, people in motion and in non-standard poses, and people seen from a variety of distances; meta-data are included to allow targeted evaluation of each of these effects. Finally, we present baseline detection performance results for three leading approaches from urban pedestrian detection and our own convolutional neural network approach that benefits from the incorporation of additional image context. We show that the success of existing approaches on urban data does not transfer directly to this domain.
Jul 18 2017 cs.CV
We formulate tracking as an online decision-making process, where a tracking agent must follow an object despite ambiguous image frames and a limited computational budget. Crucially, the agent must decide where to look in the upcoming frames, when to reinitialize because it believes the target has been lost, and when to update its appearance model for the tracked object. Such decisions are typically made heuristically. Instead, we propose to learn an optimal decision-making policy by formulating tracking as a partially observable decision-making process (POMDP). We learn policies with deep reinforcement learning algorithms that need supervision (a reward signal) only when the track has gone awry. We demonstrate that sparse rewards allow us to quickly train on massive datasets, several orders of magnitude more than past work. Interestingly, by treating the data source of Internet videos as unlimited streams, we both learn and evaluate our trackers in a single, unified computational stream.
Apr 13 2017 cs.CV
While deep feature learning has revolutionized techniques for static-image understanding, the same does not quite hold for video processing. Architectures and optimization techniques used for video are largely based off those for static images, potentially underutilizing rich video information. In this work, we rethink both the underlying network architecture and the stochastic learning paradigm for temporal data. To do so, we draw inspiration from classic theory on linear dynamic systems for modeling time series. By extending such models to include nonlinear mappings, we derive a series of novel recurrent neural networks that sequentially make top-down predictions about the future and then correct those predictions with bottom-up observations. Predictive-corrective networks have a number of desirable properties: (1) they can adaptively focus computation on "surprising" frames where predictions require large corrections, (2) they simplify learning in that only "residual-like" corrective terms need to be learned over time and (3) they naturally decorrelate an input data stream in a hierarchical fashion, producing a more reliable signal for learning at each layer of a network. We provide an extensive analysis of our lightweight and interpretable framework, and demonstrate that our model is competitive with the two-stream network on three challenging datasets without the need for computationally expensive optical flow.
Apr 11 2017 cs.CV
In this work, we introduce a new video representation for action classification that aggregates local convolutional features across the entire spatio-temporal extent of the video. We do so by integrating state-of-the-art two-stream networks with learnable spatio-temporal feature aggregation. The resulting architecture is end-to-end trainable for whole-video classification. We investigate different strategies for pooling across space and time and combining signals from the different streams. We find that: (i) it is important to pool jointly across space and time, but (ii) appearance and motion streams are best aggregated into their own separate representations. Finally, we show that our representation outperforms the two-stream base architecture by a large margin (13% relative) as well as out-performs other baselines with comparable base architectures on HMDB51, UCF101, and Charades video classification benchmarks.
As autonomous vehicles become an every-day reality, high-accuracy pedestrian detection is of paramount practical importance. Pedestrian detection is a highly researched topic with mature methods, but most datasets focus on common scenes of people engaged in typical walking poses on sidewalks. But performance is most crucial for dangerous scenarios, such as children playing in the street or people using bicycles/skateboards in unexpected ways. Such "in-the-tail" data is notoriously hard to observe, making both training and testing difficult. To analyze this problem, we have collected a novel annotated dataset of dangerous scenarios called the Precarious Pedestrian dataset. Even given a dedicated collection effort, it is relatively small by contemporary standards (around 1000 images). To allow for large-scale data-driven learning, we explore the use of synthetic data generated by a game engine. A significant challenge is selected the right "priors" or parameters for synthesis: we would like realistic data with poses and object configurations that mimic true Precarious Pedestrians. Inspired by Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), we generate a massive amount of synthetic data and train a discriminative classifier to select a realistic subset, which we deem the Adversarial Imposters. We demonstrate that this simple pipeline allows one to synthesize realistic training data by making use of rendering/animation engines within a GAN framework. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that such data can be used to rank algorithms, suggesting that Adversarial Imposters can also be used for "in-the-tail" validation at test-time, a notoriously difficult challenge for real-world deployment.
Mar 20 2017 cs.CV
In this paper, we propose the first higher frame rate video dataset (called Need for Speed - NfS) and benchmark for visual object tracking. The dataset consists of 100 videos (380K frames) captured with now commonly available higher frame rate (240 FPS) cameras from real world scenarios. All frames are annotated with axis aligned bounding boxes and all sequences are manually labelled with nine visual attributes - such as occlusion, fast motion, background clutter, etc. Our benchmark provides an extensive evaluation of many recent and state-of-the-art trackers on higher frame rate sequences. We ranked each of these trackers according to their tracking accuracy and real-time performance. One of our surprising conclusions is that at higher frame rates, simple trackers such as correlation filters outperform complex methods based on deep networks. This suggests that for practical applications (such as in robotics or embedded vision), one needs to carefully tradeoff bandwidth constraints associated with higher frame rate acquisition, computational costs of real-time analysis, and the required application accuracy. Our dataset and benchmark allows for the first time (to our knowledge) systematic exploration of such issues, and will be made available to allow for further research in this space.
Dec 21 2016 cs.CV
We explore 3D human pose estimation from a single RGB image. While many approaches try to directly predict 3D pose from image measurements, we explore a simple architecture that reasons through intermediate 2D pose predictions. Our approach is based on two key observations (1) Deep neural nets have revolutionized 2D pose estimation, producing accurate 2D predictions even for poses with self occlusions. (2) Big-data sets of 3D mocap data are now readily available, making it tempting to lift predicted 2D poses to 3D through simple memorization (e.g., nearest neighbors). The resulting architecture is trivial to implement with off-the-shelf 2D pose estimation systems and 3D mocap libraries. Importantly, we demonstrate that such methods outperform almost all state-of-the-art 3D pose estimation systems, most of which directly try to regress 3D pose from 2D measurements.
Dec 16 2016 cs.CV
We consider the task of visual net surgery, in which a CNN can be reconfigured without extra data to recognize novel concepts that may be omitted from the training set. While most prior work make use of linguistic cues for such "zero-shot" learning, we do so by using a pictorial language representation of the training set, implicitly learned by a CNN, to generalize to new classes. To this end, we introduce a set of visualization techniques that better reveal the activation patterns and relations between groups of CNN filters. We next demonstrate that knowledge of pictorial languages can be used to rewire certain CNN neurons into a part model, which we call a pictorial language classifier. We demonstrate the robustness of simple PLCs by applying them in a weakly supervised manner: labeling unlabeled concepts for visual classes present in the training data. Specifically we show that a PLC built on top of a CNN trained for ImageNet classification can localize humans in Graz-02 and determine the pose of birds in PASCAL-VOC without extra labeled data or additional training. We then apply PLCs in an interactive zero-shot manner, demonstrating that pictorial languages are expressive enough to detect a set of visual classes in MS-COCO that never appear in the ImageNet training set.
Dec 15 2016 cs.CV
Though tremendous strides have been made in object recognition, one of the remaining open challenges is detecting small objects. We explore three aspects of the problem in the context of finding small faces: the role of scale invariance, image resolution, and contextual reasoning. While most recognition approaches aim to be scale-invariant, the cues for recognizing a 3px tall face are fundamentally different than those for recognizing a 300px tall face. We take a different approach and train separate detectors for different scales. To maintain efficiency, detectors are trained in a multi-task fashion: they make use of features extracted from multiple layers of single (deep) feature hierarchy. While training detectors for large objects is straightforward, the crucial challenge remains training detectors for small objects. We show that context is crucial, and define templates that make use of massively-large receptive fields (where 99% of the template extends beyond the object of interest). Finally, we explore the role of scale in pre-trained deep networks, providing ways to extrapolate networks tuned for limited scales to rather extreme ranges. We demonstrate state-of-the-art results on massively-benchmarked face datasets (FDDB and WIDER FACE). In particular, when compared to prior art on WIDER FACE, our results reduce error by a factor of 2 (our models produce an AP of 82% while prior art ranges from 29-64%).
We explore architectures for general pixel-level prediction problems, from low-level edge detection to mid-level surface normal estimation to high-level semantic segmentation. Convolutional predictors, such as the fully-convolutional network (FCN), have achieved remarkable success by exploiting the spatial redundancy of neighboring pixels through convolutional processing. Though computationally efficient, we point out that such approaches are not statistically efficient during learning precisely because spatial redundancy limits the information learned from neighboring pixels. We demonstrate that (1) stratified sampling allows us to add diversity during batch updates and (2) sampled multi-scale features allow us to explore more nonlinear predictors (multiple fully-connected layers followed by ReLU) that improve overall accuracy. Finally, our objective is to show how a architecture can get performance better than (or comparable to) the architectures designed for a particular task. Interestingly, our single architecture produces state-of-the-art results for semantic segmentation on PASCAL-Context, surface normal estimation on NYUDv2 dataset, and edge detection on BSDS without contextual post-processing.
Apr 01 2016 cs.CV
Micro-videos are six-second videos popular on social media networks with several unique properties. Firstly, because of the authoring process, they contain significantly more diversity and narrative structure than existing collections of video "snippets". Secondly, because they are often captured by hand-held mobile cameras, they contain specialized viewpoints including third-person, egocentric, and self-facing views seldom seen in traditional produced video. Thirdly, due to to their continuous production and publication on social networks, aggregate micro-video content contains interesting open-world dynamics that reflects the temporal evolution of tag topics. These aspects make micro-videos an appealing well of visual data for developing large-scale models for video understanding. We analyze a novel dataset of micro-videos labeled with 58 thousand tags. To analyze this data, we introduce viewpoint-specific and temporally-evolving models for video understanding, defined over state-of-the-art motion and deep visual features. We conclude that our dataset opens up new research opportunities for large-scale video analysis, novel viewpoints, and open-world dynamics.
Jul 22 2015 cs.CV
Convolutional neural nets (CNNs) have demonstrated remarkable performance in recent history. Such approaches tend to work in a unidirectional bottom-up feed-forward fashion. However, practical experience and biological evidence tells us that feedback plays a crucial role, particularly for detailed spatial understanding tasks. This work explores bidirectional architectures that also reason with top-down feedback: neural units are influenced by both lower and higher-level units. We do so by treating units as rectified latent variables in a quadratic energy function, which can be seen as a hierarchical Rectified Gaussian model (RGs). We show that RGs can be optimized with a quadratic program (QP), that can in turn be optimized with a recurrent neural network (with rectified linear units). This allows RGs to be trained with GPU-optimized gradient descent. From a theoretical perspective, RGs help establish a connection between CNNs and hierarchical probabilistic models. From a practical perspective, RGs are well suited for detailed spatial tasks that can benefit from top-down reasoning. We illustrate them on the challenging task of keypoint localization under occlusions, where local bottom-up evidence may be misleading. We demonstrate state-of-the-art results on challenging benchmarks.
May 21 2015 cs.CV
We explore multi-scale convolutional neural nets (CNNs) for image classification. Contemporary approaches extract features from a single output layer. By extracting features from multiple layers, one can simultaneously reason about high, mid, and low-level features during classification. The resulting multi-scale architecture can itself be seen as a feed-forward model that is structured as a directed acyclic graph (DAG-CNNs). We use DAG-CNNs to learn a set of multiscale features that can be effectively shared between coarse and fine-grained classification tasks. While fine-tuning such models helps performance, we show that even "off-the-self" multiscale features perform quite well. We present extensive analysis and demonstrate state-of-the-art classification performance on three standard scene benchmarks (SUN397, MIT67, and Scene15). In terms of the heavily benchmarked MIT67 and Scene15 datasets, our results reduce the lowest previously-reported error by 23.9% and 9.5%, respectively.
Apr 27 2015 cs.CV
Hand pose estimation has matured rapidly in recent years. The introduction of commodity depth sensors and a multitude of practical applications have spurred new advances. We provide an extensive analysis of the state-of-the-art, focusing on hand pose estimation from a single depth frame. To do so, we have implemented a considerable number of systems, and will release all software and evaluation code. We summarize important conclusions here: (1) Pose estimation appears roughly solved for scenes with isolated hands. However, methods still struggle to analyze cluttered scenes where hands may be interacting with nearby objects and surfaces. To spur further progress we introduce a challenging new dataset with diverse, cluttered scenes. (2) Many methods evaluate themselves with disparate criteria, making comparisons difficult. We define a consistent evaluation criteria, rigorously motivated by human experiments. (3) We introduce a simple nearest-neighbor baseline that outperforms most existing systems. This implies that most systems do not generalize beyond their training sets. This also reinforces the under-appreciated point that training data is as important as the model itself. We conclude with directions for future progress.
Mar 06 2015 cs.CV
Datasets for training object recognition systems are steadily increasing in size. This paper investigates the question of whether existing detectors will continue to improve as data grows, or saturate in performance due to limited model complexity and the Bayes risk associated with the feature spaces in which they operate. We focus on the popular paradigm of discriminatively trained templates defined on oriented gradient features. We investigate the performance of mixtures of templates as the number of mixture components and the amount of training data grows. Surprisingly, even with proper treatment of regularization and "outliers", the performance of classic mixture models appears to saturate quickly ($\sim$10 templates and $\sim$100 positive training examples per template). This is not a limitation of the feature space as compositional mixtures that share template parameters via parts and that can synthesize new templates not encountered during training yield significantly better performance. Based on our analysis, we conjecture that the greatest gains in detection performance will continue to derive from improved representations and learning algorithms that can make efficient use of large datasets.
Dec 02 2014 cs.CV
We tackle the problem of estimating the 3D pose of an individual's upper limbs (arms+hands) from a chest mounted depth-camera. Importantly, we consider pose estimation during everyday interactions with objects. Past work shows that strong pose+viewpoint priors and depth-based features are crucial for robust performance. In egocentric views, hands and arms are observable within a well defined volume in front of the camera. We call this volume an egocentric workspace. A notable property is that hand appearance correlates with workspace location. To exploit this correlation, we classify arm+hand configurations in a global egocentric coordinate frame, rather than a local scanning window. This greatly simplify the architecture and improves performance. We propose an efficient pipeline which 1) generates synthetic workspace exemplars for training using a virtual chest-mounted camera whose intrinsic parameters match our physical camera, 2) computes perspective-aware depth features on this entire volume and 3) recognizes discrete arm+hand pose classes through a sparse multi-class SVM. Our method provides state-of-the-art hand pose recognition performance from egocentric RGB-D images in real-time.
Dec 02 2014 cs.CV
We focus on the task of everyday hand pose estimation from egocentric viewpoints. For this task, we show that depth sensors are particularly informative for extracting near-field interactions of the camera wearer with his/her environment. Despite the recent advances in full-body pose estimation using Kinect-like sensors, reliable monocular hand pose estimation in RGB-D images is still an unsolved problem. The problem is considerably exacerbated when analyzing hands performing daily activities from a first-person viewpoint, due to severe occlusions arising from object manipulations and a limited field-of-view. Our system addresses these difficulties by exploiting strong priors over viewpoint and pose in a discriminative tracking-by-detection framework. Our priors are operationalized through a photorealistic synthetic model of egocentric scenes, which is used to generate training data for learning depth-based pose classifiers. We evaluate our approach on an annotated dataset of real egocentric object manipulation scenes and compare to both commercial and academic approaches. Our method provides state-of-the-art performance for both hand detection and pose estimation in egocentric RGB-D images.
May 05 2014 cs.CV
We present a new dataset with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in object recognition by placing the question of object recognition in the context of the broader question of scene understanding. This is achieved by gathering images of complex everyday scenes containing common objects in their natural context. Objects are labeled using per-instance segmentations to aid in precise object localization. Our dataset contains photos of 91 objects types that would be easily recognizable by a 4 year old. With a total of 2.5 million labeled instances in 328k images, the creation of our dataset drew upon extensive crowd worker involvement via novel user interfaces for category detection, instance spotting and instance segmentation. We present a detailed statistical analysis of the dataset in comparison to PASCAL, ImageNet, and SUN. Finally, we provide baseline performance analysis for bounding box and segmentation detection results using a Deformable Parts Model.
This manuscript describes a method for training linear SVMs (including binary SVMs, SVM regression, and structural SVMs) from large, out-of-core training datasets. Current strategies for large-scale learning fall into one of two camps; batch algorithms which solve the learning problem given a finite datasets, and online algorithms which can process out-of-core datasets. The former typically requires datasets small enough to fit in memory. The latter is often phrased as a stochastic optimization problem; such algorithms enjoy strong theoretical properties but often require manual tuned annealing schedules, and may converge slowly for problems with large output spaces (e.g., structural SVMs). We discuss an algorithm for an "intermediate" regime in which the data is too large to fit in memory, but the active constraints (support vectors) are small enough to remain in memory. In this case, one can design rather efficient learning algorithms that are as stable as batch algorithms, but capable of processing out-of-core datasets. We have developed such a MATLAB-based solver and used it to train a collection of recognition systems for articulated pose estimation, facial analysis, 3D object recognition, and action classification, all with publicly-available code. This writeup describes the solver in detail.