results for au:Raj_A in:cs

- We propose a new Integral Probability Metric (IPM) between distributions: the Sobolev IPM. The Sobolev IPM compares the mean discrepancy of two distributions for functions (critic) restricted to a Sobolev ball defined with respect to a dominant measure $\mu$. We show that the Sobolev IPM compares two distributions in high dimensions based on weighted conditional Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) of each coordinate on a leave one out basis. The Dominant measure $\mu$ plays a crucial role as it defines the support on which conditional CDFs are compared. Sobolev IPM can be seen as an extension of the one dimensional Von-Mises Cramér statistics to high dimensional distributions. We show how Sobolev IPM can be used to train Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). We then exploit the intrinsic conditioning implied by Sobolev IPM in text generation. Finally we show that a variant of Sobolev GAN achieves competitive results in semi-supervised learning on CIFAR-10, thanks to the smoothness enforced on the critic by Sobolev GAN which relates to Laplacian regularization.
- Importance sampling has become an indispensable strategy to speed up optimization algorithms for large-scale applications. Improved adaptive variants - using importance values defined by the complete gradient information which changes during optimization - enjoy favorable theoretical properties, but are typically computationally infeasible. In this paper we propose an efficient approximation of gradient-based sampling, which is based on safe bounds on the gradient. The proposed sampling distribution is (i) provably the best sampling with respect to the given bounds, (ii) always better than uniform sampling and fixed importance sampling and (iii) can efficiently be computed - in many applications at negligible extra cost. The proposed sampling scheme is generic and can easily be integrated into existing algorithms. In particular, we show that coordinate-descent (CD) and stochastic gradient descent (SGD) can enjoy significant a speed-up under the novel scheme. The proven efficiency of the proposed sampling is verified by extensive numerical testing.
- We consider the problems of learning forward models that map state to high-dimensional images and inverse models that map high-dimensional images to state in robotics. Specifically, we present a perceptual model for generating video frames from state with deep networks, and provide a framework for its use in tracking and prediction tasks. We show that our proposed model greatly outperforms standard deconvolutional methods and GANs for image generation, producing clear, photo-realistic images. We also develop a convolutional neural network model for state estimation and compare the result to an Extended Kalman Filter to estimate robot trajectories. We validate all models on a real robotic system.
- Sep 01 2017 cs.CR arXiv:1708.09538v1While there exist many isolation mechanisms that are available to cloud service providers, including virtual machines, containers, etc., the problem of side-channel increases in importance as a remaining security vulnerability, particularly in the presence of shared caches and multicore processors. In this paper we present a hardware-software mechanism that improves the isolation of cloud processes in the presence of shared caches on multicore chips. Combining the Intel CAT architecture that enables cache partitioning on the fly with novel scheduling techniques and state cleansing mechanisms, we enable cache-side-channel free computing for Linux-based containers and virtual machines, in particular, those managed by KVM. We do a preliminary evaluation of our system using a CPU bound workload. Our system allows Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) to remain enabled and does not require application level changes.
- We propose a new selection rule for the coordinate selection in coordinate descent methods for huge-scale optimization. The efficiency of this novel scheme is provably better than the efficiency of uniformly random selection, and can reach the efficiency of steepest coordinate descent (SCD), enabling an acceleration of a factor of up to $n$, the number of coordinates. In many practical applications, our scheme can be implemented at no extra cost and computational efficiency very close to the faster uniform selection. Numerical experiments with Lasso and Ridge regression show promising improvements, in line with our theoretical guarantees.
- In this paper, we investigate deep image synthesis guided by sketch, color, and texture. Previous image synthesis methods can be controlled by sketch and color strokes but we are the first to examine texture control. We allow a user to place a texture patch on a sketch at arbitrary locations and scales to control the desired output texture. Our generative network learns to synthesize objects consistent with these texture suggestions. To achieve this, we develop a local texture loss in addition to adversarial and content loss to train the generative network. We conduct experiments using sketches generated from real images and textures sampled from a separate texture database and results show that our proposed algorithm is able to generate plausible images that are faithful to user controls. Ablation studies show that our proposed pipeline can generate more realistic images than adapting existing methods directly.
- Invariance to nuisance transformations is one of the desirable properties of effective representations. We consider transformations that form a \emphgroup and propose an approach based on kernel methods to derive local group invariant representations. Locality is achieved by defining a suitable probability distribution over the group which in turn induces distributions in the input feature space. We learn a decision function over these distributions by appealing to the powerful framework of kernel methods and generate local invariant random feature maps via kernel approximations. We show uniform convergence bounds for kernel approximation and provide excess risk bounds for learning with these features. We evaluate our method on three real datasets, including Rotated MNIST and CIFAR-10, and observe that it outperforms competing kernel based approaches. The proposed method also outperforms deep CNN on Rotated-MNIST and performs comparably to the recently proposed group-equivariant CNN.
- We propose a new framework for deriving screening rules for convex optimization problems. Our approach covers a large class of constrained and penalized optimization formulations, and works in two steps. First, given any approximate point, the structure of the objective function and the duality gap is used to gather information on the optimal solution. In the second step, this information is used to produce screening rules, i.e. safely identifying unimportant weight variables of the optimal solution. Our general framework leads to a large variety of useful existing as well as new screening rules for many applications. For example, we provide new screening rules for general simplex and $L_1$-constrained problems, Elastic Net, squared-loss Support Vector Machines, minimum enclosing ball, as well as structured norm regularized problems, such as group lasso.
- Mar 29 2016 cs.CV arXiv:1603.08105v1The goal of domain adaptation is to adapt models learned on a source domain to a particular target domain. Most methods for unsupervised domain adaptation proposed in the literature to date, assume that the set of classes present in the target domain is identical to the set of classes present in the source domain. This is a restrictive assumption that limits the practical applicability of unsupervised domain adaptation techniques in real world settings ("in the wild"). Therefore, we relax this constraint and propose a technique that allows the set of target classes to be a subset of the source classes. This way, large publicly available annotated datasets with a wide variety of classes can be used as source, even if the actual set of classes in target can be more limited and, maybe most importantly, unknown beforehand. To this end, we propose an algorithm that orders a set of source subspaces that are relevant to the target classification problem. Our method then chooses a restricted set from this ordered set of source subspaces. As an extension, even starting from multiple source datasets with varied sets of categories, this method automatically selects an appropriate subset of source categories relevant to a target dataset. Empirical analysis on a number of source and target domain datasets shows that restricting the source subspace to only a subset of categories does indeed substantially improve the eventual target classification accuracy over the baseline that considers all source classes.
- In this work we address the problem of recovering sparse solutions to non linear inverse problems. We look at two variants of the basic problem, the synthesis prior problem when the solution is sparse and the analysis prior problem where the solution is cosparse in some linear basis. For the first problem, we propose non linear variants of the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and CoSamp algorithms; for the second problem we propose a non linear variant of the Greedy Analysis Pursuit (GAP) algorithm. We empirically test the success rates of our algorithms on exponential and logarithmic functions. We model speckle denoising as a non linear sparse recovery problem and apply our technique to solve it. Results show that our method outperforms state of the art methods in ultrasound speckle denoising.
- Jul 21 2015 cs.CV arXiv:1507.05578v1In this paper, we propose subspace alignment based domain adaptation of the state of the art RCNN based object detector. The aim is to be able to achieve high quality object detection in novel, real world target scenarios without requiring labels from the target domain. While, unsupervised domain adaptation has been studied in the case of object classification, for object detection it has been relatively unexplored. In subspace based domain adaptation for objects, we need access to source and target subspaces for the bounding box features. The absence of supervision (labels and bounding boxes are absent) makes the task challenging. In this paper, we show that we can still adapt sub- spaces that are localized to the object by obtaining detections from the RCNN detector trained on source and applied on target. Then we form localized subspaces from the detections and show that subspace alignment based adaptation between these subspaces yields improved object detection. This evaluation is done by considering challenging real world datasets of PASCAL VOC as source and validation set of Microsoft COCO dataset as target for various categories.
- Jan 19 2015 cs.CV arXiv:1501.03952v1Domain adaptation techniques aim at adapting a classifier learnt on a source domain to work on the target domain. Exploiting the subspaces spanned by features of the source and target domains respectively is one approach that has been investigated towards solving this problem. These techniques normally assume the existence of a single subspace for the entire source / target domain. In this work, we consider the hierarchical organization of the data and consider multiple subspaces for the source and target domain based on the hierarchy. We evaluate different subspace based domain adaptation techniques under this setting and observe that using different subspaces based on the hierarchy yields consistent improvement over a non-hierarchical baseline
- The general perception is that kernel methods are not scalable, and neural nets are the methods of choice for nonlinear learning problems. Or have we simply not tried hard enough for kernel methods? Here we propose an approach that scales up kernel methods using a novel concept called "doubly stochastic functional gradients". Our approach relies on the fact that many kernel methods can be expressed as convex optimization problems, and we solve the problems by making two unbiased stochastic approximations to the functional gradient, one using random training points and another using random functions associated with the kernel, and then descending using this noisy functional gradient. We show that a function produced by this procedure after $t$ iterations converges to the optimal function in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space in rate $O(1/t)$, and achieves a generalization performance of $O(1/\sqrt{t})$. This doubly stochasticity also allows us to avoid keeping the support vectors and to implement the algorithm in a small memory footprint, which is linear in number of iterations and independent of data dimension. Our approach can readily scale kernel methods up to the regimes which are dominated by neural nets. We show that our method can achieve competitive performance to neural nets in datasets such as 8 million handwritten digits from MNIST, 2.3 million energy materials from MolecularSpace, and 1 million photos from ImageNet.
- This paper presents the thesis that all learning agents of finite information size are limited by their informational structure in what goals they can efficiently learn to achieve in a complex environment. Evolutionary change is critical for creating the required structure for all learning agents in any complex environment. The thesis implies that there is no efficient universal learning algorithm. An agent can go past the learning limits imposed by its structure only by slow evolutionary change or blind search which in a very complex environment can only give an agent an inefficient universal learning capability that can work only in evolutionary timescales or improbable luck.
- Jun 28 2012 cs.AI arXiv:1206.6869v1We introduce a new dynamic model with the capability of recognizing both activities that an individual is performing as well as where that ndividual is located. Our model is novel in that it utilizes a dynamic graphical model to jointly estimate both activity and spatial context over time based on the simultaneous use of asynchronous observations consisting of GPS measurements, and measurements from a small mountable sensor board. Joint inference is quite desirable as it has the ability to improve accuracy of the model. A key goal, however, in designing our overall system is to be able to perform accurate inference decisions while minimizing the amount of hardware an individual must wear. This minimization leads to greater comfort and flexibility, decreased power requirements and therefore increased battery life, and reduced cost. We show results indicating that our joint measurement model outperforms measurements from either the sensor board or GPS alone, using two types of probabilistic inference procedures, namely particle filtering and pruned exact inference.
- In this era of the Internet, the amount of news articles added every minute of everyday is humongous. As a result of this explosive amount of news articles, news retrieval systems are required to process the news articles frequently and intensively. The news retrieval systems that are in-use today are not capable of coping up with these data-intensive computations. Cloudpress 2.0 presented here, is designed and implemented to be scalable, robust and fault tolerant. It is designed in such a way that, all the processes involved in news retrieval such as fetching, pre-processing, indexing, storing and summarizing, exploit MapReduce paradigm and use the power of the Cloud computing. It uses novel approaches for parallel processing, for storing the news articles in a distributed database and for visualizing them as a 3D visual. It uses Lucene-based indexing for efficient and faster retrieval. It also includes a novel query expansion feature for searching the news articles. Cloudpress 2.0 also allows on-the-fly, extractive summarization of news articles based on the input query.