results for au:Prevedel_R in:quant-ph

- Apr 29 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1404.6914v1We demonstrate a novel scheme for femto-second pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion in periodically poled KTP crystals. Our scheme is based on a crossed crystal configuration with collinear quasi-phase-matching. The non-degenerate photon pairs are split in a fiber-based wavelength division multiplexer. The source is easier to align than common pulsed sources based on bulk BBO crystals and exhibits high-quality polarization entanglement as well as non-classical interference capabilities. Hence, we expect this source to be a well-suited candidate for multi-photon state generation e.g. for linear optical quantum computation and quantum communication networks.
- Sep 11 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1309.2586v1The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting privacy. Recently, protocols to achieve this on classical computing systems have been found. Here we present an efficient solution to the quantum analogue of this problem that enables arbitrary quantum computations to be carried out on encrypted quantum data. We prove that an untrusted server can implement a universal set of quantum gates on encrypted quantum bits (qubits) without learning any information about the inputs, while the client, knowing the decryption key, can easily decrypt the results of the computation. We experimentally demonstrate, using single photons and linear optics, the encryption and decryption scheme on a set of gates sufficient for arbitrary quantum computations. Because our protocol requires few extra resources compared to other schemes it can be easily incorporated into the design of future quantum servers. These results will play a key role in enabling the development of secure distributed quantum systems.
- Sep 06 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1309.1379v1Quantum correlations are critical to our understanding of nature, with far-reaching technological and fundamental impact. These often manifest as violations of Bell's inequalities, bounds derived from the assumptions of locality and realism, concepts integral to classical physics. Many tests of Bell's inequalities have studied pairs of correlated particles; however, the immense interest in multi-particle quantum correlations is driving the experimental frontier to test systems beyond just pairs. All experimental violations of Bell's inequalities to date require supplementary assumptions, opening the results to one or more loopholes, the closing of which is one of the most important challenges in quantum science. Individual loopholes have been closed in experiments with pairs of particles and a very recent result closed the detection loophole in a six ion experiment. No experiment thus far has closed the locality loopholes with three or more particles. Here, we distribute three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled states using optical fibre and free-space links to independent measurement stations. The measured correlations constitute a test of Mermin's inequality while closing both the locality and related freedom-of-choice loopholes due to our experimental configuration and timing. We measured a Mermin parameter of 2.77 +/- 0.08, violating the inequality bound of 2 by over 9 standard deviations, with minimum tolerances for the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes of 264 +/- 28 ns and 304 +/- 25 ns, respectively. These results represent a significant advance towards definitive tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics and practical multi-party quantum communications protocols.
- Sep 12 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1109.2070v1We experimentally demonstrate a single-qubit decohering quantum channel using linear optics. We implement the channel, whose special cases include both the amplitude-damping channel and the bit-flip channel, using a single, static optical setup. Following a recent theoretical result [M. Piani et al., Phys. Rev. A, 84, 032304 (2011)], we realize the channel in an optimal way, maximizing the probability of success, i.e., the probability for the photonic qubit to remain in its encoding. Using a two-photon entangled resource, we characterize the channel using ancilla-assisted process tomography and find average process fidelities of 0.9808 \pm 0.0002 and 0.9762 \pm 0.0002 for amplitude-damping and the bit-flip case, respectively.
- Jun 13 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1106.1992v1Single photons provide excellent quantum information carriers, but current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed single photons, while linear-optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here, we introduce a deterministic scheme for photonic quantum information. Our single, versatile process---coherent photon conversion---provides a full suite of photonic quantum processing tools, from creating high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free of higher-order imperfections to implementing deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates and high-efficiency detection. It fulfils all requirements for a scalable photonic quantum computing architecture. Using photonic crystal fibres, we experimentally demonstrate a four-colour nonlinear process usable for coherent photon conversion and show that current technology provides a feasible path towards deterministic operation. Our scheme, based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems, but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting systems which exhibit extremely strong intrinsic nonlinearities.
- May 20 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1105.3956v2Energy-time entangled photon pairs remain tightly correlated in time when the photons are passed through equal magnitude, but opposite in sign, dispersion. A recent experimental demonstration has observed this effect on ultrafast time-scales using second-harmonic generation of the photon pairs. However, the experimental signature of this effect does not require energy-time entanglement. Here, we demonstrate a directly analogue to this effect in narrow-band second harmonic generation of a pair of classical laser pulses under similar conditions. Perfect cancellation is observed for fs pulses with dispersion as large as 850 fs$^2$, comparable to the quantum result, but with an $10^{13}$-fold improvement in signal brightness.
- Dec 03 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1012.0332v1Heisenberg's uncertainty principle provides a fundamental limitation on an observer's ability to simultaneously predict the outcome when one of two measurements is performed on a quantum system. However, if the observer has access to a particle (stored in a quantum memory) which is entangled with the system, his uncertainty is generally reduced. This effect has recently been quantified by Berta et al. [Nature Physics 6, 659 (2010)] in a new, more general uncertainty relation, formulated in terms of entropies. Using entangled photon pairs, an optical delay line serving as a quantum memory and fast, active feed-forward we experimentally probe the validity of this new relation. The behaviour we find agrees with the predictions of quantum theory and satisfies the new uncertainty relation. In particular, we find lower uncertainties about the measurement outcomes than would be possible without the entangled particle. This shows not only that the reduction in uncertainty enabled by entanglement can be significant in practice, but also demonstrates the use of the inequality to witness entanglement.
- Oct 14 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1010.2566v2We present and experimentally demonstrate a communication protocol that employs shared entanglement to reduce errors when sending a bit over a particular noisy classical channel. Specifically, it is shown that, given a single use of this channel, one can transmit a bit with higher success probability when sender and receiver share entanglement compared to the best possible strategy when they do not. The experiment is realized using polarization-entangled photon pairs, whose quantum correlations play a critical role in both the encoding and decoding of the classical message. Experimentally, we find that a bit can be successfully transmitted with probability 0.891 \pm 0.002, which is close to the theoretical maximum of (2 + 2^-1/2)/3 ≃0.902 and is significantly above the optimal classical strategy, which yields 5/6 ≃0.833.
- Jul 28 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1007.4645v1A significant limitation of practical quantum key distribution (QKD) setups is currently their limited operational range. It has recently been emphasized (X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, and H.-K. Lo., Phys. Rev. A, 76:012307, 2007) that entanglement-based QKD systems can tolerate higher channel losses than systems based on weak coherent laser pulses (WCP), in particular when the source is located symmetrically between the two communicating parties, Alice and Bob. In the work presented here, we experimentally study this important advantage by implementing different entanglement-based QKD setups on a 144~km free-space link between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife. We established three different configurations where the entangled photon source was placed at Alice's location, asymmetrically between Alice and Bob and symmetrically in the middle between Alice and Bob, respectively. The resulting quantum channel attenuations of 35~dB, 58~dB and 71~dB, respectively, significantly exceed the limit for WCP systems. This confirms that QKD over distances of 300~km and even more is feasible with entangled state sources placed in the middle between Alice and Bob.
- Mar 13 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0903.2212v2We report the first experimental generation and characterization of a six-photon Dicke state. The produced state shows a fidelity of F=0.56+/-0.02 with respect to an ideal Dicke state and violates a witness detecting genuine six-qubit entanglement by four standard deviations. We confirm characteristic Dicke properties of our resource and demonstrate its versatility by projecting out four- and five-photon Dicke states, as well as four-photon GHZ and W states. We also show that Dicke states have interesting applications in multiparty quantum networking protocols such as open-destination teleportation, telecloning and quantum secret sharing.
- Feb 13 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0902.2015v2Quantum entanglement enables tasks not possible in classical physics. Many quantum communication protocols require the distribution of entangled states between distant parties. Here we experimentally demonstrate the successful transmission of an entangled photon pair over a 144 km free-space link. The received entangled states have excellent, noise-limited fidelity, even though they are exposed to extreme attenuation dominated by turbulent atmospheric effects. The total channel loss of 64 dB corresponds to the estimated attenuation regime for a two-photon satellite quantum communication scenario. We confirm that the received two-photon states are still highly entangled by violating the CHSH inequality by more than 5 standard deviations. From a fundamental point of view, our results show that the photons are virtually not subject to decoherence during their 0.5 ms long flight through air, which is encouraging for future world-wide quantum communication scenarios.
- Nov 28 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0811.4542v2We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
- Sep 24 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0809.3991v3Entanglement swapping allows to establish entanglement between independent particles that never interacted nor share any common past. This feature makes it an integral constituent of quantum repeaters. Here, we demonstrate entanglement swapping with time-synchronized independent sources with a fidelity high enough to violate a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality by more than four standard deviations. The fact that both entangled pairs are created by fully independent, only electronically connected sources ensures that this technique is suitable for future long-distance quantum communication experiments as well as for novel tests on the foundations of quantum physics.
- Apr 01 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0803.4402v1Entanglement is an essential resource in current experimental implementations for quantum information processing. We review a class of experiments exploiting photonic entanglement, ranging from one-way quantum computing over quantum communication complexity to long-distance quantum communication. We then propose a set of feasible experiments that will underline the advantages of photonic entanglement for quantum information processing.
- Aug 09 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0708.1129v1We report the first demonstration of a quantum game on an all-optical one-way quantum computer. Following a recent theoretical proposal we implement a quantum version of Prisoner's Dilemma, where the quantum circuit is realized by a 4-qubit box-cluster configuration and the player's local strategies by measurements performed on the physical qubits of the cluster. This demonstration underlines the strength and versatility of the one-way model and we expect that this will trigger further interest in designing quantum protocols and algorithms to be tested in state-of-the-art cluster resources.
- Aug 08 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0708.0960v2We report the experimental demonstration of a one-way quantum protocol reliably operating in the presence of decoherence. Information is protected by designing an appropriate decoherence-free subspace for a cluster state resource. We demonstrate our scheme in an all-optical setup, encoding the information into the polarization states of four photons. A measurement-based one-way information-transfer protocol is performed with the photons exposed to severe symmetric phase-damping noise. Remarkable protection of information is accomplished, delivering nearly ideal outcomes.
- Jan 05 2007 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0701017v1As information carriers in quantum computing, photonic qubits have the advantage of undergoing negligible decoherence. However, the absence of any significant photon-photon interaction is problematic for the realization of non-trivial two-qubit gates. One solution is to introduce an effective nonlinearity by measurements resulting in probabilistic gate operations. In one-way quantum computation, the random quantum measurement error can be overcome by applying a feed-forward technique, such that the future measurement basis depends on earlier measurement results. This technique is crucial for achieving deterministic quantum computation once a cluster state (the highly entangled multiparticle state on which one-way quantum computation is based) is prepared. Here we realize a concatenated scheme of measurement and active feed-forward in a one-way quantum computing experiment. We demonstrate that, for a perfect cluster state and no photon loss, our quantum computation scheme would operate with good fidelity and that our feed-forward components function with very high speed and low error for detected photons. With present technology, the individual computational step (in our case the individual feed-forward cycle) can be operated in less than 150 ns using electro-optical modulators. This is an important result for the future development of one-way quantum computers, whose large-scale implementation will depend on advances in the production and detection of the required highly entangled cluster states.
- Nov 20 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0611186v2We report the first experimental demonstration of an all-optical one-way implementation of Deutsch's quantum algorithm on a four-qubit cluster state. All the possible configurations of a balanced or constant function acting on a two-qubit register are realized within the measurement-based model for quantum computation. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model, therefore demonstrating the successful performance of the algorithm.
- Nov 23 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0511214v2We demonstrate phase super-resolution in the absence of entangled states. The key insight is to use the inherent time-reversal symmetry of quantum mechanics: our theory shows that it is possible to \emphmeasure, as opposed to prepare, entangled states. Our approach is robust, requiring only photons that exhibit classical interference: we experimentally demonstrate high-visibility phase super-resolution with three, four, and six photons using a standard laser and photon counters. Our six-photon experiment demonstrates the best phase super-resolution yet reported with high visibility and resolution.
- Jul 01 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0506262v2We demonstrate a new architecture for an optical entangling gate that is significantly simpler than previous realisations, using partially-polarising beamsplitters so that only a single optical mode-matching condition is required. We demonstrate operation of a controlled-Z gate in both continuous-wave and pulsed regimes of operation, fully characterising it in each case using quantum process tomography. We also demonstrate a fully-resolving, nondeterministic optical Bell-state analyser based on this controlled-Z gate. This new architecture is ideally suited to guided optics implementations of optical gates.