results for au:Politi_P in:cond-mat

- May 16 2018 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1805.05848v1The teaching of nonequilibrium statistical physics typically requires basic concepts of equilibrium theory and advanced mathematical tools. However, there are some topics mainly concerning athermal systems which may be proposed to students lacking such prerequisites and which offer the possibility to face important ideas and to test them with simple numerical simulations. In this paper we use deposition models to study the kinetic roughening of a growing surface, which allows to introduce the concepts of universality and scaling and to analyze the qualitative and the quantitative role of different parameters. In particular we will focus on two classes of models where the deposition is accompanied by a local relaxation process within a distance $\delta$. All models fall in the Edwards-Wilkinson universality class, but the role of $\delta$ is non-trivial.
- Jul 18 2017 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1707.04840v2We suggest that coarsening dynamics can be described in terms of a generalized random walk, with the dynamics of the growing length $L(t)$ controlled by a drift term, $\mu(L)$, and a diffusive one, ${\cal D}(L)$. We apply this interpretation to the one dimensional Ising model with a ferromagnetic coupling constant decreasing exponentially on the scale $R$. In the case of non conserved (Glauber) dynamics, both terms are present and their balance depend on the interplay between $L(t)$ and $R$. In the case of conserved (Kawasaki) dynamics, drift is negligible, but ${\cal D}(L)$ is strongly dependent on $L$. The main pre-asymptotic regime displays a speeding of coarsening for Glauber dynamics and a slowdown for Kawasaki dynamics. We reason that a similar behaviour can be found in two dimensions.
- Jan 31 2017 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1701.08636v2The Discrete NonLinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation displays a parameter region characterized by the presence of localized excitations (breathers). While their formation is well understood and it is expected that the asymptotic configuration comprises a single breather on top of a background, it is not clear why the dynamics of a multi-breather configuration is essentially frozen. In order to investigate this question, we introduce simple stochastic models, characterized by suitable conservation laws. We focus on the role of the coupling strength between localized excitations and background. In the DNLS model, higher breathers interact more weakly, as a result of their faster rotation. In our stochastic models, the strength of the coupling is controlled directly by an amplitude-dependent parameter. In the case of a power-law decrease, the associated coarsening process undergoes a slowing down if the decay rate is larger than a critical value. In the case of an exponential decrease, a freezing effect is observed that is reminiscent of the scenario observed in the DNLS. This last regime arises spontaneously when direct energy diffusion between breathers and background is blocked below a certain threshold.
- May 14 2015 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1505.03286v1This is the list of original contributions to the Comptes Rendus Physique Issue on Coarsening Dynamics (Vol. 16, Issue 3, 2015).
- Apr 29 2015 cond-mat.soft arXiv:1504.07383v2We discuss the nonlinear dynamics and fluctuations of interfaces with bending rigidity under the competing attractions of two walls with arbitrary permeabilities. This system mimics the dynamics of confined membranes. We use a two-dimension hydrodynamic model, where membranes are effectively one-dimensional objects. In a previous work [T. Le Goff et al, Phys. Rev. E 90, 032114 (2014)], we have shown that this model predicts frozen states caused by bending rigidity-induced oscillatory interactions between kinks (or domain walls). We here demonstrate that in the presence of tension, potential asymmetry, or thermal noise, there is a finite threshold above which frozen states disappear, and perpetual coarsening is restored. Depending on the driving force, the transition to coarsening exhibits different scenarios. First, for membranes under tension, small tensions can only lead to transient coarsening or partial disordering, while above a finite threshold, membrane oscillations disappear and perpetual coarsening is found. Second, potential asymmetry is relevant in the non-conserved case only, i.e. for permeable walls, where it induces a drift force on the kinks, leading to a fast coarsening process via kink-antikink annihilation. However, below some threshold, the drift force can be balanced by the oscillatory interactions between kinks, and frozen adhesion patches can still be observed. Finally, at long times, noise restores coarsening with standard exponents depending on the permeability of the walls. However, the typical time for the appearance of coarsening exhibits an Arrhenius form. As a consequence, a finite noise amplitude is needed in order to observe coarsening in observable time.
- Apr 06 2015 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1504.00853v3It is well known that the dynamics of a one-dimensional dissipative system driven by the Ginzburg-Landau free energy may be described in terms of interacting kinks: two neighbouring kinks at distance $\ell$ feel an attractive force $F(\ell)\approx\exp(-\ell)$. This result is typical of a bistable system whose inhomogeneities have an energy cost due to surface tension, but for some physical systems bending rigidity rather than surface tension plays a leading role. We show that a kink dynamics is still applicable, but the force $F(\ell)$ is now oscillating, therefore producing configurations which are locally stable. We also propose a new derivation of kink dynamics, which applies to a generalized Ginzburg-Landau free energy with an arbitrary combination of surface tension, bending energy, and higher-order terms. Our derivation is not based on a specific multikink approximation and the resulting kink dynamics reproduces correctly the full dynamics of the original model. This allows to use our derivation with confidence in place of the continuum dynamics, reducing simulation time by orders of magnitude.
- Feb 25 2015 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1502.06717v2In this paper we focus on crystal surfaces led out of equilibrium by a growth or erosion process. As a consequence of that the surface may undergo morphological instabilities and develop a distinct structure: ondulations, mounds or pyramids, bunches of steps, ripples. The typical size of the emergent pattern may be fixed or it may increase in time through a coarsening process which in turn may last forever or it may be interrupted at some relevant length scale. We study dynamics in three different cases, stressing the main physical ingredients and the main features of coarsening: a kinetic instability, an energetic instability, and an athermal instability.
- Dec 22 2014 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1412.6269v3Phase separation may be driven by the minimization of a suitable free energy ${\cal F}$. This is the case, e.g., for diblock copolimer melts, where ${\cal F}$ is minimized by a steady periodic pattern whose wavelength $\lambda_{GS}$ depends on the segregation strength $\alpha^{-1}$ and it is know since long time that in one spatial dimension $\lambda_{GS} \simeq \alpha^{-1/3}$. Here we study in details the dynamics of the system in 1D for different initial conditions and by varying $\alpha$ by five orders of magnitude. We find that, depending on the initial state, the final configuration may have a wavelength $\lambda_{D}$ with $\lambda_{min}(\alpha)<\lambda_{D}<\lambda_{max}(\alpha)$, where $\lambda_{min} \approx \ln (1/\alpha)$ and $\lambda_{max}\approx \alpha^{-1/2}$. In particular, if the initial state is homogeneous, the system exhibits a logarithmic coarsening process which arrests whenever $\lambda_{D}\approx\lambda_{min}$.
- Sep 10 2014 cond-mat.soft arXiv:1409.2525v1The adhesion dynamics of a membrane confined between two permeable walls is studied using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The membrane morphology decomposes into adhesion patches on the upper and the lower walls and obeys a nonlinear evolution equation that resembles that of phase separation dynamics, which is known to lead to coarsening, i.e. to the endless growth of the adhesion patches. However, due to the membrane bending rigidity the system evolves towards a frozen state without coarsening. This frozen state exhibits an order-disorder transition when increasing the permeability of the walls.
- Aug 04 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1408.0097v2Antiferromagnetic chains with an odd number of spins are known to undergo a transition from an antiparallel to a spin-flop configuration when subjected to an increasing magnetic field. We show that in the presence of an anisotropy favoring alignment perpendicular to the field, the spin-flop state appears for both weak and strong field, the antiparallel state appearing for intermediate fields. Both transitions are second order, the configuration varying continuously with the field intensity. Such re-entrant transition is robust with respect to quantum fluctuations and it might be observed in different types of nanomagnets.
- Jan 20 2014 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1401.4263v3Universality has been a key concept for the classification of equilibrium critical phenomena, allowing associations among different physical processes and models. When dealing with non-equilibrium problems, however, the distinction in universality classes is not as clear and few are the examples, as phase separation and kinetic roughening, for which universality has allowed to classify results in a general spirit. Here we focus on an out-of-equilibrium case, unstable crystal growth, lying in between phase ordering and pattern formation. We consider a well established 2+1 dimensional family of continuum nonlinear equations for the local height $h(\mathbf{x},t)$ of a crystal surface having the general form ${\partial_t h(\mathbf{x},t)} = -\mathbf{\nabla}\cdot {[\mathbf{j}(\nabla h) + \mathbf{\nabla}(\nabla^2 h)]}$: $\mathbf{j}(\nabla h)$ is an arbitrary function, which is linear for small $\nabla h$, and whose structure expresses instabilities which lead to the formation of pyramid-like structures of planar size $L$ and height $H$. Our task is the choice and calculation of the quantities that can operate as critical exponents, together with the discussion of what is relevant or not to the definition of our universality class. These aims are achieved by means of a perturbative, multiscale analysis of our model, leading to phase diffusion equations whose diffusion coefficients encapsulate all relevant informations on dynamics. We identify two critical exponents: i) the coarsening exponent, $n$, controlling the increase in time of the typical size of the pattern, $L\sim t^n$; ii) the exponent $\beta$, controlling the increase in time of the typical slope of the pattern, $M \sim t^{\beta}$ where $M\approx H/L$. Our study reveals that there are only two different universality classes...
- Aug 23 2013 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1308.4870v2We investigate the coarsening evolution occurring in a simplified stochastic model of the Discrete NonLinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation in the so-called negative-temperature region. We provide an explanation of the coarsening exponent $n=1/3$, by invoking an analogy with a suitable exclusion process. In spite of the equivalence with the exponent observed in other known universality classes, this model is certainly different, in that it refers to a dynamics with two conservation laws.
- The foundation of continuum elasticity theory is based on two general principles: (i) the force felt by a small volume element from its surrounding acts only through its surface (the Cauchy principle, justified by the fact that interactions are of short range and are therefore localized at the boundary); (ii) the stress tensor must be symmetric in order to prevent spontaneous rotation of the material points. These two requirements are presented to be necessary in classical textbooks on elasticity theory. By using only basic spatial symmetries it is shown that elastodynamics equations can be derived, for high symmetry crystals (the typical case considered in most textbooks), without evoking any of the two above physical principles.
- Oct 08 2012 nlin.PS cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1210.1713v2Many nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) display a coarsening dynamics, i.e., an emerging pattern whose typical length scale $L$ increases with time. The so-called coarsening exponent $n$ characterizes the time dependence of the scale of the pattern, $L(t)\approx t^n$, and coarsening dynamics can be described by a diffusion equation for the phase of the pattern. By means of a multiscale analysis we are able to find the analytical expression of such diffusion equations. Here, we propose a recipe to implement numerically the determination of $D(\lambda)$, the phase diffusion coefficient, as a function of the wavelength $\lambda$ of the base steady state $u_0(x)$. $D$ carries all information about coarsening dynamics and, through the relation $|D(L)| \simeq L^2 /t$, it allows us to determine the coarsening exponent. The main conceptual message is that the coarsening exponent is determined without solving a time-dependent equation, but only by inspecting the periodic steady-state solutions. This provides a much faster strategy than a forward time-dependent calculation. We discuss our method for several different PDEs, both conserved and not conserved.
- Apr 27 2012 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1204.5957v2Moving crystal surfaces can undergo step-bunching instabilities, when subject to an electric current. We show analytically that an infinitesimal quantity of a dopant may invert the stability, whatever the sign of the current. Our study is relevant for experimental results [S. S. Kosolobov et al., JETP Lett. 81, 117 (2005)] on an evaporating Si(111) surface, which show a singular response to Au doping, whose density distribution is related to inhomogeneous Si diffusion.
- Apr 18 2012 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1204.3743v2Crystal surfaces may undergo thermodynamical as well kinetic, out-of-equilibrium instabilities. We consider the case of mound and pyramid formation, a common phenomenon in crystal growth and a long-standing problem in the field of pattern formation and coarsening dynamics. We are finally able to attack the problem analytically and get rigorous results. Three dynamical scenarios are possible: perpetual coarsening, interrupted coarsening, and no coarsening. In the perpetual coarsening scenario, mound size increases in time as L=t^n, where the coasening exponent is n=1/3 when faceting occurs, otherwise n=1/4.
- Dec 12 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1112.2069v2We have performed a systematic study of the effects of field strength and quenched disorder on the driven dynamics of square artificial spin ice. We construct a network representation of the configurational phase space, where nodes represent the microscopic configurations and a directed link between node i and node j means that the field may induce a transition between the corresponding configurations. In this way, we are able to quantitatively describe how the field and the disorder affect the connectedness of states and the reversibility of dynamics. In particular, we have shown that for optimal field strengths, a substantial fraction of all states can be accessed using external driving fields, and this fraction is increased by disorder. We discuss how this relates to control and potential information storage applications for artificial spin ices.
- Nov 29 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.dis-nn arXiv:1111.6491v2Quenched disorder affects how non-equilibrium systems respond to driving. In the context of artificial spin ice, an athermal system comprised of geometrically frustrated classical Ising spins with a two-fold degenerate ground state, we give experimental and numerical evidence of how such disorder washes out edge effects, and provide an estimate of disorder strength in the experimental system. We prove analytically that a sequence of applied fields with fixed amplitude is unable to drive the system to its ground state from a saturated state. These results should be relevant for other systems where disorder does not change the nature of the ground state.
- Oct 10 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1110.1463v1The field-induced dynamics of artificial spin ice are determined in part by interactions between magnetic islands, and the switching characteristics of each island. Disorder in either of these affects the response to applied fields. Numerical simulations are used to show that disorder effects are determined primarily by the strength of disorder relative to inter-island interactions, rather than by the type of disorder. Weak and strong disorder regimes exist and can be defined in a quantitative way.
- Aug 03 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1108.0536v2We report a novel approach to the question of whether and how the ground state can be achieved in square artificial spin ices where frustration is incomplete. We identify two types of disorder: quenched disorder in the island response to fields and disorder in the sequence of driving fields. Numerical simulations show that quenched disorder can lead to final states with lower energy, and disorder in the driving fields always lowers the final energy attained by the system. We use a network picture to understand these two effects: disorder in island responses creates new dynamical pathways, and disorder in driving fields allows more pathways to be followed.
- May 25 2011 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1105.4728v1A domain wall in a ferromagnetic system will move under the action of an external magnetic field. Ultrathin Co layers sandwiched between Pt have been shown to be a suitable experimental realization of a weakly disordered 2D medium in which to study the dynamics of 1D interfaces (magnetic domain walls). The behavior of these systems is encapsulated in the velocity-field response v(H) of the domain walls. In a recent paper [P.J. Metaxas et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 237206 (2010)] we studied the effect of ferromagnetic coupling between two such ultrathin layers, each exhibiting different v(H) characteristics. The main result was the existence of bound states over finite-width field ranges, wherein walls in the two layers moved together at the same speed. Here, we discuss in detail the theory of domain wall dynamics in coupled systems. In particular, we show that a bound creep state is expected for vanishing H and we give the analytical, parameter free expression for its velocity which agrees well with experimental results.
- Jun 02 2010 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1006.0121v2In a recent paper published in this journal [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 (2009) 495004] we studied a one-dimensional particles system where nearest particles attract with a force inversely proportional to a power \alpha of their distance and coalesce upon encounter. Numerics yielded a distribution function h(z) for the gap between neighbouring particles, with h(z)=z^\beta(\alpha) for small z and \beta(\alpha)>\alpha. We can now prove analytically that in the strict limit of z\to 0, \beta=\alpha for \alpha>0, corresponding to the mean-field result, and we compute the length scale where mean-field breaks down. More generally, in that same limit correlations are negligible for any similar reaction model where attractive forces diverge with vanishing distance. The actual meaning of the measured exponent \beta(\alpha) remains an open question.
- May 13 2010 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.dis-nn arXiv:1005.2166v1We demonstrate experimentally dynamic interface binding in a system consisting of two coupled ferromagnetic layers. While domain walls in each layer have different velocity-field responses, for two broad ranges of the driving field, H, walls in the two layers are bound and move at a common velocity. The bound states have their own velocity-field response and arise when the isolated wall velocities in each layer are close, a condition which always occurs as H->0. Several features of the bound states are reproduced using a one dimensional model, illustrating their general nature.
- Apr 16 2010 cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1004.2625v2Local magnetic ordering in artificial spin ices is discussed from the point of view of how geometrical frustration controls dynamics and the approach to steady state. We discuss the possibility of using a particle picture based on vertex configurations to interpret time evolution of magnetic configurations. Analysis of possible vertex processes allows us to anticipate different behaviors for open and closed edges and the existence of different field regimes. Numerical simulations confirm these results and also demonstrate the importance of correlations and long range interactions in understanding particle population evolution. We also show that a mean field model of vertex dynamics gives important insights into finite size effects.
- Sep 02 2009 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:0909.0183v1We study a one-dimensional particles system, in the overdamped limit, where nearest particles attract with a force inversely proportional to a power of their distance and coalesce upon encounter. The detailed shape of the distribution function for the gap between neighbouring particles serves to discriminate between different laws of attraction. We develop an exact Fokker-Planck approach for the infinite hierarchy of distribution functions for multiple adjacent gaps and solve it exactly, at the mean-field level, where correlations are ignored. The crucial role of correlations and their effect on the gap distribution function is explored both numerically and analytically. Finally, we analyse a random input of particles, which results in a stationary state where the effect of correlations is largely diminished.
- Apr 15 2009 cond-mat.stat-mech nlin.PS arXiv:0904.2204v2Instabilities and pattern formation is the rule in nonequilibrium systems. Selection of a persistent lengthscale, or coarsening (increase of the lengthscale with time) are the two major alternatives. When and under which conditions one dynamics prevails over the other is a longstanding problem, particularly beyond one dimension. It is shown that the challenge can be defied in two dimensions, using the concept of phase diffusion equation. We find that coarsening is related to the \lambda-dependence of a suitable phase diffusion coefficient, D_11(\lambda), depending on lattice symmetry and conservation laws. These results are exemplified analytically on prototypical nonlinear equations.
- Nov 12 2008 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:0811.1687v2Magnetic superlattices and nanowires may be described as Heisenberg spin chains of finite length N, where N is the number of magnetic units (films or atoms, respectively). We study antiferromagnetically coupled spins which are also coupled to an external field H (superlattices) or to a ferromagnetic substrate (nanowires). The model is analyzed through a two-dimensional map which allows fast and reliable numerical calculations. Both open and closed chains have different properties for even and odd N (parity effect). Open chains with odd N are known [S.Lounis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 107204 (2008)] to have a ferrimagnetic state for small N and a noncollinear state for large N. In the present paper, the transition length N_c is found analytically. Finally, we show that closed chains arrange themselves in the uniform bulk spin-flop state for even N and in nonuniform states for odd N.
- Oct 07 2008 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:0810.0761v2In a recent Letter, S. Lounis et al. find that the ground state of finite antiferromagnetic nanowires deposited on ferromagnets depends on the parity of the number N of atoms and that a collinear-noncollinear transition exists for odd N. Authors use ab initio results and a Heisenberg model, which is studied numerically with an iterative scheme. In this Comment we argue that the Heisenberg model can much easier be investigated in terms of a two-dimensional map, which allows to find an analytic expression for the transition length, a central result of Lounis et al. (see their Fig.3).
- Apr 02 2008 cond-mat.stat-mech nlin.PS arXiv:0804.0160v2The conserved Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (CKS) equation, u_t = -(u+u_xx+u_x^2)_xx, has recently been derived in the context of crystal growth, and it is also strictly related to a similar equation appearing, e.g., in sand-ripple dynamics. We show that this equation can be mapped into the motion of a system of particles with attractive interactions, decaying as the inverse of their distance. Particles represent vanishing regions of diverging curvature, joined by arcs of a single parabola, and coalesce upon encounter. The coalescing particles model is easier to simulate than the original CKS equation. The growing interparticle distance \ell represents coarsening of the system, and we are able to establish firmly the scaling \ell(t) ∼\sqrtt. We obtain its probability distribution function, g(\ell), numerically, and study it analytically within the hypothesis of uncorrelated intervals, finding an overestimate at large distances. Finally, we introduce a method based on coalescence waves which might be useful to gain better analytical insights into the model.
- Jul 12 2007 cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:0707.1582v2We describe a novel type of magnetic domain wall which, in contrast to Bloch or Neel walls, is non-localized and, in a certain temperature range, non-monotonic. The wall appears as the mean-field solution of the two-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model frustrated by the long-ranged dipolar interaction. We provide experimental evidence of this wall delocalization in the stripe-domain phase of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin magnetic films. In agreement with experimental results, we find that the stripe width decreases with increasing temperature and approaches a finite value at the Curie-temperature following a power law. The same kind of wall and a similar temperature dependence of the stripe width is expected in the mean-field approximation of the two-dimensional Coulomb frustrated Ising ferromagnet.
- Oct 26 2006 cond-mat.stat-mech nlin.PS arXiv:cond-mat/0610684v1We study the effect of a higher-order nonlinearity in the standard Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation: \partial_x \tilde G(H_x). We find that the stability of steady states depends on dv/dq, the derivative of the interface velocity on the wavevector q of the steady state. If the standard nonlinearity vanishes, coarsening is possible, in principle, only if \tilde G is an odd function of H_x. In this case, the equation falls in the category of the generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation, whose dynamical behavior was recently studied by the same authors. Instead, if \tilde G is an even function of H_x, we show that steady-state solutions are not permissible.
- Oct 10 2006 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0610233v1Thin ferromagnetic elements in the form of rectangular prisms are theoretically investigated in order to study the transition from single-domain to two-domain state, with changing the in-plane aspect ratio p. We address two main questions: first, how general is the transition; second, how the critical value p_c depends on the physical parameters. We use two complementary methods: discrete-lattice calculations and a micromagnetic continuum approach. Ultrathin films do not appear to split in two domains. Instead, thicker films may undergo the above transition. We have used the continuum approach to analyze recent Magnetic Force Microscopy observations in 30 nm-thick patterned Permalloy elements, finding a good agreement for p_c.
- Recent work on the dynamics of a crystal surface [T.Frisch and A.Verga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166104 (2006)] has focused the attention on the conserved Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (CKS) equation: \partial_t u = -\partial_xx(u+u_xx+u_x^2), which displays coarsening. For a quantitative and qualitative understanding of the dynamics, the analysis of steady states is particularly relevant. In this paper we provide a detailed study of the stationary solutions and their explicit form is given. Periodic configurations form an increasing branch in the space wavelength-amplitude (lambda-A), with d(lambda)/dA>0. For large wavelength, lambda=4\sqrtA and the orbits in phase space tend to a separatrix, which is a parabola. Steady states are found up to an additive constant a, which is set by the dynamics through the conservation law \partial_t <u(x,t)>=0: a(lambda(t))=lambda^2(t)/48.
- Jun 14 2006 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:cond-mat/0606315v2We consider a class of unstable surface growth models, z_t = -\partial_x J, developing a mound structure of size lambda and displaying a perpetual coarsening process, i.e. an endless increase in time of lambda. The coarsening exponents n, defined by the growth law of the mound size lambda with time, lambda=t^n, were previously found by numerical integration of the growth equations [A. Torcini and P. Politi, Eur. Phys. J. B 25, 519 (2002)]. Recent analytical work now allows to interpret such findings as finite time effective exponents. The asymptotic exponents are shown to appear at so large time that cannot be reached by direct integration of the growth equations. The reason for the appearance of effective exponents is clearly identified.
- Jan 31 2006 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0601655v2We face the problem to determine the slope dependent current during the epitaxial growth process of a crystal surface. This current is proportional to delta=(p+) + (p-), where (p+/-) are the probabilities for an atom landing on a terrace to attach to the ascending (p+) or descending (p-) step. If the landing probability is spatially uniform, the current is proved to be proportional to the average (signed) distance traveled by an adatom before incorporation in the growing surface. The phenomenon of slope selection is determined by the vanishing of the asymmetry delta. We apply our results to the case of atoms feeling step edge barriers and downward funnelling, or step edge barriers and steering. In the general case, it is not correct to consider the slope dependent current j as a sum of separate contributions due to different mechanisms.
- Dec 05 2005 cond-mat.stat-mech nlin.PS arXiv:cond-mat/0512055v2We develop a general criterion about coarsening for a class of nonlinear evolution equations describing one dimensional pattern-forming systems. This criterion allows one to discriminate between the situation where a coarsening process takes place and the one where the wavelength is fixed in the course of time. An intermediate scenario may occur, namely `interrupted coarsening'. The power of the criterion lies in the fact that the statement about the occurrence of coarsening, or selection of a length scale, can be made by only inspecting the behavior of the branch of steady state periodic solutions. The criterion states that coarsening occurs if lambda'(A)>0 while a length scale selection prevails if lambda'(A)<0, where $lambda$ is the wavelength of the pattern and A is the amplitude of the profile. This criterion is established thanks to the analysis of the phase diffusion equation of the pattern. We connect the phase diffusion coefficient D(lambda) (which carries a kinetic information) to lambda'(A), which refers to a pure steady state property. The relationship between kinetics and the behavior of the branch of steady state solutions is established fully analytically for several classes of equations. Another important and new result which emerges here is that the exploitation of the phase diffusion coefficient enables us to determine in a rather straightforward manner the dynamical coarsening exponent. Our calculation, based on the idea that |D(lambda)|=lambda^2/t, is exemplified on several nonlinear equations, showing that the exact exponent is captured. Some speculations about the extension of the present results to higher dimension are outlined.
- Nov 16 2005 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0511380v2We consider two sequential models of deposition and aggregation for particles. The first model (No Diffusion) simulates surface diffusion through a deterministic capture area, while the second (Sequential Diffusion) allows the atoms to diffuse up to \ell steps. Therefore the second model incorporates more fluctuations than the first, but still less than usual (Full Diffusion) models of deposition and diffusion on a crystal surface. We study the time dependence of the average densities of atoms and islands and the island size distribution. The Sequential Diffusion model displays a nontrivial steady-state regime where the island density increases and the island size distribution obeys scaling, much in the same way as the standard Full Diffusion model for epitaxial growth. Our results also allow to gain insight into the role of different types of fluctuations.
- Oct 21 2005 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:cond-mat/0510534v2An infinite triangular lattice of classical dipolar spins is usually considered to have a ferromagnetic ground state. We examine the validity of this statement for finite lattices and in the limit of large lattices. We find that the ground state of rectangular arrays is strongly dependent on size and aspect ratio. Three results emerge that are significant for understanding the ground state properties: i) formation of domain walls is energetically favored for aspect ratios below a critical valu e; ii) the vortex state is always energetically favored in the thermodynamic limit of an infinite number of spins, but nevertheless such a configuration may not be observed even in very large lattices if the aspect ratio is large; iii) finite range approximations to actual dipole sums may not provide the correct ground sta te configuration because the ferromagnetic state is linearly unstable and the domain wall energy is negative for any finite range cutoff.
- Aug 08 2005 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:cond-mat/0508149v2We consider the growth of a vicinal crystal surface in the presence of a step-edge barrier. For any value of the barrier strength, measured by the length l_es, nucleation of islands on terraces is always able to destroy asymptotically step-flow growth. The breakdown of the metastable step-flow occurs through the formation of a mound of critical width proportional to L_c=1/sqrt(l_es), the length associated to the linear instability of a high-symmetry surface. The time required for the destabilization grows exponentially with L_c. Thermal detachment from steps or islands, or a steeper slope increase the instability time but do not modify the above picture, nor change L_c significantly. Standard continuum theories cannot be used to evaluate the activation energy of the critical mound and the instability time. The dynamics of a mound can be described as a one dimensional random walk for its height k: attaining the critical height (i.e. the critical size) means that the probability to grow (k->k+1) becomes larger than the probability for the mound to shrink (k->k-1). Thermal detachment induces correlations in the random walk, otherwise absent.
- Mar 23 2005 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0503538v4The field-driven reorientation transition of an anisotropic ferromagnetic monolayer is studied within the context of a finite-temperature Green's function theory. The equilibrium state and the field dependence of the magnon energy gap $E_0$ are calculated for static magnetic field $H$ applied in plane along an easy or a hard axis. In the latter case, the in-plane reorientation of the magnetization is shown to be continuous at T=0, in agreement with free spin wave theory, and discontinuous at finite temperature $T>0$, in contrast with the prediction of mean field theory. The discontinuity in the orientation angle creates a jump in the magnon energy gap, and it is the reason why, for $T>0$, the energy does not go to zero at the reorientation field. Above the Curie temperature $T_C$, the magnon energy gap $E_0(H)$ vanishes for H=0 both in the easy and in the hard case. As $H$ is increased, the gap is found to increase almost linearly with $H$, but with different slopes depending on the field orientation. In particular, the slope is smaller when $H$ is along the hard axis. Such a magnetic anisotropy of the spin-wave energies is shown to persist well above $T_C$ ($T \approx 1.2 T_C$).
- Feb 09 2005 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:cond-mat/0502199v3We consider the effect of nucleation on a one-dimensional stepped surface, finding that step-flow growth is metastable for any strength of the additional step-edge barrier. The surface is made unstable by the formation of a critical nucleus, whose lateral size is related to the destabilization process on a high-symmetry surface. Arguments based on a critical nucleus of height two, which suggest the existence of a fully stable regime for small barrier, fail to describe this phenomenon.
- Sep 03 2004 cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0409048v2We introduce a sequential model for the deposition and aggregation of particles in the submonolayer regime. Once a particle has been randomly deposited on the substrate, it sticks to the closest atom or island within a distance \ell, otherwise it sticks to the deposition site. We study this model both numerically and analytically in one dimension. A clear comprehension of its statistical properties is provided, thanks to capture equations and to the analysis of the island-island distance distribution.
- Feb 26 2004 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0402617v2A double-peaked structure was observed in the \it in-situ Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS) spectra of a 6 Å$ $ thick epitaxial Fe/GaAs(001) film for values of an external magnetic field $H$, applied along the hard in plane direction, lower than a critical value $H_c\simeq 0.9$ kOe. This experimental finding is theoretically interpreted in terms of a model which assumes a non-homogeneous magnetic ground state characterized by the presence of perperpendicular up/down stripe domains. For such a ground state, two spin-wave modes, namely an acoustic and an optic mode, can exist. Upon increasing the field the magnetization tilts in the film plane, and for $H \ge H_{c}$ the ground state is homogeneous, thus allowing the existence of just a single spin-wave mode. The frequencies of the two spin-wave modes were calculated and successfully compared with the experimental data. The field dependence of the intensities of the corresponding two peaks that are present in the BLS spectra was also estimated, providing further support to the above-mentioned interpretation.
- Jul 04 2003 cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0307072v2Dynamics of a one-dimensional growing front with an unstable straight profile are analyzed. We argue that a coarsening process occurs if and only if the period \lambda of the steady state solution is an increasing function of its amplitude A. This statement is rigorously proved for two important classes of conserved and nonconserved models by investigating the phase diffusion equation of the steady pattern. We further provide clear numerical evidences for the growth equation of a stepped crystal surface.
- Sep 27 2002 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0209609v2Recently, the nucleation rate on top of a terrace during the irreversible growth of a crystal surface by MBE has been determined exactly. In this paper we go beyond the standard model usually employed to study the nucleation process, and we analyze the qualitative and quantitative consequences of two important additional physical ingredients: the nonuniformity of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier at the step-edge, because of the existence of kinks, and the steering effects, due to the interaction between the atoms of the flux and the substrate. We apply our results to typical experiments of second layer nucleation.
- Aug 07 2002 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0208097v1We determine the effective dipolar interaction between single domain two-dimensional ferromagnetic particles (islands or dots), taking into account their finite size. The first correction term decays as 1/D^5, where D is the distance between particles. If the particles are arranged in a regular two-dimensional array and are magnetized in plane, we show that the correction term reinforces the antiferromagnetic character of the ground state in a square lattice, and the ferromagnetic one in a triangular lattice. We also determine the dipolar spin-wave spectrum and evaluate how the Curie temperature of an ensemble of magnetic particles scales with the parameters defining the particle array: height and size of each particle, and interparticle distance. Our results show that dipolar coupling between particles might induce ferromagnetic long range order at experimentally relevant temperatures. However, depending on the size of the particles, such a collective phenomenon may be disguised by superparamagnetism.
- Jul 17 2002 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:cond-mat/0207404v1We study irreversible dimer nucleation on top of terraces during epitaxial growth in one and two dimensions, for all values of the step-edge barrier. The problem is solved exactly by transforming it into a first passage problem for a random walker in a higher-dimensional space. The spatial distribution of nucleation events is shown to differ markedly from the mean-field estimate except in the limit of very weak step-edge barriers. The nucleation rate is computed exactly, including numerical prefactors.
- Jul 17 2002 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:cond-mat/0207402v1The formation of stable dimers on top of terraces during epitaxial growth is investigated in detail. In this paper we focus on mean-field theory, the standard approach to study nucleation. Such theory is shown to be unsuitable for the present problem, because it is equivalent to considering adatoms as independent diffusing particles. This leads to an overestimate of the correct nucleation rate by a factor N, which has a direct physical meaning: in average, a visited lattice site is visited N times by a diffusing adatom. The dependence of N on the size of the terrace and on the strength of step-edge barriers is derived from well known results for random walks. The spatial distribution of nucleation events is shown to be different from the mean-field prediction, for the same physical reason. In the following paper we develop an exact treatment of the problem.
- Nov 16 2001 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0111270v2Brillouin light scattering (BLS) measurements were performed for (17-120) Angstrom thick Cu/Ni/Cu/Si(001) films. A monotonic dependence of the frequency of the uniform mode on an in-plane magnetic field H was observed both on increasing and on decreasing H in the range (2-14) kOe, suggesting the absence of a metastable collinear perpendicular ground state. Further investigation by magneto-optical vector magnetometry (MOKE-VM) in an unconventional canted-field geometry provided evidence for a domain structure where the magnetization is canted with respect to the perpendicular to the film. Spin wave calculations confirm the absence of stable collinear configurations.
- Surface growth models may give rise to unstable growth with mound formation whose tipical linear size L increases in time. In one dimensional systems coarsening is generally driven by an attractive interaction between domain walls or kinks. This picture applies to growth models for which the largest surface slope remains constant in time (model B): coarsening is known to be logarithmic in the absence of noise (L(t)=log t) and to follow a power law (L(t)=t^1/3) when noise is present. If surface slope increases indefinitely, the deterministic equation looks like a modified Cahn-Hilliard equation: here we study the late stage of coarsening through a linear stability analysis of the stationary periodic configurations and through a direct numerical integration. Analytical and numerical results agree with regard to the conclusion that steepening of mounds makes deterministic coarsening faster: if alpha is the exponent describing the steepening of the maximal slope M of mounds (M^alpha = L) we find that L(t)=t^n: n is equal to 1/4 for 1<alpha<2 and it decreases from 1/4 to 1/5 for alpha>2, according to n=alpha/(5*alpha -2). On the other side, the numerical solution of the corresponding stochastic equation clearly shows that in the presence of shot noise steepening of mounds makes coarsening slower than in model B: L(t)=t^1/4, irrespectively of alpha. Finally, the presence of a symmetry breaking term is shown not to modify the coarsening law of model alpha=1, both in the absence and in the presence of noise.
- Aug 01 2001 cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/0107631v1The epitaxial growth process of a high symmetry surface occurs because adatoms meet and nucleate new islands, that eventually coalesce and complete atomic layers. During multilayer growth, nucleation usually takes place on top of terraces where the geometry of the diffusion process is well defined: We have studied in detail the spatiotemporal distribution of nucleation events and the resulting nucleation rate, a quantity of primary importance to model experimental results and evaluate diffusion barriers at step-edges. We provide rigorous results for irreversible nucleation and we assess the limits of mean-field theory (MFT): we show that MFT overestimates the correct result by a factor proportional to the number of times an adatom diffusing on the terrace visits an already visited lattice site. In this report we aim at giving a simple physical account of our results.
- Feb 13 2001 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:cond-mat/0102212v2We consider irreversible second-layer nucleation that occurs when two adatoms on a terrace meet. We solve the problem analytically in one dimension for zero and infinite step-edge barriers, and numerically for any value of the barriers in one and two dimensions. For large barriers, the spatial distribution of nucleation events strongly differs from $\rho^2$, where $\rho$ is the stationary adatom density in the presence of a constant flux. The probability $Q(t)$ that nucleation occurs at time $t$ after the deposition of the second adatom, decays for short time as a power law [$Q(t)\sim t^{-1/2}$] in $d=1$ and logarithmically [$Q(t)\sim 1/\ln(t/t_0)$] in $d=2$; for long time it decays exponentially. Theories of the nucleation rate $\omega$ based on the assumption that it is proportional to $\rho^2$ are shown to overestimate $\omega$ by a factor proportional to the number of times an adatom diffusing on the terrace visits an already visited lattice site.
- Jan 25 2000 cond-mat.stat-mech nlin.PS arXiv:cond-mat/0001337v1We study conserved models of crystal growth in one dimension [$\partial_t z(x,t) =-\partial_x j(x,t)$] which are linearly unstable and develop a mound structure whose typical size L increases in time ($L = t^n$). If the local slope ($m =\partial_x z$) increases indefinitely, $n$ depends on the exponent $\gamma$ characterizing the large $m$ behaviour of the surface current $j$ ($j = 1/|m|^\gamma$): $n=1/4$ for $1< \gamma <3$ and $n=(1+\gamma)/(1+5\gamma)$ for $\gamma>3$.
- We develop a theory of nucleation on top of two-dimensional islands bordered by steps with an additional energy barrier $\Delta E_S$ for descending atoms. The theory is based on the concept of the residence time of an adatom on the island,and yields an expression for the nucleation rate which becomes exact in the limit of strong step edge barriers. This expression differs qualitatively and quantitatively from that obtained using the conventional rate equation approach to nucleation [J. Tersoff et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 266 (1994)]. We argue that rate equation theory fails because nucleation is dominated by the rare instances when two atoms are present on the island simultaneously. The theory is applied to two distinct problems: The onset of second layer nucleation in submonolayer growth, and the distribution of the sizes of top terraces of multilayer mounds under conditions of strong step edge barriers. Application to homoepitaxial growth on Pt(111) yields the estimate $\Delta E_S \geq 0.33$ eV for the additional energy barrier at CO-decorated steps.
- Aug 11 1999 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:cond-mat/9908152v2We study the effect of crystal symmetry and step-edge diffusion on the surface current governing the evolution of a growing crystal surface. We find there are two possible contributions to anisotropic currents, which both lead to the destabilization of the flat surface: terrace current (j_t), which is parallel to the surface slope, and step current (j_s), which has components parallel (j_pa) and perpendicular (j_pe) to the slope. On a high-symmetry surface, terrace and step currents are generically singular at zero slope, and this does not allow to perform the standard linear stability analysis. As far as a one-dimensional profile is considered, (j_pe) is irrelevant and (j_pa) suggests that mound sides align along [110] and [1-10] axes. On a vicinal surface, (j_s) destabilizes against step bunching; its effect against step meandering depends on the step orientation, in agreement with the recent findings by O.Pierre-Louis et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3661 (1999)].
- Jun 19 1999 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:cond-mat/9906289v1The planar front of a growing a crystal is often destroyed by instabilities. In the case of growth from a condensed phase, the most frequent ones are diffusion instabilities, which will be but briefly discussed in simple terms in chapter II. The present review is mainly devoted to instabilities which arise in ballistic growth, especially Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The reasons of the instabilities can be geometric (shadowing effect), but they are mostly kinetic or thermodynamic. The kinetic instabilities which will be studied in detail in chapters IV and V result from the fact that adatoms diffusing on a surface do not easily cross steps (Ehrlich-Schwoebel or ES effect). When the growth front is a high symmetry surface, the ES effect produces mounds which often coarsen in time according to power laws. When the growth front is a stepped surface, the ES effect initially produces a meandering of the steps, which eventually may also give rise to mounds. Kinetic instabilities can usually be avoided by raising the temperature, but this favours thermodynamic instabilities. Concerning these ones, the attention will be focussed on the instabilities resulting from slightly different lattice constants of the substrate and the adsorbate. They can take the following forms. i) Formation of misfit dislocations (chapter VIII). ii) Formation of isolated epitaxial clusters which, at least in their earliest form, are `coherent' with the substrate, i.e. dislocation-free (chapter X). iii) Wavy deformation of the surface, which is presumably the incipient stage of (ii) (chapter IX). The theories and the experiments are critically reviewed and their comparison is qualitatively satisfactory although some important questions have not yet received a complete answer.
- Mar 06 1998 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:cond-mat/9803063v2A high-symmetry crystal surface may undergo a kinetic instability during the growth, such that its late stage evolution resembles a phase separation process. This parallel is rigorous in one dimension, if the conserved surface current is derivable from a free energy. We study the problem in presence of a physically relevant term breaking the up-down symmetry of the surface and which can not be derived from a free energy. Following the treatment introduced by Kawasaki and Ohta [Physica 116A, 573 (1982)] for the symmetric case, we are able to translate the problem of the surface evolution into a problem of nonlinear dynamics of kinks (domain walls). Because of the break of symmetry, two different classes ($A$ and $B$) of kinks appear and their analytical form is derived. The effect of the adding term is to shrink a kink $A$ and to widen the neighbouring kink $B$, in such a way that the product of their widths keeps constant. Concerning the dynamics, this implies that kinks $A$ move much faster than kinks $B$. Since the kink profiles approach exponentially the asymptotical values, the time dependence of the average distance $L(t)$ between kinks does not change: $L(t)\sim\ln t$ in absence of noise, and $L(t)\sim t^{1/3}$ in presence of (shot) noise. However, the cross-over time between the first and the second regime may increase even of some orders of magnitude. Finally, our results show that kinks $A$ may be so narrow that their width is comparable to the lattice constant: in this case, they indeed represent a discontinuity of the surface slope, that is an angular point, and a different approach to coarsening should be used.
- Dec 18 1997 cond-mat arXiv:cond-mat/9712207v1Domain structures appear in ultrathin magnetic films, if an easy-axis anisotropy, favouring the direction perpendicular to the film, overcomes the shape anisotropy. We will study the nature of the magnetic ground state and how the different parameters influence the domain structure. Both Ising and Heisenberg spins will be considered: in the latter case, a reorientation phase transition may take place. Domains are expected to appear just before such transition. Domain structures at finite temperature will be described in terms of a two dimensional array of domain walls, whose behaviour resembles a liquid crystal.
- Dec 16 1997 cond-mat arXiv:cond-mat/9712158v1We study the effect of dipolar interactions on a magnetic striped monolayer with a microscopic unit cell of square symmetry, and of size $(N_x\times N_y)$ spins. Even if the aspect ratio $r=N_x/N_y$ is very large, an in-plane shape anisotropy is always negligible, except if $N_y$ is fairly small $(N_y<40)$. In-plane domains are not possible, except for values of the dipolar coupling larger than the domain wall energy.