Source separation (SS) aims to separate individual sources from an audio recording. Sound event detection (SED) aims to detect sound events from an audio recording. We propose a joint separation-classification (JSC) model trained only on weakly labelled audio data, that is, only the tags of an audio recording are known but the time of the events are unknown. First, we propose a separation mapping from the time-frequency (T-F) representation of an audio to the T-F segmentation masks of the audio events. Second, a classification mapping is built from each T-F segmentation mask to the presence probability of each audio event. In the source separation stage, sources of audio events and time of sound events can be obtained from the T-F segmentation masks. The proposed method achieves an equal error rate (EER) of 0.14 in SED, outperforming deep neural network baseline of 0.29. Source separation SDR of 8.08 dB is obtained by using global weighted rank pooling (GWRP) as probability mapping, outperforming the global max pooling (GMP) based probability mapping giving SDR at 0.03 dB. Source code of our work is published.
This paper investigates the classification of the Audio Set dataset. Audio Set is a large scale weakly labelled dataset of sound clips. Previous work used multiple instance learning (MIL) to classify weakly labelled data. In MIL, a bag consists of several instances, and a bag is labelled positive if at least one instances in the audio clip is positive. A bag is labelled negative if all the instances in the bag are negative. We propose an attention model to tackle the MIL problem and explain this attention model from a novel probabilistic perspective. We define a probability space on each bag, where each instance in the bag has a trainable probability measure for each class. Then the classification of a bag is the expectation of the classification output of the instances in the bag with respect to the learned probability measure. Experimental results show that our proposed attention model modeled by fully connected deep neural network obtains mAP of 0.327 on Audio Set dataset, outperforming the Google's baseline of 0.314 and recurrent neural network of 0.325.
In deep neural networks with convolutional layers, each layer typically has fixed-size/single-resolution receptive field (RF). Convolutional layers with a large RF capture global information from the input features, while layers with small RF size capture local details with high resolution from the input features. In this work, we introduce novel deep multi-resolution fully convolutional neural networks (MR-FCNN), where each layer has different RF sizes to extract multi-resolution features that capture the global and local details information from its input features. The proposed MR-FCNN is applied to separate a target audio source from a mixture of many audio sources. Experimental results show that using MR-FCNN improves the performance compared to feedforward deep neural networks (DNNs) and single resolution deep fully convolutional neural networks (FCNNs) on the audio source separation problem.
In this paper, we present a gated convolutional neural network and a temporal attention-based localization method for audio classification, which won the 1st place in the large-scale weakly supervised sound event detection task of Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events (DCASE) 2017 challenge. The audio clips in this task, which are extracted from YouTube videos, are manually labeled with one or a few audio tags but without timestamps of the audio events, which is called as weakly labeled data. Two sub-tasks are defined in this challenge including audio tagging and sound event detection using this weakly labeled data. A convolutional recurrent neural network (CRNN) with learnable gated linear units (GLUs) non-linearity applied on the log Mel spectrogram is proposed. In addition, a temporal attention method is proposed along the frames to predicate the locations of each audio event in a chunk from the weakly labeled data. We ranked the 1st and the 2nd as a team in these two sub-tasks of DCASE 2017 challenge with F value 55.6\% and Equal error 0.73, respectively.
Sep 05 2017 cs.SD
In this technique report, we present a bunch of methods for the task 4 of Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events 2017 (DCASE2017) challenge. This task evaluates systems for the large-scale detection of sound events using weakly labeled training data. The data are YouTube video excerpts focusing on transportation and warnings due to their industry applications. There are two tasks, audio tagging and sound event detection from weakly labeled data. Convolutional neural network (CNN) and gated recurrent unit (GRU) based recurrent neural network (RNN) are adopted as our basic framework. We proposed a learnable gating activation function for selecting informative local features. Attention-based scheme is used for localizing the specific events in a weakly-supervised mode. A new batch-level balancing strategy is also proposed to tackle the data unbalancing problem. Fusion of posteriors from different systems are found effective to improve the performance. In a summary, we get 61% F-value for the audio tagging subtask and 0.73 error rate (ER) for the sound event detection subtask on the development set. While the official multilayer perceptron (MLP) based baseline just obtained 13.1% F-value for the audio tagging and 1.02 for the sound event detection.
Mar 24 2017 cs.SD
Deep learning techniques have been used recently to tackle the audio source separation problem. In this work, we propose to use deep fully convolutional denoising autoencoders (CDAEs) for monaural audio source separation. We use as many CDAEs as the number of sources to be separated from the mixed signal. Each CDAE is trained to separate one source and treats the other sources as background noise. The main idea is to allow each CDAE to learn suitable spectral-temporal filters and features to its corresponding source. Our experimental results show that CDAEs perform source separation slightly better than the deep feedforward neural networks (FNNs) even with fewer parameters than FNNs.
Mar 20 2017 cs.SD
Audio tagging aims to perform multi-label classification on audio chunks and it is a newly proposed task in the Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events 2016 (DCASE 2016) challenge. This task encourages research efforts to better analyze and understand the content of the huge amounts of audio data on the web. The difficulty in audio tagging is that it only has a chunk-level label without a frame-level label. This paper presents a weakly supervised method to not only predict the tags but also indicate the temporal locations of the occurred acoustic events. The attention scheme is found to be effective in identifying the important frames while ignoring the unrelated frames. The proposed framework is a deep convolutional recurrent model with two auxiliary modules: an attention module and a localization module. The proposed algorithm was evaluated on the Task 4 of DCASE 2016 challenge. State-of-the-art performance was achieved on the evaluation set with equal error rate (EER) reduced from 0.13 to 0.11, compared with the convolutional recurrent baseline system.
Environmental audio tagging is a newly proposed task to predict the presence or absence of a specific audio event in a chunk. Deep neural network (DNN) based methods have been successfully adopted for predicting the audio tags in the domestic audio scene. In this paper, we propose to use a convolutional neural network (CNN) to extract robust features from mel-filter banks (MFBs), spectrograms or even raw waveforms for audio tagging. Gated recurrent unit (GRU) based recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are then cascaded to model the long-term temporal structure of the audio signal. To complement the input information, an auxiliary CNN is designed to learn on the spatial features of stereo recordings. We evaluate our proposed methods on Task 4 (audio tagging) of the Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events 2016 (DCASE 2016) challenge. Compared with our recent DNN-based method, the proposed structure can reduce the equal error rate (EER) from 0.13 to 0.11 on the development set. The spatial features can further reduce the EER to 0.10. The performance of the end-to-end learning on raw waveforms is also comparable. Finally, on the evaluation set, we get the state-of-the-art performance with 0.12 EER while the performance of the best existing system is 0.15 EER.
Oct 07 2016 cs.SD
Audio tagging aims to assign one or several tags to an audio clip. Most of the datasets are weakly labelled, which means only the tags of the clip are known, without knowing the occurrence time of the tags. The labeling of an audio clip is often based on the audio events in the clip and no event level label is provided to the user. Previous works have used the bag of frames model assume the tags occur all the time, which is not the case in practice. We propose a joint detection-classification (JDC) model to detect and classify the audio clip simultaneously. The JDC model has the ability to attend to informative and ignore uninformative sounds. Then only informative regions are used for classification. Experimental results on the "CHiME Home" dataset show that the JDC model reduces the equal error rate (EER) from 19.0% to 16.9%. More interestingly, the audio event detector is trained successfully without needing the event level label.
Sep 07 2016 cs.SD
The sources separated by most single channel audio source separation techniques are usually distorted and each separated source contains residual signals from the other sources. To tackle this problem, we propose to enhance the separated sources to decrease the distortion and interference between the separated sources using deep neural networks (DNNs). Two different DNNs are used in this work. The first DNN is used to separate the sources from the mixed signal. The second DNN is used to enhance the separated signals. To consider the interactions between the separated sources, we propose to use a single DNN to enhance all the separated sources together. To reduce the residual signals of one source from the other separated sources (interference), we train the DNN for enhancement discriminatively to maximize the dissimilarity between the predicted sources. The experimental results show that using discriminative enhancement decreases the distortion and interference between the separated sources.
In the context of the Internet of Things (IoT), sound sensing applications are required to run on embedded platforms where notions of product pricing and form factor impose hard constraints on the available computing power. Whereas Automatic Environmental Sound Recognition (AESR) algorithms are most often developed with limited consideration for computational cost, this article seeks which AESR algorithm can make the most of a limited amount of computing power by comparing the sound classification performance em as a function of its computational cost. Results suggest that Deep Neural Networks yield the best ratio of sound classification accuracy across a range of computational costs, while Gaussian Mixture Models offer a reasonable accuracy at a consistently small cost, and Support Vector Machines stand between both in terms of compromise between accuracy and computational cost.
Environmental audio tagging aims to predict only the presence or absence of certain acoustic events in the interested acoustic scene. In this paper we make contributions to audio tagging in two parts, respectively, acoustic modeling and feature learning. We propose to use a shrinking deep neural network (DNN) framework incorporating unsupervised feature learning to handle the multi-label classification task. For the acoustic modeling, a large set of contextual frames of the chunk are fed into the DNN to perform a multi-label classification for the expected tags, considering that only chunk (or utterance) level rather than frame-level labels are available. Dropout and background noise aware training are also adopted to improve the generalization capability of the DNNs. For the unsupervised feature learning, we propose to use a symmetric or asymmetric deep de-noising auto-encoder (sDAE or aDAE) to generate new data-driven features from the Mel-Filter Banks (MFBs) features. The new features, which are smoothed against background noise and more compact with contextual information, can further improve the performance of the DNN baseline. Compared with the standard Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) baseline of the DCASE 2016 audio tagging challenge, our proposed method obtains a significant equal error rate (EER) reduction from 0.21 to 0.13 on the development set. The proposed aDAE system can get a relative 6.7% EER reduction compared with the strong DNN baseline on the development set. Finally, the results also show that our approach obtains the state-of-the-art performance with 0.15 EER on the evaluation set of the DCASE 2016 audio tagging task while EER of the first prize of this challenge is 0.17.
In this paper, we present a deep neural network (DNN)-based acoustic scene classification framework. Two hierarchical learning methods are proposed to improve the DNN baseline performance by incorporating the hierarchical taxonomy information of environmental sounds. Firstly, the parameters of the DNN are initialized by the proposed hierarchical pre-training. Multi-level objective function is then adopted to add more constraint on the cross-entropy based loss function. A series of experiments were conducted on the Task1 of the Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events (DCASE) 2016 challenge. The final DNN-based system achieved a 22.9% relative improvement on average scene classification error as compared with the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based benchmark system across four standard folds.
Acoustic event detection for content analysis in most cases relies on lots of labeled data. However, manually annotating data is a time-consuming task, which thus makes few annotated resources available so far. Unlike audio event detection, automatic audio tagging, a multi-label acoustic event classification task, only relies on weakly labeled data. This is highly desirable to some practical applications using audio analysis. In this paper we propose to use a fully deep neural network (DNN) framework to handle the multi-label classification task in a regression way. Considering that only chunk-level rather than frame-level labels are available, the whole or almost whole frames of the chunk were fed into the DNN to perform a multi-label regression for the expected tags. The fully DNN, which is regarded as an encoding function, can well map the audio features sequence to a multi-tag vector. A deep pyramid structure was also designed to extract more robust high-level features related to the target tags. Further improved methods were adopted, such as the Dropout and background noise aware training, to enhance its generalization capability for new audio recordings in mismatched environments. Compared with the conventional Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and support vector machine (SVM) methods, the proposed fully DNN-based method could well utilize the long-term temporal information with the whole chunk as the input. The results show that our approach obtained a 15% relative improvement compared with the official GMM-based method of DCASE 2016 challenge.
May 05 2015 cs.SD
Audio source separation is a difficult machine learning problem and performance is measured by comparing extracted signals with the component source signals. However, if separation is motivated by the ultimate goal of re-mixing then complete separation is not necessary and hence separation difficulty and separation quality are dependent on the nature of the re-mix. Here, we use a convolutional deep neural network (DNN), trained to estimate 'ideal' binary masks for separating voice from music, to perform re-mixing of the vocal balance by operating directly on the individual magnitude components of the musical mixture spectrogram. Our results demonstrate that small changes in vocal gain may be applied with very little distortion to the ultimate re-mix. Our method may be useful for re-mixing existing mixes.
Identification and extraction of singing voice from within musical mixtures is a key challenge in source separation and machine audition. Recently, deep neural networks (DNN) have been used to estimate 'ideal' binary masks for carefully controlled cocktail party speech separation problems. However, it is not yet known whether these methods are capable of generalizing to the discrimination of voice and non-voice in the context of musical mixtures. Here, we trained a convolutional DNN (of around a billion parameters) to provide probabilistic estimates of the ideal binary mask for separation of vocal sounds from real-world musical mixtures. We contrast our DNN results with more traditional linear methods. Our approach may be useful for automatic removal of vocal sounds from musical mixtures for 'karaoke' type applications.
In this article we present an account of the state-of-the-art in acoustic scene classification (ASC), the task of classifying environments from the sounds they produce. Starting from a historical review of previous research in this area, we define a general framework for ASC and present different imple- mentations of its components. We then describe a range of different algorithms submitted for a data challenge that was held to provide a general and fair benchmark for ASC techniques. The dataset recorded for this purpose is presented, along with the performance metrics that are used to evaluate the algorithms and statistical significance tests to compare the submitted methods. We use a baseline method that employs MFCCS, GMMS and a maximum likelihood criterion as a benchmark, and only find sufficient evidence to conclude that three algorithms significantly outperform it. We also evaluate the human classification accuracy in performing a similar classification task. The best performing algorithm achieves a mean accuracy that matches the median accuracy obtained by humans, and common pairs of classes are misclassified by both computers and humans. However, all acoustic scenes are correctly classified by at least some individuals, while there are scenes that are misclassified by all algorithms.
Automatic species classification of birds from their sound is a computational tool of increasing importance in ecology, conservation monitoring and vocal communication studies. To make classification useful in practice, it is crucial to improve its accuracy while ensuring that it can run at big data scales. Many approaches use acoustic measures based on spectrogram-type data, such as the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) features which represent a manually-designed summary of spectral information. However, recent work in machine learning has demonstrated that features learnt automatically from data can often outperform manually-designed feature transforms. Feature learning can be performed at large scale and "unsupervised", meaning it requires no manual data labelling, yet it can improve performance on "supervised" tasks such as classification. In this work we introduce a technique for feature learning from large volumes of bird sound recordings, inspired by techniques that have proven useful in other domains. We experimentally compare twelve different feature representations derived from the Mel spectrum (of which six use this technique), using four large and diverse databases of bird vocalisations, with a random forest classifier. We demonstrate that MFCCs are of limited power in this context, leading to worse performance than the raw Mel spectral data. Conversely, we demonstrate that unsupervised feature learning provides a substantial boost over MFCCs and Mel spectra without adding computational complexity after the model has been trained. The boost is particularly notable for single-label classification tasks at large scale. The spectro-temporal activations learned through our procedure resemble spectro-temporal receptive fields calculated from avian primary auditory forebrain.
Nov 20 2013 cs.SD
Birdsong often contains large amounts of rapid frequency modulation (FM). It is believed that the use or otherwise of FM is adaptive to the acoustic environment, and also that there are specific social uses of FM such as trills in aggressive territorial encounters. Yet temporal fine detail of FM is often absent or obscured in standard audio signal analysis methods such as Fourier analysis or linear prediction. Hence it is important to consider high resolution signal processing techniques for analysis of FM in bird vocalisations. If such methods can be applied at big data scales, this offers a further advantage as large datasets become available. We introduce methods from the signal processing literature which can go beyond spectrogram representations to analyse the fine modulations present in a signal at very short timescales. Focusing primarily on the genus Phylloscopus, we investigate which of a set of four analysis methods most strongly captures the species signal encoded in birdsong. In order to find tools useful in practical analysis of large databases, we also study the computational time taken by the methods, and their robustness to additive noise and MP3 compression. We find three methods which can robustly represent species-correlated FM attributes, and that the simplest method tested also appears to perform the best. We find that features representing the extremes of FM encode species identity supplementary to that captured in frequency features, whereas bandwidth features do not encode additional information. Large-scale FM analysis can efficiently extract information useful for bioacoustic studies, in addition to measures more commonly used to characterise vocalisations.
We introduce a free and open dataset of 7690 audio clips sampled from the field-recording tag in the Freesound audio archive. The dataset is designed for use in research related to data mining in audio archives of field recordings / soundscapes. Audio is standardised, and audio and metadata are Creative Commons licensed. We describe the data preparation process, characterise the dataset descriptively, and illustrate its use through an auto-tagging experiment.
Feb 15 2013 cs.SD
Segregating an audio mixture containing multiple simultaneous bird sounds is a challenging task. However, birdsong often contains rapid pitch modulations, and these modulations carry information which may be of use in automatic recognition. In this paper we demonstrate that an improved spectrogram representation, based on the distribution derivative method, leads to improved performance of a segregation algorithm which uses a Markov renewal process model to track vocalisation patterns consisting of singing and silences.
Nov 14 2012 cs.AI
We describe an inference task in which a set of timestamped event observations must be clustered into an unknown number of temporal sequences with independent and varying rates of observations. Various existing approaches to multi-object tracking assume a fixed number of sources and/or a fixed observation rate; we develop an approach to inferring structure in timestamped data produced by a mixture of an unknown and varying number of similar Markov renewal processes, plus independent clutter noise. The inference simultaneously distinguishes signal from noise as well as clustering signal observations into separate source streams. We illustrate the technique via a synthetic experiment as well as an experiment to track a mixture of singing birds.
Scientists spend an increasing amount of time building and using software. However, most scientists are never taught how to do this efficiently. As a result, many are unaware of tools and practices that would allow them to write more reliable and maintainable code with less effort. We describe a set of best practices for scientific software development that have solid foundations in research and experience, and that improve scientists' productivity and the reliability of their software.
Analysis based reconstruction has recently been introduced as an alternative to the well-known synthesis sparsity model used in a variety of signal processing areas. In this paper we convert the analysis exact-sparse reconstruction problem to an equivalent synthesis recovery problem with a set of additional constraints. We are therefore able to use existing synthesis-based algorithms for analysis-based exact-sparse recovery. We call this the Analysis-By-Synthesis (ABS) approach. We evaluate our proposed approach by comparing it against the recent Greedy Analysis Pursuit (GAP) analysis-based recovery algorithm. The results show that our approach is a viable option for analysis-based reconstruction, while at the same time allowing many algorithms that have been developed for synthesis reconstruction to be directly applied for analysis reconstruction as well.
We introduce an information theoretic measure of statistical structure, called 'binding information', for sets of random variables, and compare it with several previously proposed measures including excess entropy, Bialek et al.'s predictive information, and the multi-information. We derive some of the properties of the binding information, particularly in relation to the multi-information, and show that, for finite sets of binary random variables, the processes which maximises binding information are the 'parity' processes. Finally we discuss some of the implications this has for the use of the binding information as a measure of complexity.
Suppose we have a signal y which we wish to represent using a linear combination of a number of basis atoms a_i, y=sum_i x_i a_i = Ax. The problem of finding the minimum L0 norm representation for y is a hard problem. The Basis Pursuit (BP) approach proposes to find the minimum L1 norm representation instead, which corresponds to a linear program (LP) that can be solved using modern LP techniques, and several recent authors have given conditions for the BP (minimum L1 norm) and sparse (minimum L0 solutions) representations to be identical. In this paper, we explore this sparse representation problem using the geometry of convex polytopes, as recently introduced into the field by Donoho. By considering the dual LP we find that the so-called polar polytope P of the centrally-symmetric polytope P whose vertices are the atom pairs +-a_i is particularly helpful in providing us with geometrical insight into optimality conditions given by Fuchs and Tropp for non-unit-norm atom sets. In exploring this geometry we are able to tighten some of these earlier results, showing for example that the Fuchs condition is both necessary and sufficient for L1-unique-optimality, and that there are situations where Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) can eventually find all L1-unique-optimal solutions with m nonzeros even if ERC fails for m, if allowed to run for more than m steps.