results for au:Peng_C in:quant-ph

- Feb 28 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1802.09803v1The photon statistics and bunching of a semiconductor laser with external optical feedback are investigated experimentally and theoretically. In a chaotic regime, the photon number distribution is measured and undergoes a transition from Bose-Einstein distribution to Poisson distribution with increasing the mean photon number. The second order degree of coherence decreases gradually from 2 to 1. Based on Hanbury Brown-Twiss scheme, pronounced photon bunching is observed experimentally for various injection currents and feedback strengths, which indicates the randomness of the associated emission light. Near-threshold injection currents and strong feedback strengths modify exactly the laser performance to be more bunched. The macroscopic chaotic dynamics is confirmed simultaneously by high-speed analog detection. The theoretical results qualitatively agree with the experimental results. It is potentially useful to extract randomness and achieve desired entropy source for random number generator and imaging science by quantifying the control parameters.
- Jan 26 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.08282v1Boson sampling is a well-defined task that is strongly believed to be intractable for classical computers, but can be efficiently solved by a specific quantum simulator. However, an outstanding problem for large-scale experimental boson sampling is the scalability. Here we report an experiment on boson sampling with photon loss, and demonstrate that boson sampling with a few photons lost can increase the sampling rate. Our experiment uses a quantum-dot-micropillar single-photon source demultiplexed into up to seven input ports of a 16*16 mode ultra-low-loss photonic circuit, and we detect three-, four- and five-fold coincidence counts. We implement and validate lossy boson sampling with one and two photons lost, and obtain sampling rates of 187 kHz, 13.6 kHz, and 0.78 kHz for five-, six- and seven-photon boson sampling with two photons lost, which is 9.4, 13.9, and 18.0 times faster than the standard boson sampling, respectively. Our experiment shows an approach to significantly enhance the sampling rate of multiphoton boson sampling.
- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Dec 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.03204v1Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between the Earth and Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is that we can perform Bell test with human supply the random measurement settings and record the results while still maintaining space-like intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of the Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for the ultimate test of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01784v1Creating large-scale entanglement lies at the heart of many quantum information processing protocols and the investigation of fundamental physics. Due to unavoidable interactions with the environment and current technological limitations, the generated many-body quantum state may not contain genuine multipartite entanglement but rather only a mixture of fewer-body entanglements. Still, identifying the precise structure of such many-body, but lower-order entanglement is of paramount importance. On the one hand, it provides hints on the whereabouts of imperfection in the setup, whereas on the other, it allows one to benchmark our technological progress towards the ultimate goal of demonstrating quantum supremacy. Here, we propose two complementary families of witnesses for the identification of such structures, each applicable to an arbitrary number of subsystems and whose evaluation requires only the implementation of solely two local measurements. As a proof of principle, we experimentally generate-via a reconfigurable photonic interferometer-five different eight-photon entangled states and demonstrate how their entanglement structure can be precisely and systematically inferred from the experimental measurement of these witnesses.
- Oct 30 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.10234v2We investigate experimentally the relation between thermodynamical irreversibility and dissipation on a superconducting Xmon qubit. This relation also implies the second law and the Landauer principle on dissipation in the irreversible computations. In our experiment, the qubit is initialized to states according to Gibbs distribution. Work injection and extraction processes are conducted through two kinds of unitary driving protocols, for both a forward process and its corresponding mirror reverses. Relative entropy and relative Re'nyi entropy are employed to measure the asymmetry between paired forward and backward work injection or extraction processes. We show experimentally that relative entropy and relative Re'nyi entropy measured irreversibility are related to the average of work dissipation and average of exponentiated work dissipation respectively. Our work provides solid experimental support for the theory of quantum thermodynamics.
- The resemblance between the methods used in studying quantum-many body physics and in machine learning has drawn considerable attention. In particular, tensor networks (TNs) and deep learning architectures bear striking similarities to the extent that TNs can be used for machine learning. Previous results used one-dimensional TNs in image recognition, showing limited scalability and a high bond dimension. In this work, we train two-dimensional hierarchical TNs to solve image recognition problems, using a training algorithm derived from the multipartite entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA). This approach overcomes scalability issues and implies novel mathematical connections among quantum many-body physics, quantum information theory, and machine learning. While keeping the TN unitary in the training phase, TN states can be defined, which optimally encodes each class of the images into a quantum many-body state. We study the quantum features of the TN states, including quantum entanglement and fidelity. We suggest these quantities could be novel properties that characterize the image classes, as well as the machine learning tasks. Our work could be further applied to identifying possible quantum properties of certain artificial intelligence methods.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06779v1Quantum mechanics provides means of generating genuine randomness that is impossible with deterministic classical processes. Remarkably, the unpredictability of randomness can be certified in a self-testing manner that is independent of implementation devices. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of self-testing quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. In the randomness analysis, without the assumption of independent identical distribution, we consider the worst case scenario that the adversary launches the most powerful attacks against quantum adversary. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb $\times$ 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than $10^{-5}$. Such self-testing random number generators mark a critical step towards realistic applications in cryptography and fundamental physics tests.
- Aug 31 2017 physics.comp-ph cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.str-el physics.app-ph quant-ph arXiv:1708.09213v2Tensor network (TN), a young mathematical tool of high vitality and great potential, has been undergoing extremely rapid developments in the last two decades, gaining tremendous success in condensed matter physics, atomic physics, quantum information science, statistical physics, and so on. This review is designed to give an insightful and practical introduction to TN contraction algorithms. Starting from basic concepts and definitions, we first explain the relations between TN and physical systems, including the TN representations of classical partitions, non-trivial quantum states, time evolution simulations, etc. These problems, which are challenging to solve, can be reduced to TN contraction problems. Then, we present two kinds of algorithms for simulating TN contractions: tensor renormalization group and tensor network encoding. Their physical implications and practical implementations are discussed in detail. Particularly, the mathematical connections between tensor network encoding and multi-linear algebra are presented. The readership is expected to range from beginners to specialists, with two main goals. One goal is to provide a systematic introduction of TN contraction algorithms (motivations, implementations, relations, implications, etc.), for those who want to further develop TN algorithms. The other goal is to provide a practical guidance to those, who want to learn and to use TN algorithms to solve practical problems. We expect that the review will be useful to anyone devoted to the interdisciplinary sciences with related numerics.
- Jul 26 2017 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1707.07838v2For a quantum chain or wire, it is challenging to control or even alter the bulk properties or behaviors, for instance the response to external fields, by tuning solely the boundaries. This is expected, since the correlations usually decay exponentially, and do not transfer the physics at the boundaries to the bulk. In this work, we construct a quantum spin-$1/2$ chain of finite size, termed as controllable spin wire (CSW), in which we have $\hat{S}^{z} \hat{S}^{z}$ (Ising) interactions with a transverse field in the bulk, and the $\hat{S}^{x} \hat{S}^{z}$ and $\hat{S}^{z} \hat{S}^{z}$ couplings with a canted field on the boundaries. The Hamiltonians on the boundaries, dubbed as tuning Hamiltonians (TH's), bear the same form as the effective Hamiltonians emerging in the so-called "quantum entanglement simulator" (QES) that is originally proposed for mimicking infinite models. We show that tuning the TH's can trigger surprising controlling phenomena of the bulk properties, including the degeneracy of energy/entanglement spectrums, and the response to the magnetic field in the bulk. The CSW could potentially serve as the basic building blocks of quantum devices for quantum sensing, quantum memories, or quantum computers. The CSW contains only nearest-neighboring spin-$1/2$ interactions, and could be realized in future experiments with atoms/ions coupled with artificial quantum circuits or dots.
- Long-distance entanglement distribution is essential both for foundational tests of quantum physics and scalable quantum networks. Owing to channel loss, however, the previously achieved distance was limited to ~100 km. Here, we demonstrate satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs to two locations separated by 1203 km on the Earth, through satellite-to-ground two-downlink with a sum of length varies from 1600 km to 2400 km. We observe a survival of two-photon entanglement and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.37+/-0.09 under strict Einstein locality conditions. The obtained effective link efficiency at 1200 km in this work is over 12 orders of magnitude higher than the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through the best commercial telecommunication fibers with a loss of 0.16 dB/km.
- An arbitrary unknown quantum state cannot be precisely measured or perfectly replicated. However, quantum teleportation allows faithful transfer of unknown quantum states from one object to another over long distance, without physical travelling of the object itself. Long-distance teleportation has been recognized as a fundamental element in protocols such as large-scale quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. However, the previous teleportation experiments between distant locations were limited to a distance on the order of 100 kilometers, due to photon loss in optical fibres or terrestrial free-space channels. An outstanding open challenge for a global-scale "quantum internet" is to significantly extend the range for teleportation. A promising solution to this problem is exploiting satellite platform and space-based link, which can conveniently connect two remote points on the Earth with greatly reduced channel loss because most of the photons' propagation path is in empty space. Here, we report the first quantum teleportation of independent single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a low Earth orbit satellite - through an up-link channel - with a distance up to 1400 km. To optimize the link efficiency and overcome the atmospheric turbulence in the up-link, a series of techniques are developed, including a compact ultra-bright source of multi-photon entanglement, narrow beam divergence, high-bandwidth and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing, and tracking (APT). We demonstrate successful quantum teleportation for six input states in mutually unbiased bases with an average fidelity of 0.80+/-0.01, well above the classical limit. This work establishes the first ground-to-satellite up-link for faithful and ultra-long-distance quantum teleportation, an essential step toward global-scale quantum internet.
- Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
- Dec 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.06956v2Boson sampling is considered as a strong candidate to demonstrate the quantum computational supremacy over classical computers. However, previous proof-of-principle experiments suffered from small photon number and low sampling rates owing to the inefficiencies of the single-photon sources and multi-port optical interferometers. Here, we develop two central components for high-performance boson sampling: robust multi-photon interferometers with 0.99 transmission rate, and actively demultiplexed single-photon sources from a quantum-dot-micropillar with simultaneously high efficiency, purity and indistinguishability. We implement and validate 3-, 4-, and 5-photon boson sampling, and achieve sampling rates of 4.96 kHz, 151 Hz, and 4 Hz, respectively, which are over 24,000 times faster than the previous experiments, and over 220 times faster than obtaining one sample through calculating the matrices permanent using the first electronic computer (ENIAC) and transistorized computer (TRADIC) in the human history. Our architecture is feasible to be scaled up to larger number of photons and with higher rate to race against classical computers, and might provide experimental evidence against the Extended Church-Turing Thesis.
- Dec 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.09982v1Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global real-time quantum communication. In such a SC, most of the satellites will work in sunlight. Unfortunately, none of previous ground testing experiments could be implemented at daytime. During daytime, the bright sunlight background prohibits quantum communication in transmission over long distances. In this letter, by choosing a working wavelength of 1550 nm and developing free-space single-mode fibre coupling technology and ultralow noise up-conversion single photon detectors, we overcome the noise due to sunlight and demonstrate a 53-km free space quantum key distribution (QKD) in the daytime through a 48-dB loss channel. Our system not only shows the feasibility of satellite based quantum communication in daylight, but also has the ability to naturally adapt to ground fibre optics, representing an essential step towards a SC-based global quantum network.
- Nov 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.07126v2Random numbers are indispensable for a variety of applications ranging from testing physics foundation to information encryption. In particular, nonlocality tests provide a strong evidence to our current understanding of nature -- quantum mechanics. All the random number generators (RNG) used for the existing tests are constructed locally, making the test results vulnerable to the freedom-of-choice loophole. We report an experimental realization of RNGs based on the arrival time of cosmic photons. The measurement outcomes (raw data) pass the standard NIST statistical test suite. We present a realistic design to employ these RNGs in a Bell test experiment, which addresses the freedom-of-choice loophole.
- Sep 02 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.00228v3We report on the experimental realization of a ten-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using thin BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystals. The observed fidelity is $0.606\pm0.029$, demonstrating a genuine entanglement with a standard deviation of 3.6 $\sigma$. This result is further verified using $p$-value calculation, obtaining an upper bound of $3.7\times10^{-3}$ under an assumed hypothesis test. Our experiment paves a new way to efficiently engineer BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystal-based multi-photon entanglement systems, which provides a promising platform for investigating advanced optical quantum information processing tasks such as boson sampling, quantum error correction and quantum-enhanced measurement.
- May 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.08547v3Quantum entanglement among multiple spatially separated particles is of fundamental interest, and can serve as central resources for studies in quantum nonlocality, quantum-to-classical transition, quantum error correction, and quantum simulation. The ability of generating an increasing number of entangled particles is an important benchmark for quantum information processing. The largest entangled states were previously created with fourteen trapped ions, eight photons, and five superconducting qubits. Here, based on spontaneous parametric down-converted two-photon entanglement source with simultaneously a high brightness of ~12 MHz/W, a collection efficiency of ~70% and an indistinguishability of ~91% between independent photons, we demonstrate, for the first time, genuine and distillable entanglement of ten single photons under different pump power. Our work creates a state-of-the-art platform for multi-photon experiments, and provide enabling technologies for challenging optical quantum information tasks such as high-efficiency scattershot boson sampling with many photons.
- Feb 25 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1602.07386v2By pulsed s-shell resonant excitation of a single quantum dot-micropillar system, we generate long streams of a thousand of near transform-limited single photons with high mutual indistinguishability. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two photons are measured as a function of their emission time separation varying from 13 ns to 14.7 \mus, where the visibility slightly drops from 95.9(2)% to a plateau of 92.1(5)% through a slow dephasing process occurring at time scale of 0.7 \mus. Temporal and spectral analysis reveal the pulsed resonance fluorescence single photons are close to transform limit, which are readily useful for multi-photon entanglement and interferometry experiments.
- Jun 01 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.08142v1In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, security is guaranteed by estimating the amount of leaked information through monitoring signal disturbance, which, in practice, is generally caused by environmental noise and device imperfections rather than eavesdropping. Such estimation therefore tends to overrate the amount of leaked information in practice, leads to a fundamental threshold of the bit error rate. The threshold becomes a bottleneck of the development of practical QKD systems. In classical communication, according to Shannon's communication theory, information can transform through a noisy channel even if the background noise is very strong compare to the signal and hence the threshold of the bit error rate tends to 50%. One might wonder whether a QKD scheme can also tolerate error rate as high as 50%. The question is answered affirmatively with the recent work of round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol, which breaks through the fundamental threshold of the bit error rate and indicates another potential direction in the field of quantum cryptography. The key challenge to realize the RRDPS scheme lies on the measurement device, which requires a variable-delay interferometer. The delay needs to be chosen from a set of predetermined values randomly. Such measurement can be realized by switching between many interferometers with different delays at a high speed in accordance with the system repetition rate. The more delay values can be chosen from, the higher error rate can be tolerated. By designing an optical system with multiple switches and employing an active phase stabilization technology, we successfully construct a variable-delay interferometer with 128 actively selectable delays. With this measurement, we experimentally demonstrate the RRDPS QKD protocol and obtain a final key rate of 15.54 bps via a total loss of 18 dB and 8.9% error rate.
- Jun 01 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.08076v1In quantum key distribution (QKD), the bit error rate is used to estimate the information leakage and hence determines the amount of privacy amplification --- making the final key private by shortening the key. In general, there exists a threshold of the error rate for each scheme, above which no secure key can be generated. This threshold puts a restriction on the environment noises. For example, a widely used QKD protocol --- BB84 --- cannot tolerate error rates beyond 25%. A new protocol, round-robin differential phase shifted (RRDPS) QKD, essentially removes this restriction and can in principle tolerate more environment disturbance. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a passive RRDPS QKD scheme. In particular, our 500 MHz passive RRDPS QKD system is able to generate a secure key over 50 km with a bit error rate as high as 29%. This scheme should find its applications in noisy environment conditions.
- May 13 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.02879v2Quantum simulation is of great importance in quantum information science. Here, we report an experimental quantum channel simulator imbued with an algorithm for imitating the behavior of a general class of quantum systems. The reported quantum channel simulator consists of four single-qubit gates and one controlled-NOT gate. All types of quantum channels can be decomposed by the algorithm and implemented on this device. We deploy our system to simulate various quantum channels, such as quantum-noise channels and weak quantum measurement. Our results advance experimental quantum channel simulation, which is integral to the goal of quantum information processing.
- Jun 17 2014 quant-ph physics.ins-det arXiv:1406.3953v1Since the 1990s, there has been a dramatic interest in quantum communication. Free-space quantum communication is being developed to ultra-long distance quantum experiment, which requires higher electronics performance, such as time measurement precision, data-transfer rate, and system integration density. As part of the ground station of quantum experiment satellite that will be launched in 2016, we specifically designed a compact PCI-based multi-channel electronics system with high time-resolution, high data-transfer-rate. The electronics performance of this system was tested. The time bin size is 23.9ps and the time precision root-mean-square (RMS) is less than 24ps for 16 channels. The dead time is 30ns. The data transfer rate to local computer is up to 35 MBps, and the count rate is up to 30M/s. The system has been proven to perform well and operate stably through a test of free space quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment.
- May 16 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1405.3761v3The decoy-state method is widely used in practical quantum key distribution systems to replace ideal single photon sources with realistic light sources by varying intensities. Instead of active modulation, the passive decoy-state method employs built-in decoy states in a parametric down-conversion photon source, which can decrease the side channel information leakage in decoy state preparation and hence increase the security. By employing low dark count up-conversion single photon detectors, we have experimentally demonstrated the passive decoy-state method over a 50-km-long optical fiber and have obtained a key rate of about 100 bit/s. Our result suggests that the passive decoy-state source is a practical candidate for future quantum communication implementation.
- Mar 21 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.5082v2Intuition from our everyday lives gives rise to the belief that information exchanged between remote parties is carried by physical particles. Surprisingly, in a recent theoretical study [Salih H, Li ZH, Al-Amri M, Zubairy MS (2013) Phys Rev Lett 110:170502], quantum mechanics was found to allow for communication, even without the actual transmission of physical particles. From the viewpoint of communication, this mystery stems from a (nonintuitive) fundamental concept in quantum mechanics wave-particle duality. All particles can be described fully by wave functions. To determine whether light appears in a channel, one refers to the amplitude of its wave function. However, in counterfactual communication, information is carried by the phase part of the wave function. Using a single-photon source, we experimentally demonstrate the counterfactual communication and successfully transfer a monochrome bitmap from one location to another by using a nested version of the quantum Zeno effect.
- Jun 20 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.4413v2Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic task that guarantees a secure commitment between two mutually mistrustful parties and is a building block for many cryptographic primitives, including coin tossing, zero-knowledge proofs, oblivious transfer and secure two-party computation. Unconditionally secure bit commitment was thought to be impossible until recent theoretical protocols that combine quantum mechanics and relativity were shown to elude previous impossibility proofs. Here we implement such a bit commitment protocol. In the experiment, the committer performs quantum measurements using two quantum key distribution systems and the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. We show that, in each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68*10^-2 cheating probability. Our result demonstrates unconditionally secure bit commitment and the experimental feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.
- Jun 05 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.0672v1Free-space quantum communication with satellites opens a promising avenue for global secure quantum network and large-scale test of quantum foundations. Recently, numerous experimental efforts have been carried out towards this ambitious goal. However, one essential step - transmitting single photons from the satellite to the ground with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at realistic environments - remains experimental challenging. Here, we report a direct experimental demonstration of the satellite-ground transmission of a quasi-single-photon source. In the experiment, single photons (~0.85 photon per pulse) are generated by reflecting weak laser pulses back to earth with a cube-corner retro-reflector on the satellite Champ, collected by a 600-mm diameter telescope at the ground station, and finally detected by single-photon counting modules (SPCMs) after 400-km free-space link transmission. With the help of high accuracy time synchronization, narrow receiver field-of-view (FOV) and high-repetition-rate pulses (76 MHz), a SNR of better than 16:1 is obtained, which is sufficient for a secure quantum key distribution. Our experimental results represent an important step towards satellite-ground quantum communication.
- Apr 25 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1304.6462v2We report a free-space entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment, implementing the biased basis protocol between two sites which are 15.3 km apart. Photon pairs from a polarization-entangled source are distributed through two 7.8-km free-space optical links. An optimal bias 20:80 between the X and Z basis is used. A post-processing scheme with finite-key analysis is applied to extract the final secure key. After three-hour continuous operation at night, a 4293-bit secure key is obtained, with a final key rate of 0.124 bit per raw key bit which increases the final key rate by 14.8% comparing to the standard BB84 case. Our results experimentally demonstrate that the efficient BB84 protocol, which increases key generation efficiency by biasing Alice and Bob's basis choices, is potentially useful for the ground-satellite quantum communication.
- Apr 10 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1304.2541v2Quantum key distribution (QKD) utilizes the laws of quantum mechanics to achieve information-theoretically secure key generation. This field is now approaching the stage of commercialization, but many practical QKD systems still suffer from security loopholes due to imperfect devices. In fact, practical attacks have successfully been demonstrated. Fortunately, most of them only exploit detection-side loopholes which are now closed by the recent idea of measurement-device-independent QKD. On the other hand, little attention is paid to the source which may still leave QKD systems insecure. In this work, we propose and demonstrate an attack that exploits a source-side loophole existing in qubit-based QKD systems using a weak coherent state source and decoy states. Specifically, by implementing a linear-optics unambiguous-state-discrimination measurement, we show that the security of a system without phase randomization --- which is a step assumed in conventional security analyses but sometimes neglected in practice --- can be compromised. We conclude that implementing phase randomization is essential to the security of decoy-state QKD systems under current security analyses.
- Mar 05 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1303.0614v2In the well-known EPR paper, Einstein et al. called the nonlocal correlation in quantum entanglement as `spooky action at a distance'. If the spooky action does exist, what is its speed? All previous experiments along this direction have locality loopholes and thus can be explained without having to invoke any `spooky action' at all. Here, we strictly closed the locality loopholes by observing a 12-hour continuous violation of Bell inequality and concluded that the lower bound speed of `spooky action' was four orders of magnitude of the speed of light if the Earth's speed in any inertial reference frame was less than 10^(-3) times of the speed of light.
- Oct 30 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1210.7556v2Quantum key distribution (QKD), provides the only intrinsically unconditional secure method for communication based on principle of quantum mechanics. Compared with fiber-based demonstrations-, free-space links could provide the most appealing solution for much larger distance. Despite of significant efforts, so far all realizations rely on stationary sites. Justifications are therefore extremely crucial for applications via a typical Low Earth Orbit Satellite (LEOS). To achieve direct and full-scale verifications, we demonstrate here three independent experiments with a decoy-state QKD system overcoming all the demanding conditions. The system is operated in a moving platform through a turntable, a floating platform through a hot-air balloon, and a huge loss channel, respectively, for substantiating performances under rapid motion, attitude change, vibration, random movement of satellites and in high-loss regime. The experiments cover expanded ranges for all the leading parameters of LEOS. Our results pave the way towards ground-satellite QKD and global quantum communication network.
- May 10 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1205.2024v2A long standing goal for quantum communication is to transfer a quantum state over arbitrary distances. Free-space quantum communication provides a promising solution towards this challenging goal. Here, through a 97-km free space channel, we demonstrate long distance quantum teleportation over a 35-53 dB loss one-link channel, and entanglement distribution over a 66-85 dB high-loss two-link channel. We achieve an average fidelity of 80.4(9)% for teleporting six distinct initial states and observe the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality after distributing entanglement. Besides being of fundamental interest, our result represents a significant step towards a global quantum network. Moreover, the high-frequency and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing and tracking technique developed in our experiment provides an essential tool for future satellite-based quantum communication.
- Jul 29 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1107.5754v1Based on principle of quantum mechanics, quantum cryptography provides an intriguing way to establish secret keys between remote parties, generally relying on actual transmission of signal particles. Surprisingly, an even more striking method is recently proposed by Noh named as `counterfactual quantum cryptography' enabling key distribution, in which particles carrying secret information are seemly not being transmitted through quantum channel. We experimentally give here a faithful implementation by following the scheme with an on-table realization. Furthermore, we report an illustration on a 1 km fiber operating at telecom wavelength to verify its feasibility for extending to long distance. For both cases, high visibilities of better than 98% are maintained with active stabilization of interferometers, while a quantum bit error rate around 5.5% is attained after 1 km channel.
- Jun 01 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1105.6318v1Using ultra-bright sources of pure-state entangled photons from parametric down conversion, an eight-photon interferometer and post-selection detection, we demonstrate the ability to experimentally manipulate eight individual photons and report the creation of an eight-photon Schrödinger cat state with an observed fidelity of $0.708 \pm 0.016$.
- Nov 04 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1011.0772v1In recent years, there has been heightened interest in quantum teleportation, which allows for the transfer of unknown quantum states over arbitrary distances. Quantum teleportation not only serves as an essential ingredient in long-distance quantum communication, but also provides enabling technologies for practical quantum computation. Of particular interest is the scheme proposed by Gottesman and Chuang [Nature \textbf402, 390 (1999)], showing that quantum gates can be implemented by teleporting qubits with the help of some special entangled states. Therefore, the construction of a quantum computer can be simply based on some multi-particle entangled states, Bell state measurements and single-qubit operations. The feasibility of this scheme relaxes experimental constraints on realizing universal quantum computation. Using two different methods we demonstrate the smallest non-trivial module in such a scheme---a teleportation-based quantum entangling gate for two different photonic qubits. One uses a high-fidelity six-photon interferometer to realize controlled-NOT gates and the other uses four-photon hyper-entanglement to realize controlled-Phase gates. The results clearly demonstrate the working principles and the entangling capability of the gates. Our experiment represents an important step towards the realization of practical quantum computers and could lead to many further applications in linear optics quantum information processing.
- Aug 10 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1008.1508v2We have demonstrated a metropolitan all-pass quantum communication network in field fiber for four nodes. Any two nodes of them can be connected in the network to perform quantum key distribution (QKD). An optical switching module is presented that enables arbitrary 2-connectivity among output ports. Integrated QKD terminals are worked out, which can operate either as a transmitter, a receiver, or even both at the same time. Furthermore, an additional link in another city of 60 km fiber (up to 130 km) is seamless integrated into this network based on a trusted relay architecture. On all the links, we have implemented protocol of decoy state scheme. All of necessary electrical hardware, synchronization, feedback control, network software, execution of QKD protocols are made by tailored designing, which allow a completely automatical and stable running. Our system has been put into operation in Hefei in August 2009, and publicly demonstrated during an evaluation conference on quantum network organized by the Chinese Academy of Sciences on August 29, 2009. Real-time voice telephone with one-time pad encoding between any two of the five nodes (four all-pass nodes plus one additional node through relay) is successfully established in the network within 60km.
- May 06 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1005.0802v1Using spontaneous parametric down conversion and a 50:50 beam splitter, we generate coaxial polarization-entangled photon pairs, of which the two photons are far separated from each other. The photons are then sent one by one through one port of a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We observe interference fringes with a periodicity half of the single-photon wavelength, independent of the distance between the photons. This feature can find applications in quantum-enhanced measurement.
- May 04 2010 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1005.0334v1Error-free transmission (EFT) of quantum information is a crucial ingredient in quantum communication network. To overcome the unavoidable decoherence in noisy channel, to date, many efforts have focused on faithfully transmitting one state by consuming large numbers of synchronized ancillary states. However, huge demands of quantum resources are hard to meet with current technology, thus restrict practical applications. Here we propose and demonstrate an economical method of reliably transmitting quantum information. An arbitrary unknown quantum state is converted into time bins deterministically in terms of its own polarization using a modified Franson interferometer. Any arisen noise in channel will induce an associated error to the reference frame of the time bins, which can be utilized to reject errors and recover the initial state. By virtue of state-independent feature, our method can be applied to entanglement distribution. After passing through 0.8 km randomly twisted optical fiber, the entanglement still survives and is verified. Our approach significantly simplifies the implementation of quantum EFT and enables a general quantum state even entanglement to be protected by feedback, thus can be used as a basic building block in practical long-distance quantum communication network.
- Aug 28 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0908.4063v1We demonstrate the decoy-state quantum key distribution over 200 km with photon polarization through optical fiber, by using super-conducting single photon detector with a repetition rate of 320 Mega Hz and a dark count rate of lower than 1 Hz. Since we have used the polarization coding, the synchronization pulses can be run in a low frequency. The final key rate is 14.1 Hz. The experiment lasts for 3089 seconds with 43555 total final bits.
- We experimentally demonstrate an optical controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate with arbitrary single inputs based on a 4-photon 6-qubit cluster state entangled both in polarization and spatial modes. We first generate the 6-qubit state, and then by performing single-qubit measurements the CNOT gate is applied to arbitrary single input qubits. To characterize the performance of the gate, we estimate its quantum process fidelity and prove its entangling capability. The results show that the gate cannot be reproduced by local operations and classical communication. Our experiment shows that cluster states are promising candidates for efficient optical quantum computation.
- Topological error correction--a novel method to actively correct errors based on cluster states with topological properties--has the highest order of tolerable error rates known to date (10^-2). Moreover, the scheme requires only nearest-neighbour interaction, particularly suitable for most physical systems. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of topological error correction with an 8-qubit optical cluster state. In the experiment, it is shown that a correlation can be protected against a single error on any single qubit. In addition, when all qubits are simultaneously subjected to errors with equal probability, the effective error rate is significantly reduced, clearly verifying the advantage of topological error correction. The quantum gate with the error rate below the threshold is within the current experimental technology. We believe topological error correction should be a critical ingredient for the future large-scale quantum computation.
- Feb 27 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0902.4660v2We show how to calculate the fraction of single photon counts of the 3-intensity decoy-state quantum cryptography faithfully with both statistical fluctuations and source errors. Our results only rely on the bound values of a few parameters of the states of pulses.
- Jan 06 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0901.0351v2In this letter, we report a realization of synchronization-free quantum teleportation and narrowband three-photon entanglement through interfering narrowband photon sources. Since both the single-photon and the entangled photon pair utilized are completely autonomous, it removes the requirement of high demanding synchronization technique in long-distance quantum communication with pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources. The frequency linewidth of the three-photon entanglement realized is on the order of several MHz, which matches the requirement of atomic ensemble based quantum memories. Such a narrowband multi-photon source will have applications in some advanced quantum communication protocols and linear optical quantum computation.
- Oct 08 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0810.1264v4We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.
- Sep 25 2008 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:0809.4277v1Coherent manipulation of an increasing number of qubits for the generation of entangled states has been an important goal and benchmark in the emerging field of quantum information science. The multiparticle entangled states serve as physical resources for measurement-based quantum computing and high-precision quantum metrology. However, their experimental preparation has proved extremely challenging. To date, entangled states up to six, eight atoms, or six photonic qubits have been demonstrated. Here, by exploiting both the photons' polarization and momentum degrees of freedom, we report the creation of hyper-entangled six-, eight-, and ten-qubit Schrödinger cat states. We characterize the cat states by evaluating their fidelities and detecting the presence of genuine multi-partite entanglement. Small modifications of the experimental setup will allow the generation of various graph states up to ten qubits. Our method provides a shortcut to expand the effective Hilbert space, opening up interesting applications such as quantum-enhanced super-resolving phase measurement, graph-state generation for anyonic simulation and topological error correction, and novel tests of nonlocality with hyper-entanglement.
- Feb 22 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0802.3177v3The existing theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography assumes the exact control of each states from Alice's source. Such exact control is impossible in practice. We develop the theory of decoy-state method so that it is unconditionally secure even there are state errors of sources, if the range of a few parameters in the states are known. This theory simplifies the practical implementation of the decoy-state quantum key distribution because the unconditional security can be achieved with a slightly shortened final key, even though the small errors of pulses are not corrected.
- Dec 15 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0612121v3We show the unconditional security of decoy-state method quantum cryptography with whatever intensity error pattern provided that the error is not too large. Our result immediately applies to the existing experimental data. Our result is not limitted to coherent states.
- Sep 19 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0609137v2The method of decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) requests different intensities of light pulses. Existing theory has assumed exact control of intensities. Here we propose a simple protocol which is secure and efficient even there are errors in intensity control. In our protocol, decoy pulses and signal pulses are generated from the same father pulses with a two-value attenuation. Given the upper bound of fluctuation of the father pulses, our protocol is secure provided that the two-value attenuation is done exactly. We propose to use unbalanced beam-splitters for a stable attenuation. Given that the intensity error is bounded by $\pm5%$, with the same key rate, our method can achieve a secure distance only 1 km shorter than that of an ideal protocol with exactly controlled source.
- Jul 20 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0607129v3We demonstrate the decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) with one-way quantum communication in polarization space over 102km. Further, we simplify the experimental setup and use only one detector to implement the one-way decoy-state QKD over 75km, with the advantage to overcome the security loopholes due to the efficiency mismatch of detectors. Our experimental implementation can really offer the unconditionally secure final keys. We use 3 different intensities of 0, 0.2 and 0.6 for the pulses of source in our experiment. In order to eliminate the influences of polarization mode dispersion in the long-distance single-mode optical fiber, an automatic polarization compensation system is utilized to implement the active compensation.
- Feb 22 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0502131v2Quantum secret sharing (QSS) is a protocol to split a message into several parts so that no subset of parts is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. In the scheme, three parties Alice, Bob and Charlie first share a three-photon entangled state, Charlie can then force Alice and Bob to cooperate to be able to establish the secret key with him by performing proper polarization measurements on his photon and announcing which polarization basis he has chosen. In a similar manner, in third-man quantum cryptography (TQC) the third-man, Charlie, can control whether Alice and Bob can communicate in a secure way while he has no access whatsoever on the content of the communication between Alice and Bob. Although QSS and TQC are essential for advanced quantum communication, the low intensity multi-photon entanglement source has made their realization an extreme experimental challenge. Here, exploiting a high intensity four-photon entanglement source we report an experimental realization of QSS and TQC . In the experiment, a key of low quantum bit error rate (QBER) 0.35% is obtained using a simple error reduction scheme.
- Jan 03 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0412218v1We report free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over a noisy ground atmosphere of 13km. It is shown that the desired entanglement can still survive after the two entangled photons have passed through the noisy ground atmosphere. This is confirmed by observing a space-like separated violation of Bell inequality of $2.45 \pm 0.09$. On this basis, we exploit the distributed entangled photon source to demonstrate the BB84 quantum cryptography scheme. The distribution distance of entangled photon pairs achieved in the experiment is for the first time well beyond the effective thickness of the aerosphere, hence presenting a significant step towards satellite-based global quantum communication.